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Results 301 - 350 of 727
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Jain S - - 2000
Food deprivation produces analgesia. This response is reversed i.e. pain sensitivity is lowered, when the food deprived rats are fed. In the present study the effect of chronic pain on the motivation to get food, in food deprived rats, was observed. In ten rats the effect of formalin and morphine ...
Fujie H - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To know the effect of stress deprivation on the dimensions and mechanical properties of the patellar tendon during growth. DESIGN: The dimensions and tensile properties of stress-shielded patellar tendons were studied in growing rabbits and compared to those in mature animals. BACKGROUND: Although the effects of stress deprivation on ...
El Fazaa S - - 2000
In the present study, we have examined in Wistar rats the effects of food or water deprivation of 3 days on the hypophyso-adrenal axis, vasopressinergic system and activity of A1 noradrenergic brain stem cell group, which is involved in the control of the hypothalamic neuro-endocrine activity. Levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone ...
Shalev U U Behavioral Neuroscience Branch, IRP/NIDA/NIH, Baltimore, MD 21224, - - 2000
Intermittent footshock reinstates drug-taking behavior in rats, but not behaviors previously maintained by food reinforcers. Here we tested further the generality of this phenomenon by determining whether restraint and food deprivation stressors would reinstate heroin seeking, whether the environment in which footshock is given modulates footshock-induced reinstatement, and whether footshock ...
Sherwani F A - - 2000
No significant changes in plasma cortisol and plasma osmolarity (the indicators of primary and secondary response respectively) were observed when the blood samples were obtained from unanaesthetized, anaesthetized and stressed catfish, H. fossilis. The results suggest that the catfish is fairly hardy and not easily susceptible to stress by routine ...
Blom S - - 2000
The 21-hydroxylation of 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone is one step in the biosynthesis of corticosteroids. Both 7 days of handling-induced stress and 7 weeks of food deprivation significantly elevated head kidney microsomal 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone 21-hydroxylase activity in juvenile rainbow trout. The increased 21-hydroxylase activity was not paralleled by changes in plasma cortisol levels induced ...
Buyse J - - 2000
1. In several experiments, hormonal changes in the somatotrophic axis, growth hormone (GH) sensitivity to a GH-secretagogue, thyroid hormones and their metabolising enzymes and plasma glucose levels were measured in relation to food deprivation and reinitiation after a single daily meal in 4- to 5-week-old male broiler chickens. 2. Floor-reared ...
Voigt J P - - 2000
Based on the different effects of somatodendritic 5-HT1A agonist 8-OH-DPAT on food intake whether given to food-deprived rats or freely feeding rats, we hypothesized that the effects of 8-OH-DPAT on extracellular serotonin (5-HT) in the lateral hypothalamus (LH) will interfere with different feeding states, eventually resulting in different patterns of ...
Yoda T - - 2000
Homeothermic animals regulate body temperature (T(b)) by using both autonomic and behavioral mechanisms. In the latter process, animals seek out cooler or warmer places when they are exposed to excessively hot or cold environments. Thermoregulation is affected by the state of energy reserves in the body. In the present study, ...
Rodríguez-Gironés M A - - 1999
Young of altricial birds use conspicuous displays to solicit food from their parents. There is experimental evidence that the intensity of these displays is correlated with the level of food deprivation of young, and that parents respond to increased levels of solicitation by increasing the rate of food delivery to ...
Bassareo V - - 1999
We have previously shown in non-deprived rats that feeding of an unfamiliar palatable food (Fonzies(R)) phasically stimulates in vivo dopamine (DA) transmission in the medial nucleus accumbens (NAc) and this effect undergoes habituation after a previous (24 h) Fonzies meal (Bassareo & Di Chiara 1997, J. Neurosci., 17, 851-861). The ...
Timofeeva E - - 1999
The present study was conducted to verify whether experimental conditions such as obesity and food deprivation, which promote food intake and reduce thermogenesis, could modify the expression of the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)-binding protein (BP) in the rat brain. In situ hybridization, histochemistry, and immunohistochemistry were used to assess the expression ...
Brown S N - - 1999
Pigs from three farms were deprived of food for up to one hour, 12 hours or 18 hours before being sent for slaughter. In lairage, the animals' behaviour was monitored, and at slaughter a blood sample was collected and analysed for cortisol, lactate and creatine phosphokinase, potential indicators of stress ...
Lovegrove B G - - 1999
The characteristics of daily torpor were measured in the round-eared elephant shrew Macroscelides proboscideus (Macroscelidea) in response to ambient temperature and food deprivation. Elephant shrews are an ancient mammal order within a superordinal African clade including hyraxes, elephants, dugongs and the aardvark. M. proboscideus only employed torpor when deprived of ...
Herman C P - - 1999
Food-deprived and non-deprived non-dieters rated their hunger and fullness during a <<<<free think>>>> period and then during three counterbalanced video presentations-a control video, a video featuring palatable food cues and an absorbing non-food video. The food-cue video increased hunger ratings for both deprived and non-deprived participants. The absorbing non-food video ...
Hunter W S - - 1999
Among homeothermic animals, larger species generally have lower metabolic rates and live longer than do smaller species. Because Ames dwarf mice (dwarfs) live approximately 1 year longer than their larger normal sex- and age-matched siblings (normals), we hypothesized that they would have lower body core temperature (Tco). We, therefore, measured ...
Gomez F F Department of Behavioral Science, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey 17033, USA. - - 1999
Suppression of intake of a gustatory conditioned stimulus (CS) occurs when paired with either an aversive or an appetitive unconditioned stimulus (US). Toxic substances, such as lithium chloride (LiCl), induce conditioned taste aversions while rewarding stimuli, such as high a concentration of sucrose, reduce intake through a comparison process referred ...
Demas G E - - 1999
Food hoarding plays an important role in the energetic repertoire of a variety of mammalian species. Both food hoarding and food intake have been examined in rodents using several energetic challenges including food deprivation, treatment with metabolic fuel blockers, and enhancement of fuel storage. In the present experiment, we examined ...
Kitaysky A S - - 1999
I tested whether the ability of chicks to suspend growth and developmental processes in response to food shortages is greater among alcids with food resources that fluctuate over short time periods than it is among close relatives with food that is continuously available. I examined changes in chick resting metabolic ...
Eghbal-Ahmadi M M Departments of Anatomy and Neurobiology and Pediatrics, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, California 92697-4475, - - 1999
The physiological consequences of activating corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2 (CRF2) are not fully understood. The neuroanatomic distribution of this CRF receptor family member is consistent with roles in mediating the actions of CRF and similar ligands on food intake control and integrative aspects of stress-related behaviors. However, CRF2 expression ...
Bazhan N M - - 1999
The effect of 16-hr food deprivation on day 3 and again on day 5 of pregnancy on the fecundity of female water voles homozygous (ae/ae) or heterozygous (A/ae) for, an allele at the Agouti (A) locus, non agouti extreme (ae) was studied. 63 A/ae females (mated to ae/ae males) produced ...
Barron L G - - 1999
Blood plasma lipoproteins were studied during food and light deprivation or prolactin injection-induced involution of ovarian follicles (molt) of laying hens. Egg laying stopped 3 days after initiation of either treatment. Food and light-deprived hens lost 29% of initial body weight during the 10-day experiment (P < 0.05), whereas prolactin-treated ...
Middaugh L D - - 1999
Both sexes of C57BL/6 (C57) mice consumed substantial quantities of ethanol without food or water deprivation whether access was continuous or limited. Food deprivation increased the amount of ethanol consumed, and the amount consumed depended upon when the animals were tested with reference to their daily food allotment. Ethanol consumption ...
Christopher M M - - 1999
A desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) was trapped underground without food or water for nearly 11 mo near Yucca Mountain, Nevada (USA). Physical abnormalities included weight loss, sunken eyes, and muscle atrophy. Biochemical abnormalities determined from blood sampling included marked azotemia and hyperosmolality, which were attributed largely to accumulation and retention ...
Krause J - - 1999
We investigated the mechanisms and functions of shoal choice in relation to nutritional state in the zebrafish. Single fish that had been well fed or food deprived for 2 days were presented with a choice between two stimulus shoals. Food-deprived test fish showed a significant preference for well-fed stimulus fish ...
Underwood H - - 1999
The effect of food deprivation on the body temperature and activity rhythms of quail was assessed in birds exposed to both light-dark (LD) cycles and to continuous darkness (DD). Quail normally exhibit a daily rhythm of body temperature in LD that will persist in DD (that is, the rhythm is ...
Loranca A - - 1999
The effects of neonatal food and sensory deprivation on play social behavior (boxing, wrestling, and pinning) were studied in male and female Wistar strain rats from 20 to 60 days of age. Data showed that the mean frequency of total play was markedly increased in neonatally underfed subjects. Play did ...
Jordens R G - - 1999
(R)-Deprenyl, the archetypical monoamine oxidase-B inhibitor, has been shown to increase life-span in a number of species. Although many theories for this effect have been suggested, for example, an increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, the mechanism of action has yet to be elucidated. To investigate this phenomenon, we have ...
Antoniades M - - 1998
A brief survey was undertaken to assess the nature and severity of food scarcity experienced by a sample of 88 street youth in downtown Toronto, and to identify markers of vulnerability to food scarcity. Almost half of the youth reported experiencing involuntary hunger or food deprivation during the previous 30 ...
Tozawa Y - - 1998
The effects of acute food deprivation and acute cold exposure on 24-hr urinary isatin excretion in rats and a mechanism responsible for changes in urinary isatin excretion during stress were investigated. This is the first study to demonstrate by HPLC that urinary isatin excretion is increased by stress. Both types ...
Nikod?mov? M - - 1998
Because chronic ethanol ingestion may perturb thyroid function, we evaluated the effect of 4-wk of oral 10% ethanol ingestion on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis and septal thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) in 200-g male Wistar rats. Animals were divided into three groups: absolute control receiving tap water and food ad libitum; ethanol ...
Mburu J N - - 1998
Nutrition is one of the multiple factors that modulate reproduction in animals. The effect of 48 h food deprivation on reproductive and metabolic hormonal changes in relation to cleavage rates was studied. Insemination of 15 sows was performed 20-10 h prior to expected ovulation and ova were recovered at slaughter ...
Wang J - - 1998
The peptide, galanin (GAL), is known to stimulate eating behavior, reduce energy expenditure and affect the release of metabolic hormones. Further, the activity of this peptide in the hypothalamus is modulated, in turn, by these hormones as well as by the ingestion of nutrients. The focus of this investigation is ...
Cheesman M J - - 1998
The induction of cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) protein and mRNA by RU486 [17beta-hydroxy-11beta-(4-dimethylaminophenyl)-17alpha-1-pro pyl-estra-4,9-dien-3-one] treatment and food deprivation in female rat liver was studied using Western blotting and competitive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). CYP3A apoprotein levels increased in response to food deprivation and to RU486 treatment, and the combination ...
Kowalski T J - - 1998
Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) activity is believed to play an important role in the response to food deprivation in adult rats. Little is known, however, about the role of the hypothalamic NPY system in the control of food intake in the preweanling rat. To address this issue, we examined the ...
Zhang H - - 1998
Structural and functional responses of the intestine to colostrum, milk replacer, oral electrolyte solution and food deprivation were examined during the first 6 h after birth in pigs. Total intestinal weight, surface area and mucosal mass were highest (P < 0.05) in pigs fed colostrum. The other diet groups did ...
Panicker A K - - 1998
Food deprivation inhibits ovulatory cycles and estrous behavior in Syrian hamsters. Lesions of the area postrema (AP) prevented the suppression of estrous behavior in food-deprived hamsters, but they did not prevent the suppression of estrous cyclicity or the increase in running-wheel activity caused by food deprivation. Food deprivation or treatment ...
Yu X X - - 1998
Peroxisomal beta-oxidation and catalase activity were investigated in liver, kidney and heart from pigs at the following timepoints: within 0.5 h after birth (0 h, unfed) and at 24 h (suckled or unsuckled), 10 d (suckled or 24-h food-deprived), 21 d (suckled or 24-h food-deprived) and 5 mo (overnight food-deprived). ...
Maren S - - 1998
The present experiments compared the effects of 2 appetitive motivational states on the acquisition of Pavlovian fear conditioning in rats (Rattus norvegicus). In Experiment 1, rats were deprived of either water or food prior to contextual fear conditioning, which consisted of the delivery of a single footshock in a novel ...
Woodside B - - 1998
The goals of these experiments were to determine whether lactational anestrus would be prolonged by a 48-h fast at days 13 and 14 postpartum (pp) and, if so, to determine whether this effect could be reversed by treatment with the Ob protein leptin. We found that food deprivation on days ...
Spector A C - - 1998
A microstructural analysis of licking behavior in nondeprived and 23-hr food-deprived rats (n = 15) presented with various sucrose solutions (0.03-1.0 M) in daily single-bottle, 1-hr sessions was conducted. Food deprivation and concentration interacted to increase total licks. The effects of food deprivation and concentration on burst size (BS), burst ...
Takahashi T - - 1998
To estimate the contribution of coprophagy to protein intake, we observed the behavior, particularly that associated with coprophagy, in adult and young captive nutrias (experiment 1), and analyzed chemical composition and amino acid composition, including diaminopimeric acid (DAP), an indication of bacterial-deprived protein, of soft feces, entire hard feces, and ...
Soengas J L - - 1998
In order to evaluate the normal (fed conditions) substrate utilization rates of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) brain, CO2 production from glucose, lactate, and beta-hydroxybutyrate was tested in pooled brains. Oxidation rates, as well as the capacity for metabolism of carbohydrate and ketone bodies, were also evaluated in brain of rainbow ...
Wylie L M - - 1998
Endogenous analgesia induced by changes in motivation has been identified in the chicken in previous studies but either the motivational changes were difficult to interpret or the motivation was unpredictable. Experimental sodium urate (SU) arthritis of the ankle joint resulted in pain-coping behaviour (one-legged standing or sitting) for a 2-h ...
Zhou W T - - 1998
1. Three experiments were conducted to investigate the diurnal variation of blood viscosity in broilers. In experiment 1 food and water were supplied freely at 20 degrees C (20-FW). In experiment 2 food and water were withdrawn at 20 degrees C (20-NFW), while in experiment 3 food and water were ...
Racotta R - - 1998
In previous works it was shown that catecholamine-induced hypodipsia is mediated by alpha1-adrenergic receptors while food intake (FI) inhibition supposes also beta-adrenergic participation. We used sodium nitroprusside (N) as a vasodilator, alone or mixed with various adrenergic agonists and measured FI and water intake (WI) in rats either deprived food ...
Balasko M - - 1998
Juvenile green iguanas were placed in a situation of conflict between two motivations: a thermoregulatory drive and the attraction of a palatable bait. To be able to reach the bait (lettuce), they had to leave a warm refuge, provided with standard food, and venture into a cold environment. In experiment ...
Pouteau E - - 1998
Acetate metabolism supplies about 10% of energy requirements in food-deprived nonruminant animals. This study used a stable isotope dilution method to investigate the fate of acetate in 24-h food-deprived dogs free of colonic fermentation. Three dogs received intravenous bolus injections of 40 or 70 micromol/kg of [1-13C] acetate, and carotid ...
Rice H B - - 1998
Enterostatin, the activation peptide of procolipase, has been reported to reduce high-fat food consumption in rats. This reduction has been reliably demonstrated using procedures in which the test diet was also the maintenance diet of the animals. Other reports, though, have shown that peripherally administered enterostatin had no effect on ...
Wittnich C - - 1997
Studies of the effect of sex on the metabolic state of rats with chronic hypertension and concomitant myocardial hypertrophy were conducted. Female and male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) with early myocardial hypertrophy (5.5 mo old) were used. Serum fatty acids, liver glycogen, and myocardial glycogen were measured at baseline and ...
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