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Turnbull J L JL Department of Paediatrics, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford, - - 2014
Adverse reactions to food include immune mediated food allergies and non-immune mediated food intolerances. Food allergies and intolerances are often confused by health professionals, patients and the public. To critically review the data relating to diagnosis and management of food allergy and food intolerance in adults and children. MEDLINE, EMBASE ...
Portnoy Jay M JM Division of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology, Children's Mercy Hospitals and Clinics, 2401 Gillham Road, Kansas City, MO, 64108, USA, - - 2014
Food allergies are estimated to affect as many as 8 % of children with 2.5 % being allergic to peanut products. Based on the results of recent surveys, this prevalence has been increasing over the last few decades for unknown reasons. As children with food allergies reach school age, the issue is ...
Rueter Kristina K FRACP, MD, FRACP, Paediatric Immunologist, General Paediatrician and Emergency Physician, Princess Margaret Hospital, Perth, and Clinical Senior Lecturer, School of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA. - - 2014
The epidemic of allergic disease is a major public health crisis. The greatest burden of allergies is in childhood, when rapidly rising rates of disease are also most evident. General practitioners (GP) have a key role in recognising and addressing aller-gy-related problems and identifying whether a child requires referral to ...
Gupta Ruchi S RS Center for Community Health, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois; - - 2014
This study aimed to characterize asthma and food allergy reporting and management in Chicago Public Schools. Demographic and health data for students who have asthma and food allergy were extracted from the Chicago Public Schools database. Demographic and geographic variability and the existence of school health management plans were analyzed, ...
Urisu Atsuo A Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Aichi, - - 2014
A food allergy is defined as "a phenomenon in which adverse reactions are caused through antigen-specific immunological mechanisms after exposure to given food." Various symptoms of food allergy occur in many organs. Food allergies are classified roughly into 4 clinical types: (1) neonatal and infantile gastrointestinal allergy, (2) infantile atopic ...
Yakes Betsy Jean - - 2014
Tetrodotoxin (TTX), a small molecular weight neurotoxin, is responsible for poisoning events that traditionally occur from consumption of contaminated puffer fish. Recent studies have shown a growing number of foods contaminated with TTX and a larger number of waters and associated countries where the toxin may occur. The apparent expanding ...
Wavrin Sophie S INRA, UR496 Immuno-Allergie Alimentaire, CEA/IBiTeC-S/SPI, CEA de Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette, - - 2014
Background: Recent data suggested that non-gastrointestinal exposure can lead to sensitisation to food allergens. We thus assessed the immune impact of respiratory or cutaneous exposure to peanut proteins on non-altered epithelium and investigated the effect of such pre-exposure on subsequent oral administration of peanut. Methods: BALB/cJ mice were exposed to ...
Raven John A JA Division of Plant Science, University of Dundee at the James Hutton Institute, Invergowie, Dundee DD2 5DA, UK. Electronic address: - - 2014
Algae frequently get a bad press. Pond slime is a problem in garden pools, algal blooms can produce toxins that incapacitate or kill animals and humans and even the term seaweed is pejorative - a weed being a plant growing in what humans consider to be the wrong place. Positive ...
Kraushaar Britta B National Reference Laboratory for Coagulase-positive Staphylococci incl. Staphylococcus aureus, Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, 12277 Berlin, - - 2014
Staphylococcus aureus is an important food-borne pathogen due to the ability of enterotoxigenic strains to produce staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) in food. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is also an important pathogen for humans, causing severe and hard to treat diseases in hospitals and in the community due to its multiresistance against ...
Friedman Mendel M Western Regional Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Albany, California 94710, United - - 2014
Grapes produce organic compounds that may be involved in the defense of the plants against invading phytopathogens. These metabolites include numerous phenolic compounds that are also active against human pathogens. Grapes are used to produce a variety of wines, grape juices, and raisins. Grape pomace, seeds, and skins, the remains ...
Malhotra Bansi D BD Department of Biotechnology, Delhi Technological University, Delhi, 110042, India, - - 2014
There is an increased interest toward the development of bioelectronic devices for food toxin (mycotoxins) detection. Mycotoxins are highly toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungi like Fusarium, Aspergillus, and Penicillium that are frequently found in crops or during storage of food including cereals, nuts, fruits, etc. The contamination of food ...
Weber E Scott ES 3rd AAAS, 1200 New York Avenue Northwest, Washington, DC 20005, USA; Veterinary Medicine and Epidemiology, 2108 Tupper Hall, UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, Davis, CA 95616, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
For veterinarians to better understand aquatic animal health, the most basic veterinary foundation begins with understanding piscine anatomy and physiology. General observations of fish behavior, anatomy, and food apprehension can provide more valuable diagnostic information than advanced laboratory testing alone. This article highlights anatomic differences of fish species occupying different ...
Kamata Yoichi Y National Institute of Health Sciences, 1-18-1 Kamiyoga, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8501, Japan; Iwate University, 3-18-8 Ueda, Morioka, Iwate 020-8500, Japan. - - 2014
Food poisoning has been reported after the consumption of raw horsemeat in Japan. Diarrhea with a short incubation period is a common symptom in such cases of food poisoning. Cysts found in horsemeat ingested by patients have been identified as Sarcocystis fayeri based on morphological and genetic evaluation and findings ...
Sato'o Yusuke Y Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture, Iwate University, Morioka, Iwate - - 2014
Molecular characterization of isolates from Staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) in Japan showed the dominant lineage causing SFP is CC81, a single-locus variant of ST-1; coagulase type VII; positive for either sea and/or seb; and positive for seh. Among various CC lineages producing SEA, CC81 showed the highest toxin productivity.
Zhang Zhaowei Z Oil Crops Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan, 430062, China; Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Oil Crops, Ministry of Agriculture, Wuhan, 430062, - - 2014
Biotoxin contamination in food and environmental samples has threatened health or life of human and animals. Thus, a rapid lab-independent sensing method for biotoxin determination is urgently required. Microchip sensing system allows a promising rapid and low-cost detection strategy. Herein, the recent development of various microchips, including microfluidic chip and ...
Rasooly Reuven R Foodborne Toxin Detection and Prevention Unit and ‡Produce Safety and Microbiology Research Unit, Western Regional Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture , 800 Buchanan Street, Albany, California 94710, United - - 2014
Microwave exposure is a convenient and widely used method for defrosting, heating, and cooking numerous foods. Microwave cooking is also reported to kill pathogenic microorganisms that often contaminate food. In this study, we tested whether microwaves would inactivate the toxicity of Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2) added to 5% reconstituted fat-free ...
Heyndrickx Ellen E a Laboratory of Food Analysis , Ghent University , Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences , Harelbekestraat 72, 9000 Ghent , - - 2014
Abstract Mycotoxins are harmful food contaminants. Currently, human exposure assessment to these toxins is often based on calculations combining mycotoxin occurrence data in food with population data on food consumption. Because of limitations inherent to that approach, biomarkers have been proposed as a suitable alternative whereby a more accurate assessment ...
Viray M A MA Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, - - 2014
SUMMARY Botulism has rarely been reported in Africa. In October 2008, botulism was reported in three Ugandan boarding-school students. All were hospitalized and one died. A cohort study was performed to assess food exposures among students, and clinical specimens and available food samples were tested for botulinum toxin. Three case-patients ...
Walker Thomas J TJ Division of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, - - 2014
Botulinum toxin has been in use since the 1970s. Over the last few years, the indications for botulinum toxin use have extended for cosmetic and noncosmetic applications. Three preparations of botulinum toxin type A and one preparation of botulinum toxin type B are commercially available and approved for use in ...
O'Kane Anthony Arthur - - 2014
Despite considerable advances in reducing the production of dioxin-like toxins in recent years contamination of the food chain still occasionally occurs resulting in huge losses to the agri-food sector and risk to human health through exposure. Dioxin-like toxicity is exhibited by a range of stable and bioaccumulative compounds including polychlorinated ...
Carter Glen P - - 2014
The genus Clostridium comprises a large, heterogeneous group of obligate anaerobic, Gram-positive spore forming bacilli. Members of this genus are ubiquitous in the environment and although most species are considered saprophytic, several are pathogenic to both humans and animals. These bacteria cause a variety of diseases including neuroparalysis, gas gangrene, ...
Arvanitoyannis Ioannis S IS a Department of Agriculture Ichthyology and Aquatic Environment, Faculty of Agriculture , University of Thessaly, Fytokou Str, Nea Ionia Magnessias , Volos 38446 , Hellas , - - 2014
Among the various hazards occurring in fish and seafood chemical hazards and in particular toxins (ciguatera, scombroid fish poisoning, paralytic shellfish poisoning, neurotoxic (brevetoxic) shellfish poisoning, puffer fish poisoning, diarrhetic shellfish poisoning) have an important place in food poisoning cases. On the other hand, some of the chemical hazards are ...
Arora Amit A Department of Neurology, Sawai ManSingh Medical College and Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan, - - 2014
Botulism is a dreadful, life-threatening, neuroparalytic disease caused by gram positive bacteria Clostridium botulinum. Food borne botulism has been described following ingestion of preformed toxins in canned food or food products that have not been preserved properly. Botulinum toxin acts on neuromuscular junction and manifests as ophthalmoplegia, bulbar and limb ...
Watanabe Maiko M a Division of Microbiology , National Institute of Health Sciences , Setagaya , Tokyo , - - 2014
Microbial contamination in unfinished beverages can occur when drinking directly from the bottle. Various microorganisms, including foodborne pathogens, are able to grow in these beverages at room temperature or in a refrigerator. In this study, we elucidated the characteristics of microorganism growth in bottled beverages under consuming condition models. Furthermore, ...
Pyenson Nicholas D ND Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, , PO Box 37012, Washington, DC 20013, USA, Department of Mineral Sciences, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, , PO Box 37012, Washington, DC 20013, USA, Department of Mammalogy, Burke Museum of Natural History and Culture, , Seattle, WA 98195, USA, Department of Paleontology, Burke Museum of Natural History and Culture, , Seattle, WA 98195, USA, Red Paleontológica, Laboratorio de Ontogenia y Filogenia, Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Las Palmeras, Santiago 3425, Chile, John D. Cooper Archaeological and Paleontological Center, Department of Geological Sciences, California State University, , Fullerton, CA 92834, USA, Departamento de Geología, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas and Andean Geothermal Center of Excellence, Universidad de Chile, , Plaza Ercilla 803, Santiago, Chile, Digitization Program Office 3D Lab, Office of the Chief Information Officer, Smithsonian Institution, , Landover, MD 20785, USA, Laboratorio de Ecofisiología, Departamento de Ecología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, , Las Palmeras, Santiago 3425, Chile, Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, , Gainesville, FL 32611, USA, Área Paleontología, Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, , Casilla 787, Santiago, Chile, Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, , Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, - - 2014
Marine mammal mass strandings have occurred for millions of years, but their origins defy singular explanations. Beyond human causes, mass strandings have been attributed to herding behaviour, large-scale oceanographic fronts and harmful algal blooms (HABs). Because algal toxins cause organ failure in marine mammals, HABs are the most common mass ...
Halpin Christina G CG Centre for Behaviour and Evolution, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, Tyne and Wear, - - 2014
Avian predators readily learn to associate the warning coloration of aposematic prey with the toxic effects of ingesting them, but they do not necessarily exclude aposematic prey from their diets. By eating aposematic prey 'educated' predators are thought to be trading-off the benefits of gaining nutrients with the costs of ...
Messelhäusser Ute U 0000-0003-0413-9416 Bavarian Health and Food Safety Authority, Veterinärstr. 2, 85764 Oberschleißheim, - - 2014
Several Bacillus cereus strains possess the genetic fittings to produce two different types of toxins, the heat-stable cereulide or different heat-labile proteins with enterotoxigenic potential. Unlike the diarrheal toxins, cereulide is (pre-)formed in food and can cause foodborne intoxications shortly after ingestion of contaminated food. Based on the widely self-limiting ...
Bailey Samuel S Division of Primary Care and Public Health, Brighton & Sussex Medical School, Brighton, - - 2014
A previous cross-sectional survey highlighted that restaurant staff in Brighton had gaps in their knowledge of food allergy, which could lead to the provision of unsafe meals to food-allergic customers. A food allergy training event was developed by a multi-disciplinary team (health service researcher, clinician, teacher and patient group representative) ...
Visciano Pierina P Faculty of BioScience and Technology for Food, Agriculture and Environment, University of Teramo Mosciano Sant'Angelo, - - 2014
Histamine poisoning is one of the most common form of intoxication caused by the ingestion of fish and fishery products. Cooking, canning, or freezing cannot reduce the levels of histamine because this compound is heat stable. All humans are susceptible to histamine and its effects can be described as intolerance ...
Wang Jun J 1 Department of Food Science and Biotechnology and Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Kangwon National University , Gangwon, - - 2013
Abstract Bacillus cereus is capable of producing enterotoxin and emetic toxin, and Bacillus foodborne illnesses occur due to the consumption of food contaminated with endospores. The objectives of this study were to investigate the growth and toxin production of B. cereus in cooked rice and to determine the effect of ...
Aboutaleb Nejma - - 2013
The present review will highlight recent advances in the knowledge of emerging pathogens causing infectious colitis and provide a description of the most important food-borne outbreaks. Outbreaks of enteric disease caused by Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) continue to surprise with new epidemiological findings or ...
Hu Dong-Liang - - 2013
Pathogenic bacteria use various strategies to interact with the host organisms. Among them, toxin production constitutes an efficient way to alter specific functions of target cells. Various enterotoxins interact with the enteric nervous system, by stimulating afferent neurons or inducing neurotransmitter release from enterochromaffin cells which result either in vomiting, ...
Langsrud Solveig - - 2013
Moisture enhancement of meat through injection is a technology to improve the sensory properties and the weight of meat. However, the technology may increase the risk of food borne infections. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) or bacteriophages carrying cytotoxin genes (Shiga toxin genes, stx), which is normally only present on ...
Yuan Yiyang - - 2013
T-2 toxin (T-2) is an acute toxic trichothecene mycotoxin produced mainly by Fusarium species, detected in many crops including oats, wheat and barley, in animal feed and food. It is important to know the metabolic pathway and kinetics of T-2 in food animals given that T-2 can cause serious adverse ...
Jiao Yiying - - 2013
To evaluate the health risk of cyanobacterial blooms, the levels of the neurotoxic non-protein amino acid, β-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA), was investigated in the freshwater ecosystem of Gonghu Bay in Lake Taihu. Lake Taihu is a large shallow lake contaminated by the excessive growth of Microcystis. Since BMAA has been measured in ...
Rodríguez-Carrasco Yelko - - 2013
Mycotoxins are harmful substances produced by fungi in several commodities with a widespread presence in foodstuffs. Human exposure to mycotoxins occurs mainly by contaminated food. The quantitation of mycotoxins in cereal-based food, highly consumed by different age population, is of concern. In this survey, 159 cereal-based samples classified as wheat, ...
Omoe Katsuhiko K Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture, Iwate University, Iwate, - - 2013
Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) are a common causative agent of food poisoning. Recently, many new SE-like (SEl) toxins have been reported, although the role of SEls in food poisoning remains unclear. In this study, the emetic potentials of SElK, SElL, SElM, SElN, SElO, SElP, and SElQ were assessed using a monkey-feeding ...
Leclair Daniel - - 2013
During 1985-2005, a total of 91 laboratory-confirmed outbreaks of foodborne botulism occurred in Canada; these outbreaks involved 205 cases and 11 deaths. Of the outbreaks, 75 (86.2%) were caused by Clostridium botulinum type E, followed by types A (7, 8.1%) and B (5, 5.7%). Approximately 85% of the outbreaks occurred ...
Zhang Zhe - - 2013
Ricin is a lethal protein toxin produced by the castor bean plant. Ricin is known to possess significant heat resistance. Therefore, we placed it in a variety of foods to study the influence of the food matrix on behavior of a thermally stable protein toxin. First order rate constants for ...
Marsh Jane W - - 2013
The increase in community associated Clostridium difficile disease paired with recent data on C. difficile in retail foods has led to speculation that C. difficile is a food-borne pathogen. However, there is no current epidemiologic evidence (i.e. restaurant or food-associated outbreaks) to support this hypothesis. Rates of C. difficile recovery ...
Jones Russell G A - - 2013
Clostridium botulinum type A toxin is the most prevalent cause of naturally occurring outbreaks of human botulism in the world. The active dichain neurotoxin molecule is composed of a heavy chain (H-chain) of ~100 kDa with the Carboxy-terminal end consisting of a receptor binding (HC) domain, while the Amino-terminal (HN) ...
De Boevre Marthe - - 2013
In the present study, a quantitative dietary exposure assessment of mycotoxins and their masked forms was conducted on a national representative sample of the Belgian population using the contamination data of cereal-based foods. Cereal-based food products (n=174) were analysed for the occurrence of deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, zearalenone, α-zearalenol, β-zearalenol, T-2-toxin, ...
Tutelyan V A VA a Institute of Nutrition of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences , Moscow , - - 2013
Monitoring results of food grain contamination with fusariotoxins-deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN), fumonisins (FB1&FB2), T-2 and HT-2 toxins-are presented. Harvests of 2005-2010 in different regions of Russia were investigated. The occurrence of DON in wheat was 8%, barley 9%, oats 4%, rye 2% and maize 2%. The highest frequency of ZEN ...
Böhnel H - - 2013
Clostridium botulinum is an anaerobic spore-forming bacterium prevalent in the environment, and causes botulism in man and animals via toxins. Dairy cattle may be contaminated or infected by feed, water or other environmental factors. Milk may also carry the pathogen. Hence, milk and udder samples need to be tested. The ...
Ma Yu - - 2013
Abstract Fahr's disease (FD) is a rare movement disorder characterized by bilateral intracranial calcifications that is refractory to most treatments. We present the case of a 26-year-old male with FD who was unable to walk independently and could not eat solid food because of poor swallowing capability and severe cervical ...
van Esch Betty C A M - - 2013
A transglutaminase cross-linked caseinate was designed for use in dairy products to increase the viscosity of food matrices. The difference in structure of cross-linked caseinate might have implications for the risk of developing cow's milk allergy. The sensitizing capacity and the allergenicity (the potency to induce an allergic effector response) ...
Cheng Luisa W LW Foodborne Contaminants Research Unit, Western Regional Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, Albany, California 94710, United States. - - 2013
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are some of the most potent biological toxins. High-affinity monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been developed for the detection of BoNT serotypes A and B using a chemiluminescent capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In an effort to improve toxin detection levels in complex matrices such as food and ...
Pawlowiez Ralph - - 2013
Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP), a disease caused by consuming fish that have accumulated ciguatoxins (CTXs) in their tissue, is regarded as the most prevalent form of intoxication in French Polynesia. Recently, the Australes, one of the least affected archipelago until the early 1980s, has shown a dramatic increase in its ...
Anraku Kensaku - - 2013
The amounts of puffer toxin (tetrodotoxin, TTX) extracted from the fresh and the traditional Japanese salted and fermented "Nukazuke" and "Kasuzuke" ovaries of Takifugu stictonotus (T. stictonotus) were quantitatively analyzed in the voltage-dependent sodium current (I(Na)) recorded from mechanically dissociated single rat hippocampal CA1 neurons. The amount of TTX contained ...
Friedman Mendel - - 2013
There is a need to develop food-compatible conditions to alter the structures of fungal, bacterial, and plant toxins, thus transforming toxins to nontoxic molecules. The term 'chemical genetics' has been used to describe this approach. This overview attempts to survey and consolidate the widely scattered literature on the inhibition by ...
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