Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 712
< 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 >
Hunter W S - - 1999
Among homeothermic animals, larger species generally have lower metabolic rates and live longer than do smaller species. Because Ames dwarf mice (dwarfs) live approximately 1 year longer than their larger normal sex- and age-matched siblings (normals), we hypothesized that they would have lower body core temperature (Tco). We, therefore, measured ...
Gomez F F Department of Behavioral Science, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey 17033, USA. - - 1999
Suppression of intake of a gustatory conditioned stimulus (CS) occurs when paired with either an aversive or an appetitive unconditioned stimulus (US). Toxic substances, such as lithium chloride (LiCl), induce conditioned taste aversions while rewarding stimuli, such as high a concentration of sucrose, reduce intake through a comparison process referred ...
Demas G E - - 1999
Food hoarding plays an important role in the energetic repertoire of a variety of mammalian species. Both food hoarding and food intake have been examined in rodents using several energetic challenges including food deprivation, treatment with metabolic fuel blockers, and enhancement of fuel storage. In the present experiment, we examined ...
Kitaysky A S - - 1999
I tested whether the ability of chicks to suspend growth and developmental processes in response to food shortages is greater among alcids with food resources that fluctuate over short time periods than it is among close relatives with food that is continuously available. I examined changes in chick resting metabolic ...
Eghbal-Ahmadi M - - 1999
The physiological consequences of activating corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2 (CRF2) are not fully understood. The neuroanatomic distribution of this CRF receptor family member is consistent with roles in mediating the actions of CRF and similar ligands on food intake control and integrative aspects of stress-related behaviors. However, CRF2 expression ...
Bazhan N M - - 1999
The effect of 16-hr food deprivation on day 3 and again on day 5 of pregnancy on the fecundity of female water voles homozygous (ae/ae) or heterozygous (A/ae) for, an allele at the Agouti (A) locus, non agouti extreme (ae) was studied. 63 A/ae females (mated to ae/ae males) produced ...
Barron L G - - 1999
Blood plasma lipoproteins were studied during food and light deprivation or prolactin injection-induced involution of ovarian follicles (molt) of laying hens. Egg laying stopped 3 days after initiation of either treatment. Food and light-deprived hens lost 29% of initial body weight during the 10-day experiment (P < 0.05), whereas prolactin-treated ...
Middaugh L D - - 1999
Both sexes of C57BL/6 (C57) mice consumed substantial quantities of ethanol without food or water deprivation whether access was continuous or limited. Food deprivation increased the amount of ethanol consumed, and the amount consumed depended upon when the animals were tested with reference to their daily food allotment. Ethanol consumption ...
Christopher M M - - 1999
A desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) was trapped underground without food or water for nearly 11 mo near Yucca Mountain, Nevada (USA). Physical abnormalities included weight loss, sunken eyes, and muscle atrophy. Biochemical abnormalities determined from blood sampling included marked azotemia and hyperosmolality, which were attributed largely to accumulation and retention ...
Krause J - - 1999
We investigated the mechanisms and functions of shoal choice in relation to nutritional state in the zebrafish. Single fish that had been well fed or food deprived for 2 days were presented with a choice between two stimulus shoals. Food-deprived test fish showed a significant preference for well-fed stimulus fish ...
Underwood H - - 1999
The effect of food deprivation on the body temperature and activity rhythms of quail was assessed in birds exposed to both light-dark (LD) cycles and to continuous darkness (DD). Quail normally exhibit a daily rhythm of body temperature in LD that will persist in DD (that is, the rhythm is ...
Loranca A - - 1999
The effects of neonatal food and sensory deprivation on play social behavior (boxing, wrestling, and pinning) were studied in male and female Wistar strain rats from 20 to 60 days of age. Data showed that the mean frequency of total play was markedly increased in neonatally underfed subjects. Play did ...
Jordens R G - - 1999
(R)-Deprenyl, the archetypical monoamine oxidase-B inhibitor, has been shown to increase life-span in a number of species. Although many theories for this effect have been suggested, for example, an increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, the mechanism of action has yet to be elucidated. To investigate this phenomenon, we have ...
Antoniades M - - 1998
A brief survey was undertaken to assess the nature and severity of food scarcity experienced by a sample of 88 street youth in downtown Toronto, and to identify markers of vulnerability to food scarcity. Almost half of the youth reported experiencing involuntary hunger or food deprivation during the previous 30 ...
Tozawa Y - - 1998
The effects of acute food deprivation and acute cold exposure on 24-hr urinary isatin excretion in rats and a mechanism responsible for changes in urinary isatin excretion during stress were investigated. This is the first study to demonstrate by HPLC that urinary isatin excretion is increased by stress. Both types ...
Nikod?mov? M - - 1998
Because chronic ethanol ingestion may perturb thyroid function, we evaluated the effect of 4-wk of oral 10% ethanol ingestion on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis and septal thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) in 200-g male Wistar rats. Animals were divided into three groups: absolute control receiving tap water and food ad libitum; ethanol ...
Mburu J N - - 1998
Nutrition is one of the multiple factors that modulate reproduction in animals. The effect of 48 h food deprivation on reproductive and metabolic hormonal changes in relation to cleavage rates was studied. Insemination of 15 sows was performed 20-10 h prior to expected ovulation and ova were recovered at slaughter ...
Wang J - - 1998
The peptide, galanin (GAL), is known to stimulate eating behavior, reduce energy expenditure and affect the release of metabolic hormones. Further, the activity of this peptide in the hypothalamus is modulated, in turn, by these hormones as well as by the ingestion of nutrients. The focus of this investigation is ...
Cheesman M J - - 1998
The induction of cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) protein and mRNA by RU486 [17beta-hydroxy-11beta-(4-dimethylaminophenyl)-17alpha-1-pro pyl-estra-4,9-dien-3-one] treatment and food deprivation in female rat liver was studied using Western blotting and competitive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). CYP3A apoprotein levels increased in response to food deprivation and to RU486 treatment, and the combination ...
Kowalski T J - - 1998
Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) activity is believed to play an important role in the response to food deprivation in adult rats. Little is known, however, about the role of the hypothalamic NPY system in the control of food intake in the preweanling rat. To address this issue, we examined the ...
Zhang H - - 1998
Structural and functional responses of the intestine to colostrum, milk replacer, oral electrolyte solution and food deprivation were examined during the first 6 h after birth in pigs. Total intestinal weight, surface area and mucosal mass were highest (P < 0.05) in pigs fed colostrum. The other diet groups did ...
Panicker A K - - 1998
Food deprivation inhibits ovulatory cycles and estrous behavior in Syrian hamsters. Lesions of the area postrema (AP) prevented the suppression of estrous behavior in food-deprived hamsters, but they did not prevent the suppression of estrous cyclicity or the increase in running-wheel activity caused by food deprivation. Food deprivation or treatment ...
Yu X X - - 1998
Peroxisomal beta-oxidation and catalase activity were investigated in liver, kidney and heart from pigs at the following timepoints: within 0.5 h after birth (0 h, unfed) and at 24 h (suckled or unsuckled), 10 d (suckled or 24-h food-deprived), 21 d (suckled or 24-h food-deprived) and 5 mo (overnight food-deprived). ...
Maren S - - 1998
The present experiments compared the effects of 2 appetitive motivational states on the acquisition of Pavlovian fear conditioning in rats (Rattus norvegicus). In Experiment 1, rats were deprived of either water or food prior to contextual fear conditioning, which consisted of the delivery of a single footshock in a novel ...
Woodside B - - 1998
The goals of these experiments were to determine whether lactational anestrus would be prolonged by a 48-h fast at days 13 and 14 postpartum (pp) and, if so, to determine whether this effect could be reversed by treatment with the Ob protein leptin. We found that food deprivation on days ...
Spector A C - - 1998
A microstructural analysis of licking behavior in nondeprived and 23-hr food-deprived rats (n = 15) presented with various sucrose solutions (0.03-1.0 M) in daily single-bottle, 1-hr sessions was conducted. Food deprivation and concentration interacted to increase total licks. The effects of food deprivation and concentration on burst size (BS), burst ...
Takahashi T - - 1998
To estimate the contribution of coprophagy to protein intake, we observed the behavior, particularly that associated with coprophagy, in adult and young captive nutrias (experiment 1), and analyzed chemical composition and amino acid composition, including diaminopimeric acid (DAP), an indication of bacterial-deprived protein, of soft feces, entire hard feces, and ...
Soengas J L - - 1998
In order to evaluate the normal (fed conditions) substrate utilization rates of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) brain, CO2 production from glucose, lactate, and beta-hydroxybutyrate was tested in pooled brains. Oxidation rates, as well as the capacity for metabolism of carbohydrate and ketone bodies, were also evaluated in brain of rainbow ...
Wylie L M - - 1998
Endogenous analgesia induced by changes in motivation has been identified in the chicken in previous studies but either the motivational changes were difficult to interpret or the motivation was unpredictable. Experimental sodium urate (SU) arthritis of the ankle joint resulted in pain-coping behaviour (one-legged standing or sitting) for a 2-h ...
Zhou W T - - 1998
1. Three experiments were conducted to investigate the diurnal variation of blood viscosity in broilers. In experiment 1 food and water were supplied freely at 20 degrees C (20-FW). In experiment 2 food and water were withdrawn at 20 degrees C (20-NFW), while in experiment 3 food and water were ...
Racotta R - - 1998
In previous works it was shown that catecholamine-induced hypodipsia is mediated by alpha1-adrenergic receptors while food intake (FI) inhibition supposes also beta-adrenergic participation. We used sodium nitroprusside (N) as a vasodilator, alone or mixed with various adrenergic agonists and measured FI and water intake (WI) in rats either deprived food ...
Balasko M - - 1998
Juvenile green iguanas were placed in a situation of conflict between two motivations: a thermoregulatory drive and the attraction of a palatable bait. To be able to reach the bait (lettuce), they had to leave a warm refuge, provided with standard food, and venture into a cold environment. In experiment ...
Pouteau E - - 1998
Acetate metabolism supplies about 10% of energy requirements in food-deprived nonruminant animals. This study used a stable isotope dilution method to investigate the fate of acetate in 24-h food-deprived dogs free of colonic fermentation. Three dogs received intravenous bolus injections of 40 or 70 micromol/kg of [1-13C] acetate, and carotid ...
Rice H B - - 1998
Enterostatin, the activation peptide of procolipase, has been reported to reduce high-fat food consumption in rats. This reduction has been reliably demonstrated using procedures in which the test diet was also the maintenance diet of the animals. Other reports, though, have shown that peripherally administered enterostatin had no effect on ...
Wittnich C - - 1997
Studies of the effect of sex on the metabolic state of rats with chronic hypertension and concomitant myocardial hypertrophy were conducted. Female and male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) with early myocardial hypertrophy (5.5 mo old) were used. Serum fatty acids, liver glycogen, and myocardial glycogen were measured at baseline and ...
Green M W - - 1997
The current study investigated the relationships between blood glucose levels, mild food deprivation, sympathetic arousal, and cognitive processing efficiency. Subjects (n = 82) were randomly assigned to four experimental conditions, comprising combined manipulations of food deprivation and incentive motivation. Baseline and mid-session measurements of blood glucose, blood pressure and pulse ...
Alison L - - 1997
Severe non-organic failure to thrive associated with physical and emotional abuse including food deprivation was diagnosed in a 9-y-old boy. Rapid catch-up growth (weight and height) followed change of carer. Recovery of poor growth hormone response to clonidine stimulation was associated with benign intracranial hypertension accompanied by headaches and vomiting. ...
Mercer J G - - 1997
The effect of food deprivation on hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) gene expression in the Djungarian hamster was quantified by in situ hybridization. Hamsters housed in short days (SD) for 18 wk decreased body weight by 40% and exhibited 200% increases in both NPY and CRF mRNA ...
Martin P R - - 1997
This study sought to experimentally validate 2 self-reported trigger factors of headaches, namely negative affect (anxiety, depression, and anger) and hunger, and to investigate whether these triggers activated the same or different physiological mechanisms. Students (38 women and 18 men) who had suffered from frequent headaches (migraine or tension type) ...
Bitterman N - - 1997
We tested the effect of moderate food or water deprivation and a combination of the two on sensitivity to hyperoxia-induced seizures in rats. Seventy rats with chronic cortical electrodes were exposed to seven experimental protocols: starvation, dehydration or a combination of both for 24 or 36 h, prior to exposure ...
Hara Y - - 1997
The effects of dehydration and food deprivation on urocortin-like immunoreactivity (Ucn-IR) in the rat supraoptic nucleus (SON) and the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) were examined by immunohistochemistry. Water deprivation for 48 h caused a significant increase in the number of Ucn-IR neurons in the SON, compared with control. Ucn-IR fibers and ...
Kirk J M - - 1997
Deprivation level was manipulated in fourteen food- and water-deprived adult human females to examine its effects on self-control for food (choice of larger, more delayed access to apple juice over smaller, less delayed access to apple juice). Each subject was exposed to two treatments: (1) Consumption of a 500 g ...
Metwally M - - 1997
Sterigmatocystin (STG) is a toxic metabolite produced by severalAspergillus species. Because of its toxic and carcinogenic properties the occurrence of STG in food is considered to represent a potential hazard to man. The present study was designed to investigate following points: 1 A survey of STG incidence in Ras cheese ...
Chaouloff F - - 1997
Food deprivation stimulates the activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and brain serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) synthesis. Because midbrain somato-dendritic 5-HT1A autoreceptors may obey homologous and heterologous (e.g. by glucocorticoids) down-regulation, we have analyzed whether 24 hr of fasting affects midbrain 5-HT1A receptor binding and sensitivity in Lewis and SHR rats (i.e. ...
Stewart S H - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: Selective processing of appetitive cues was investigated among food-deprived subjects and restrained eaters using the modified Stroop. METHOD: Thirty-two university students (25 females, 7 males) were randomly assigned to a 6-hr food deprivation (FD) or a no food deprivation (NFD) condition. Subjects were also divided into three restrained eating ...
Schneider J E - - 1997
Hyperphagia and anovulation are both triggered by prior food deprivation or other treatments that decrease intracellular availability of metabolic fuels in most species studied. Syrian hamsters fail to show compensatory hyperphagia, but do show anestrus in response to these energetic challenges. In the present experiments, we examined food intake, plasma ...
Ishikawa M - - 1997
In vivo microdialysis was used to determine SRIF release from the hypothalamus in unanesthetized male rats over a period of 24 h and in rats deprived of food for 72 h, in relation to changes in plasma GH levels. Before the experiment, a microdialysis probe was inserted into the anterior ...
Lamas E - - 1997
Twelve rats were food-deprived to 90% or 70% of their free-feeding weights. Food pellets were then delivered every 60 s (Fixed Time 60-s schedule), and the development of adjunctive drinking was measured by the water consumed and the number of licks. For "master" rats, each lick was followed by 10-s ...
Brogan R S - - 1997
Neuroendocrine mechanisms governing growth hormone (GH) secretion are sensitive to nutritional status since the normal pulsatile pattern of GH release is disrupted during conditions of food deprivation or malnutrition. A reasonable hypothesis for this occurrence is the alteration of somatostatin and GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) synthesis, storage and secretion. In this ...
Mistlberger R E - - 1997
Circadian rhythms in hamsters can be entrained by restricted daily feeding schedules. Phase control may be exerted by feeding per se, or by wheel running in anticipation of food access. Phase modulation by feeding was examined here by depriving hamsters of food for 9-24 h and refeeding at 1 of ...
< 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 >