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Smith Pauline M - - 2008
Hunger is defined as a strong desire or need for food while satiety is the condition of being full or gratified. The maintenance of energy homeostasis requires a balance between energy intake and energy expenditure. The regulation of food intake is a complex behavior. It requires discrete nuclei within the ...
Woods Stephen C - - 2008
To maintain normal activity, single cells must assure that their energy needs and utilization are continuously matched. Likewise, multicellular organisms must constantly coordinate energy intake and expenditure to maintain energy homeostasis. The brain, and the hypothalamus in particular, plays a critical role in integrating and coordinating several types of signals, ...
Goulet Julie - - 2008
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of adopting a Mediterranean diet on dietary cost and energy density in free-living conditions. The 12-wk nutritional intervention consisted of 2 group courses and 7 individual sessions with a dietician in a sample of 73 healthy women. To evaluate the ...
Paulino Yvette C - - 2008
Fiestas in Guam are celebrated year round, but documentation of the preparation and nutritional components of foods served at a traditional fiesta on Guam is limited. Food preparation was observed during a fiesta celebrated in the village of Sinajana, Guam. A food scale was used to weigh the ingredients of ...
Smart I H M - - 2008
In the mouse the release of neocortical neurons from the periventricular germinal layers of the forebrain commences towards the ventral margin of the lateral pallium at the level of the interventricular foramen and is propagated from there across the lateral wall of the hemisphere. In the adult cortex the origin ...
Isaksson Hanna - - 2008
Previous studies show that dietary fibre-rich foods with low energy density have a stronger effect on satiety per calorie compared to more energy dense foods. To investigate subjective appetite and voluntary energy intake (24 h) after consumption of rye porridge breakfast and pasta lunch made from whole grain compared to ...
Berthoud Hans-Rudolf HR Neurobiology of Nutrition Laboratory, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA. - - 2008
Food intake and energy expenditure are controlled by complex, redundant, and distributed neural systems that reflect the fundamental biological importance of adequate nutrient supply and energy balance. Much progress has been made in identifying the various hormonal and neural mechanisms by which the brain informs itself about availability of ingested ...
Temple Jennifer L JL Department of Pediatrics, Division of Behavioral Medicine, University of Buffalo, - - 2008
The purpose of these studies was to test the hypothesis that dietary variety decreases the rate of habituation and increases energy intake in children. In Experiment 1, salivation in response to the same or a variety of food cues was measured followed by consumption of the study food(s). In Experiment ...
Ryan Miriam - - 2008
The present study aimed to assess the contribution of energy intake to positive energy balance and weight gain with insulin therapy. Changes in energy intake (self-report and weighed food intake), dietary behavior (auto-questionnaires), resting energy expenditure (REE) (indirect calorimetry), physical activity (accelerometry), and glucosuria were monitored over the first 6 ...
- - 2007
Cover illustration: This special issue of BTJ, edited by Dr. Stefan Nordhoff (Marl, Germany), highlights the potential but also the drawbacks of biotechnology in energy production. What are the economics behind sustainable energy production? How can we face the competition for the use of biomaterials for food or for mobility? ...
Cheskin Lawrence J - - 2008
Increasing intake of low energy density (ED) foods in place of high ED foods has been proposed as a strategy for preventing or treating obesity. This study investigated how substituting mushrooms for beef in a test lunch affected energy intake, fat intake, palatability, appetite, satiation and satiety in normal weight, ...
Thrän Daniela - - 2007
The intensified use of biomass as an energy source is an often-repeated goal of the German and European climate protection policy. Therefore, framework conditions have been created in recent years, which allow for a wider use of biomass within the energy system especially for a provision of electricity and fuels. ...
Fisher Jennifer O - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Portion size influences children's energy intakes at meals, but effects on daily intake are unknown. OBJECTIVE: Effects of large portions on daily energy intake were tested in 5-y-old Hispanic and African American children from low-income families. Maternal food intake data were collected to evaluate familial susceptibility to portion size. ...
Monsivais Pablo - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Consuming lower-energy-density foods is one recommended strategy for management of body weight. This cross-sectional study used retail food prices to test the hypothesis that low-energy-density foods are not only more costly per kilocalorie, but have increased disproportionately in price as compared to high-energy-density foods. DESIGN: For a list of ...
Pelkman Christine L - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Foods containing strong-gelling fibers may provide a safe and efficacious strategy for reducing food intake by stimulating endogenous satiety signaling. OBJECTIVE: A novel, 2-part beverage, consisting of alginate-pectin and calcium components, that forms a stable, fibrous gel in the stomach was tested to determine its effects on subjective satiety ...
Stookey Jodi D - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Reduced intake of sweetened caloric beverages (SCBs) is recommended to lower total energy intake. Replacing SCBs with non-caloric diet beverages does not automatically lower energy intake, however. Compensatory increases in other food or beverages reportedly negate benefits of diet beverages. The purpose of this study was to evaluate drinking ...
Lenk Fabian - - 2007
Bioenergies are promoted across the globe as the answer for global warming and the chance to reduce dependency from fossil energy sources. Despite the fact that renewable energy sources offer the opportunity to reduce CO2 emission and present a chance to increase agricultural incomes, they also come along with some ...
Elia M - - 2007
The energy values of carbohydrates continue to be debated. This is because of the use of different energy systems, for example, combustible, digestible, metabolizable, and so on. Furthermore, ingested macronutrients may not be fully available to tissues, and the tissues themselves may not be able fully to oxidize substrates made ...
Weber Mickaël - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Weight-loss programs for dogs are often hampered by increased begging and scavenging behavior that ensues when food intake is restricted. HYPOTHESIS: A diet formulated to contain a high content of both protein and fiber is more satiating than diets that contain only high fiber or high protein. ANIMALS: Six ...
Remmers Floor - - 2008
Both in man and in animal models, changes in food intake and body composition in later life have been reported after alterations in perinatal nutrition. Therefore, we hypothesised that early postnatal undernutrition in the rat induces permanent changes in energy balance. Food restriction (FR) during lactation was achieved by enlarging ...
McMichael Anthony J - - 2007
Food provides energy and nutrients, but its acquisition requires energy expenditure. In post-hunter-gatherer societies, extra-somatic energy has greatly expanded and intensified the catching, gathering, and production of food. Modern relations between energy, food, and health are very complex, raising serious, high-level policy challenges. Together with persistent widespread under-nutrition, over-nutrition (and ...
Al-Hourani H M - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: Muslims abstain from food and fluid between the hours of sunrise to sunset, and usually eat a large meal after sunset and a lighter meal before sunrise. The purpose of this study was to assess body composition, nutrient intake and physical activity patterns during Ramadan fasting. METHODS: This study ...
Cornier Marc-Andre - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The regulation of energy intake is a complex process involving the integration of homeostatic signals and both internal and external sensory inputs. Environmental visual cues are one of the first and primary inputs signaling the potential availability of food. OBJECTIVE: We examined the effects of short-term overfeeding on the ...
Jeffery Robert W - - 2007
This article addresses the extent to which increases in energy intake as opposed to decreases in energy expenditure are driving the obesity epidemic. It argues that while both intake and expenditure are plausible and probable contributors, the fact that all intake is behavioral, whereas less than half of expenditure is ...
Scantlebury M - - 2007
Parasites have been suggested to influence many aspects of host behaviour. Some of these effects may be mediated via their impact on host energy budgets. This impact may include effects on both energy intake and absorption as well as components of expenditure, including resting metabolic rate (RMR) and activity (e.g. ...
Raynor Hollie A - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Large portions increase intake and are hypothesized to contribute to the obesity epidemic. However, it is unclear if portion size affects intake through changes in the unit size of available food or the overall amount of food available for consumption. Thus, this study examined the independent effects of package ...
Sutton Debbie - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: This study's objective was to determine whether offering dietary advice was effective in supporting patients in adjusting energy intake. DESIGN: We performed a prospective, randomized, controlled trial of dietary intervention involving 59 patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis over a 4-month follow-up period. SETTING: The study involved outpatients on ...
Pannacciulli Nicola - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The 24-h respiratory quotient (24-h RQ) and 24-h carbohydrate balance (24-h CHO-Bal) are predictors of weight change. Whether these relations are mediated by the effects of substrate oxidation and balance on food intake is not known. OBJECTIVE: We tested whether substrate oxidation and balance predict future ad libitum food ...
SALARKIA, NAHID
In this descriptive cross-sectional study 14 national basketball team players attending the preparatory camp for the Asian games with mean age of 25.6 ± 3.1 yrs, height of 191 ± 6 cm, weight of 87.3 ± 8.1 kg and BMI of 23.9±1.7 were surveyed. The subjects underwent anthropometric, aerobic power, ...
Davidson Isobel - - 2007
The complex interplay between neural and endocrine responses following food intake regulates ingestive behaviour and ultimately determines subsequent energy intake. These processes include cognitive, gastrointestinal-derived and metabolic mechanisms. Such physiological responses to the ingestion of food initiate short- to medium-term inhibition of intake (satiety). However, in clinical states in which ...
Bernardi Elisabetta - - 2007
This research, which was conducted with crew members of an America's Cup team, had the following objectives: (a) to assess energy expenditure and intake during training; (b) to evaluate the sailors' diet, and (c) to identify any dietary flaws to determine the appropriate intake of nutrients, correct possible dietary mistakes, ...
Kirk C A - - 2007
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of dirlotapide, a microsomal triglyceride transfer protein inhibitor, on apparent nutrient digestibility of an expanded dry dog food, on defecation frequency and fecal consistency. Eighteen beagles were randomized to either placebo (n = 6) or dirlotapide (n = 12). Testing ...
Goldfield Gary S - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Dopamine mediates the reinforcing value of food, and low concentrations of dopamine are related to increased feeding. Thus, administering a drug that increases dopamine may reduce energy intake, possibly by reducing food reinforcement. OBJECTIVES: We tested whether short-acting methylphenidate (MPH), a drug that increases the availability of dopamine by ...
Raman Aarthi - - 2007
Calorie restriction (CR) is a dietary intervention shown to increase maximum life-span. The aim of this study was to compare the metabolizable energy of the pelleted semi-purified diet with estimated energy intake from food weight. Energy density of diet, urine and feces were measured by bomb calorimetry in rhesus monkeys ...
Colapinto Cynthia K - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Proliferation of large portions of snack and fast foods parallels dramatic increases in childhood obesity. This study investigates the prevalence, determinants, and consequences of large portions in children's diets. METHODS: As part of the 2003 Children's Lifestyle and School-performance Study, we surveyed 4,966 children in Nova Scotia regarding their ...
Kral Tanja V E - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Young children adjust their short-term intake in response to variations in energy density (ED; kcal/g) from preloads in laboratory studies. It remains unknown whether this compensation also occurs under free-living conditions. OBJECTIVE: The aims of the study were to test whether children aged 3-6 y regulate their habitual daily ...
Milà i Canals Llorenç - - 2007
GOAL, SCOPE AND BACKGROUND: The issue of whether food miles are a relevant indicator for the environmental impacts associated with foods has received significant attention in recent years. It is suggested here that issues other than the distance travelled need to be considered. The argument is presented by illustrating the ...
Morton Gregory J - - 2007
Growing evidence suggests that food intake, energy expenditure and endogenous glucose production are regulated by hypothalamic areas that respond to a variety of peripheral signals. Therefore, in response to a reduction in energy stores or circulating nutrients, the brain initiates responses in order to promote positive energy balance to restore ...
Naska A - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To describe a cost-efficient method for estimating energy and nutrient availability using household budget survey (HBS) data. DESIGN: Four different approaches were tested and the results were compared with published nutrient intake data. The selected method was exemplarily applied in German and Greek data. SETTING: Germany, 1998; Greece, 1998/99. ...
Hervera M - - 2007
The aim of this study was to develop a simple and reproducible in vitro method for predicting the apparent energy digestibility of dry extruded dog foods. The proposed method is based on the two-step multienzymatic incubation assay described by [Boisen, S., 1991: In Vitro Digestion for Pigs and Poultry, M. ...
Wolf P - - 2007
Although knowledge of the nutrient requirements of pet birds has increased a lot over the last few years, basic data on food and water intake and the energy requirements of nectarivorous species, such as lorikeets, are scarce. Thus, the aim of this study was to try to generate some of ...
Kiani Alishir - - 2007
Late gestation energy expenditure (EE(gest)) originates from energy expenditure (EE) of development of conceptus (EE(conceptus)) and EE of homeorhetic adaptation of metabolism (EE(homeorhetic)). Even though EE(gest) is relatively easy to quantify, its partitioning is problematic. In the present study metabolizable energy (ME) intake ranges for twin-bearing ewes were 220-440, 350- ...
Vaanholt Lobke M - - 2007
Free-living animals must forage for food and hence may face energetic constraints imposed by their natural environmental conditions (e.g. ambient temperature, food availability). Simulating the variation in such constraints, we have experimentally manipulated the rate of work (wheel running) mice must do to obtain their food, and studied the ensuing ...
Doucet Eric - - 2007
The literature presented in this paper argues that our limited ability to maintain energy balance in a weight-reduced state is the product of our difficulty in compensating for the weight loss-induced reduction in total energy expenditure. The end result, translated into the overwhelming complexity of preserving long-term weight loss, is ...
Rolls Barbara J - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: A previous study showed that increasing the portion sizes of all foods led to an increase in energy intake that was sustained over 2 days. The objective of the present study was to determine whether participants would compensate for excess energy intake or continue to overeat when portion sizes ...
Hallund J - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the contribution of energy and selected nutrients from foods eaten as snacks and as meals. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Forty-four nonpregnant women in the reproductive age, of whom 20 were lactating, participated in this study. Women from rural households were randomly selected and energy and nutrient intakes were ...
Whybrow S - - 2008
Three-day, rather than 7-day, food records are frequently used because mis-reporting of food intake is believed to increase with recording period. Data from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of adults were used to explore trends in reported energy intake (REI) with day of recording and to compare average REIs ...
Bureau Du Colombier S - - 2007
The influence of energy content of glass eels (Anguilla anguilla) on their migratory behavior was investigated in November 2004 and February 2005 under laboratory conditions. Fish were sorted according to their response to a decrease in light intensity: Glass eels becoming active at dusk and using water flow to move ...
Northstone K K Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, 24 Tyndall Avenue, Bristol, UK. - - 2008
The effect of energy adjustment on variables entered into principal component analysis (PCA) to derive dietary patterns has received little attention. As part of regular self-completion questionnaires, used in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, pregnant women were asked to record the frequency of consumption of a variety ...
Koloor Reza Tabatabae - - 2007
In order to aid in engineering design and modification of cutting mechanisms in soybean harvesters and to investigate the effects of parameters on cutting energy, an impact shear test apparatus was designed and constructed to measure the energy required for cutting soybean plant stems. Experiments were carried out on Iranian ...
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