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Zhang Zhaowei Z Oil Crops Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan, 430062, China; Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Oil Crops, Ministry of Agriculture, Wuhan, 430062, - - 2014
Biotoxin contamination in food and environmental samples has threatened health or life of human and animals. Thus, a rapid lab-independent sensing method for biotoxin determination is urgently required. Microchip sensing system allows a promising rapid and low-cost detection strategy. Herein, the recent development of various microchips, including microfluidic chip and ...
Rasooly Reuven R Foodborne Toxin Detection and Prevention Unit and ‡Produce Safety and Microbiology Research Unit, Western Regional Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture , 800 Buchanan Street, Albany, California 94710, United - - 2014
Microwave exposure is a convenient and widely used method for defrosting, heating, and cooking numerous foods. Microwave cooking is also reported to kill pathogenic microorganisms that often contaminate food. In this study, we tested whether microwaves would inactivate the toxicity of Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2) added to 5% reconstituted fat-free ...
Heyndrickx Ellen E a Laboratory of Food Analysis , Ghent University , Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences , Harelbekestraat 72, 9000 Ghent , - - 2014
Abstract Mycotoxins are harmful food contaminants. Currently, human exposure assessment to these toxins is often based on calculations combining mycotoxin occurrence data in food with population data on food consumption. Because of limitations inherent to that approach, biomarkers have been proposed as a suitable alternative whereby a more accurate assessment ...
Viray M A MA Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, - - 2014
SUMMARY Botulism has rarely been reported in Africa. In October 2008, botulism was reported in three Ugandan boarding-school students. All were hospitalized and one died. A cohort study was performed to assess food exposures among students, and clinical specimens and available food samples were tested for botulinum toxin. Three case-patients ...
Walker Thomas J TJ Division of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, - - 2014
Background: Botulinum toxin has been in use since the 1970s. Over the last few years, the indications for botulinum toxin use have extended for cosmetic and noncosmetic applications. Three preparations of botulinum toxin type A and one preparation of botulinum toxin type B are commercially available and approved for use ...
O'Kane Anthony Arthur - - 2014
Despite considerable advances in reducing the production of dioxin-like toxins in recent years contamination of the food chain still occasionally occurs resulting in huge losses to the agri-food sector and risk to human health through exposure. Dioxin-like toxicity is exhibited by a range of stable and bioaccumulative compounds including polychlorinated ...
Carter Glen P - - 2014
The genus Clostridium comprises a large, heterogeneous group of obligate anaerobic, Gram-positive spore forming bacilli. Members of this genus are ubiquitous in the environment and although most species are considered saprophytic, several are pathogenic to both humans and animals. These bacteria cause a variety of diseases including neuroparalysis, gas gangrene, ...
Pyenson Nicholas D ND Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, , PO Box 37012, Washington, DC 20013, USA, Department of Mineral Sciences, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, , PO Box 37012, Washington, DC 20013, USA, Department of Mammalogy, Burke Museum of Natural History and Culture, , Seattle, WA 98195, USA, Department of Paleontology, Burke Museum of Natural History and Culture, , Seattle, WA 98195, USA, Red Paleontológica, Laboratorio de Ontogenia y Filogenia, Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Las Palmeras, Santiago 3425, Chile, John D. Cooper Archaeological and Paleontological Center, Department of Geological Sciences, California State University, , Fullerton, CA 92834, USA, Departamento de Geología, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas and Andean Geothermal Center of Excellence, Universidad de Chile, , Plaza Ercilla 803, Santiago, Chile, Digitization Program Office 3D Lab, Office of the Chief Information Officer, Smithsonian Institution, , Landover, MD 20785, USA, Laboratorio de Ecofisiología, Departamento de Ecología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, , Las Palmeras, Santiago 3425, Chile, Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, , Gainesville, FL 32611, USA, Área Paleontología, Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, , Casilla 787, Santiago, Chile, Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, , Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, - - 2014
Marine mammal mass strandings have occurred for millions of years, but their origins defy singular explanations. Beyond human causes, mass strandings have been attributed to herding behaviour, large-scale oceanographic fronts and harmful algal blooms (HABs). Because algal toxins cause organ failure in marine mammals, HABs are the most common mass ...
Arvanitoyannis Ioannis S IS a Department of Agriculture Ichthyology and Aquatic Environment, Faculty of Agriculture , University of Thessaly, Fytokou Str, Nea Ionia Magnessias , Volos 38446 , Hellas , - - 2014
Among the various hazards occurring in fish and seafood chemical hazards and in particular toxins (ciguatera, scombroid fish poisoning, paralytic shellfish poisoning, neurotoxic (brevetoxic) shellfish poisoning, puffer fish poisoning, diarrhetic shellfish poisoning) have an important place in food poisoning cases. On the other hand, some of the chemical hazards are ...
Halpin Christina G CG Centre for Behaviour and Evolution, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, Tyne and Wear, - - 2014
Avian predators readily learn to associate the warning coloration of aposematic prey with the toxic effects of ingesting them, but they do not necessarily exclude aposematic prey from their diets. By eating aposematic prey 'educated' predators are thought to be trading-off the benefits of gaining nutrients with the costs of ...
Arora Amit A Department of Neurology, Sawai ManSingh Medical College and Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan, - - 2014
Botulism is a dreadful, life-threatening, neuroparalytic disease caused by gram positive bacteria Clostridium botulinum. Food borne botulism has been described following ingestion of preformed toxins in canned food or food products that have not been preserved properly. Botulinum toxin acts on neuromuscular junction and manifests as ophthalmoplegia, bulbar and limb ...
Watanabe Maiko M a Division of Microbiology , National Institute of Health Sciences , Setagaya , Tokyo , - - 2014
Microbial contamination in unfinished beverages can occur when drinking directly from the bottle. Various microorganisms, including foodborne pathogens, are able to grow in these beverages at room temperature or in a refrigerator. In this study, we elucidated the characteristics of microorganism growth in bottled beverages under consuming condition models. Furthermore, ...
Wang Jun J 1 Department of Food Science and Biotechnology and Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Kangwon National University , Gangwon, - - 2013
Abstract Bacillus cereus is capable of producing enterotoxin and emetic toxin, and Bacillus foodborne illnesses occur due to the consumption of food contaminated with endospores. The objectives of this study were to investigate the growth and toxin production of B. cereus in cooked rice and to determine the effect of ...
Aboutaleb Nejma - - 2013
The present review will highlight recent advances in the knowledge of emerging pathogens causing infectious colitis and provide a description of the most important food-borne outbreaks. Outbreaks of enteric disease caused by Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) continue to surprise with new epidemiological findings or ...
Hu Dong-Liang - - 2013
Pathogenic bacteria use various strategies to interact with the host organisms. Among them, toxin production constitutes an efficient way to alter specific functions of target cells. Various enterotoxins interact with the enteric nervous system, by stimulating afferent neurons or inducing neurotransmitter release from enterochromaffin cells which result either in vomiting, ...
Langsrud Solveig - - 2013
Moisture enhancement of meat through injection is a technology to improve the sensory properties and the weight of meat. However, the technology may increase the risk of food borne infections. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) or bacteriophages carrying cytotoxin genes (Shiga toxin genes, stx), which is normally only present on ...
Yuan Yiyang - - 2013
T-2 toxin (T-2) is an acute toxic trichothecene mycotoxin produced mainly by Fusarium species, detected in many crops including oats, wheat and barley, in animal feed and food. It is important to know the metabolic pathway and kinetics of T-2 in food animals given that T-2 can cause serious adverse ...
Jiao Yiying - - 2013
To evaluate the health risk of cyanobacterial blooms, the levels of the neurotoxic non-protein amino acid, β-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA), was investigated in the freshwater ecosystem of Gonghu Bay in Lake Taihu. Lake Taihu is a large shallow lake contaminated by the excessive growth of Microcystis. Since BMAA has been measured in ...
Rodríguez-Carrasco Yelko - - 2013
Mycotoxins are harmful substances produced by fungi in several commodities with a widespread presence in foodstuffs. Human exposure to mycotoxins occurs mainly by contaminated food. The quantitation of mycotoxins in cereal-based food, highly consumed by different age population, is of concern. In this survey, 159 cereal-based samples classified as wheat, ...
Omoe Katsuhiko K Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture, Iwate University, Iwate, - - 2013
Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) are a common causative agent of food poisoning. Recently, many new SE-like (SEl) toxins have been reported, although the role of SEls in food poisoning remains unclear. In this study, the emetic potentials of SElK, SElL, SElM, SElN, SElO, SElP, and SElQ were assessed using a monkey-feeding ...
Leclair Daniel - - 2013
During 1985-2005, a total of 91 laboratory-confirmed outbreaks of foodborne botulism occurred in Canada; these outbreaks involved 205 cases and 11 deaths. Of the outbreaks, 75 (86.2%) were caused by Clostridium botulinum type E, followed by types A (7, 8.1%) and B (5, 5.7%). Approximately 85% of the outbreaks occurred ...
Zhang Zhe - - 2013
Ricin is a lethal protein toxin produced by the castor bean plant. Ricin is known to possess significant heat resistance. Therefore, we placed it in a variety of foods to study the influence of the food matrix on behavior of a thermally stable protein toxin. First order rate constants for ...
Marsh Jane W - - 2013
The increase in community associated Clostridium difficile disease paired with recent data on C. difficile in retail foods has led to speculation that C. difficile is a food-borne pathogen. However, there is no current epidemiologic evidence (i.e. restaurant or food-associated outbreaks) to support this hypothesis. Rates of C. difficile recovery ...
Jones Russell G A - - 2013
Clostridium botulinum type A toxin is the most prevalent cause of naturally occurring outbreaks of human botulism in the world. The active dichain neurotoxin molecule is composed of a heavy chain (H-chain) of ~100 kDa with the Carboxy-terminal end consisting of a receptor binding (HC) domain, while the Amino-terminal (HN) ...
De Boevre Marthe - - 2013
In the present study, a quantitative dietary exposure assessment of mycotoxins and their masked forms was conducted on a national representative sample of the Belgian population using the contamination data of cereal-based foods. Cereal-based food products (n=174) were analysed for the occurrence of deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, zearalenone, α-zearalenol, β-zearalenol, T-2-toxin, ...
Böhnel H - - 2013
Clostridium botulinum is an anaerobic spore-forming bacterium prevalent in the environment, and causes botulism in man and animals via toxins. Dairy cattle may be contaminated or infected by feed, water or other environmental factors. Milk may also carry the pathogen. Hence, milk and udder samples need to be tested. The ...
Ma Yu - - 2013
Abstract Fahr's disease (FD) is a rare movement disorder characterized by bilateral intracranial calcifications that is refractory to most treatments. We present the case of a 26-year-old male with FD who was unable to walk independently and could not eat solid food because of poor swallowing capability and severe cervical ...
van Esch Betty C A M - - 2013
A transglutaminase cross-linked caseinate was designed for use in dairy products to increase the viscosity of food matrices. The difference in structure of cross-linked caseinate might have implications for the risk of developing cow's milk allergy. The sensitizing capacity and the allergenicity (the potency to induce an allergic effector response) ...
Cheng Luisa W LW Foodborne Contaminants Research Unit, Western Regional Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, Albany, California 94710, United States. - - 2013
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are some of the most potent biological toxins. High-affinity monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been developed for the detection of BoNT serotypes A and B using a chemiluminescent capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In an effort to improve toxin detection levels in complex matrices such as food and ...
Pawlowiez Ralph - - 2013
Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP), a disease caused by consuming fish that have accumulated ciguatoxins (CTXs) in their tissue, is regarded as the most prevalent form of intoxication in French Polynesia. Recently, the Australes, one of the least affected archipelago until the early 1980s, has shown a dramatic increase in its ...
Anraku Kensaku - - 2013
The amounts of puffer toxin (tetrodotoxin, TTX) extracted from the fresh and the traditional Japanese salted and fermented "Nukazuke" and "Kasuzuke" ovaries of Takifugu stictonotus (T. stictonotus) were quantitatively analyzed in the voltage-dependent sodium current (I(Na)) recorded from mechanically dissociated single rat hippocampal CA1 neurons. The amount of TTX contained ...
Friedman Mendel - - 2013
There is a need to develop food-compatible conditions to alter the structures of fungal, bacterial, and plant toxins, thus transforming toxins to nontoxic molecules. The term 'chemical genetics' has been used to describe this approach. This overview attempts to survey and consolidate the widely scattered literature on the inhibition by ...
Maresca Marc - - 2013
Mycotoxins are fungal secondary metabolites contaminating food and causing toxicity to animals and humans. Among the various mycotoxins found in crops used for food and feed production, the trichothecene toxin deoxynivalenol (DON or vomitoxin) is one of the most prevalent and hazardous. In addition to native toxins, food also contains ...
Lopes Vanessa M - - 2013
Here we summarize the current knowledge on the transfer and accumulation of harmful algal bloom (HAB)-related toxins in cephalopods (octopods, cuttlefishes and squids). These mollusks have been reported to accumulate several HAB-toxins, namely domoic acid (DA, and its isomers), saxitoxin (and its derivatives) and palytoxin (and palytoxin-like compounds) and, therefore, ...
Daneshian Mardas - - 2013
Aquatic food accounts for over 40% of global animal food products, and the potential contamination with toxins of algal origin - marine biotoxins - poses a health threat for consumers. The gold standards to assess toxins in aquatic food have traditionally been in vivo methods, i.e., the mouse as well ...
Munday Rex - - 2013
Complex secondary metabolites, some of which are highly toxic to mammals, are produced by many marine organisms. Some of these organisms are important food sources for marine animals and, when ingested, the toxins that they produce may be absorbed and stored in the tissues of the predators, which then become ...
Gu Shenyan S Center for Neuroscience, Aging and Stem Cell Research, Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, - - 2013
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are among the most poisonous substances known to man, but paradoxically, BoNT-containing medicines and cosmetics have been used with great success in the clinic. Accidental BoNT poisoning mainly occurs through oral ingestion of food contaminated with Clostridium botulinum. BoNTs are naturally produced in the form of progenitor ...
Yamashoji Shiro - - 2013
The chemiluminescent assay of menadione-catalysed H2O2 production by living mammalian cells was proposed to be useful for rapid food safety evaluation. The tested foods were extracted with water, ethanol and dimethylsulfoxide, and each extract was incubated with NIH3T3, Neuro-2a and HepG2 cells for 4h. Menadione-catalysed H2O2 production by living mammalian ...
Segvić Klarić Maja - - 2012
Abstract This article brings an overview of mycotoxin co-occurrence in foods in Croatia and neighbouring countries and experimental data from mycotoxin interaction studies involving Fusarium toxins, ochratoxin A (OTA), and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Only a few studies of combined mycotoxin toxicity have employed a mathematical/ statistical design, while others have ...
Ceuppens Siele - - 2012
Abstract Currently, three commercial kits for Bacillus cereus enterotoxins Nhe and/or Hbl detection are available, namely, the Bacillus diarrheal enterotoxin visual immunoassay (BDE VIA™) kit (3M Tecra), B. cereus enterotoxin reversed passive latex agglutination (BCET-RPLA) kit (Oxoid), and the Duopath(®) Cereus Enterotoxins (Merck). The performance of the kits and their ...
Yamaguchi Mizuka - - 2013
The Bacillus cereus emetic toxin cereulide causes foodborne intoxication, which may occasionally result in severe disease, and even death. To differentially diagnose the emetic-type of foodborne disease caused by B. cereus and assess the safety of commercial food, we developed a rapid method to quantitate cereulide. This method was combined with ...
Nersesian Carolyn L - - 2012
Generalist herbivores forage on a variety of plant species, allowing them to gain nutrients while limiting ingestion of harmful toxins. As the capacity to mix diets appears important for maximizing intake, the spatial scale in heterogeneity of food resources should influence the foraging behavior of herbivores. Our aim was to ...
Scott Peter M - - 2012
Alternaria alternata has been reported to be the most common fungus on Canadian Western wheat. The Alternaria toxins alternariol (AOH) and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) are mutagenic in vitro and there is also limited evidence for carcinogenic properties. They have been found in wheat from Europe, Argentina, China and Australia, ...
Wegulo Stephen N - - 2012
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin produced by the plant pathogenic fungi Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum. These and other closely related fungi cause a disease known as Fusarium head blight (FHB) in small grain cereals. Other mycotoxins produced by FHB-causing fungi include nivalenol, T-2 toxin, and zearalenone. Ingestion of mycotoxin-contaminated ...
Mayer Chad L - - 2012
Food-borne diseases are estimated at 76 million illnesses and 5000 deaths every year in the United States with the greatest burden on young children, the elderly and immunocompromised populations. The impact of efficient food distribution systems and a truly global food supply ensures that outbreaks, previously sporadic and contained locally, ...
Juliao Patricia C - - 2012
Background. On July 7 and 11, 2007, respectively, health officials in Texas and Indiana reported 4 possible cases of type A foodborne botulism to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Foodborne botulism is a rare and sometimes fatal illness caused by consuming foods containing botulinum neurotoxin.Methods. Investigators reviewed patients' medical ...
- - 2012
Foodborne botulism is a rare, potentially fatal paralytic illness caused by eating food contaminated by Clostridium botulinum toxin. It occurs most often as a single case not linked to others by a common food source. As a result of improvements in food canning, when outbreaks do occur, they typically involve ...
Anderson Peter D - - 2012
Biowarfare has been used for centuries. The use of biological weapons in terrorism remains a threat. Biological weapons include infectious agents (pathogens) and toxins. The most devastating bioterrorism scenario would be the airborne dispersal of pathogens over a concentrated population area. Characteristics that make a specific pathogen a high-risk for ...
Andjelkovic M - - 2012
A main known culprit causing amnesic shellfish poisoning in humans is domoic acid (DA). The toxin appearance in sea waters (by counting the toxin producing algae) and consequently in shellfish is closely monitored to prevent acute intoxications with gastrointestinal symptoms and neurological signs. However it is assumed that there might ...
Mazuet Christelle - - 2012
In two outbreaks of food-borne botulism in France, Clostridium botulinum type A was isolated and characterized from incriminated foods. Botulinum neurotoxin type A was detected in the patients' sera by mouse bioassay and in vitro endopeptidase assay with an immunocapture step and identification of the cleavage products by mass spectrometry.
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