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Nieminen Petteri - - 2007
The American marten (Martes americana) is a boreal forest marten with low body adiposity throughout the year. The aim of this study was to investigate the adaptations of this lean-bodied species to fasting for an ecologically relevant duration (48 h) by exposing eight farm-bred animals to total food deprivation with ...
Andrade Carina A F - - 2007
alpha2-Adrenoceptor activation with moxonidine (alpha2-adrenergic/imidazoline receptor agonist) into the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN) enhances angiotensin II/hypovolaemia-induced sodium intake and drives cell dehydrated rats to ingest hypertonic sodium solution besides water. Angiotensin II and osmotic signals are suggested to stimulate meal-induced water intake. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the ...
Songsermsakul P - - 2007
The commercially available dog food samples (29 dry foods and 11 wet foods) were analysed for deoxynivalenol (DON) and ochratoxin A (OTA) using ELISA. All (100%) dry foods were contaminated with DON with various amount of the toxin (22-1837 μg/kg). In wet food 3 samples were found to be positive ...
Bernal A - - 2007
This study examined the effect of subcutaneous administration of the neurohormone oxytocin on water intake of ad lib-fed (with or without sodium availability in the diet) and food-deprived animals. Results of the first experiment showed that oxytocin increased water intake and urine excretion in food-deprived but not in ad lib-fed ...
Pearce Jamie - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Obesogenic environments may be an important contextual explanation for the growing obesity epidemic, including its unequal social distribution. The objective of this study was to determine whether geographic access to fast-food outlets varied by neighborhood deprivation and school socioeconomic ranking, and whether any such associations differed to those for ...
Kanoski Scott E - - 2007
The present studies assessed the extent to which the adiposity signal leptin and the brain-gut hormone cholecystokinin (CCK), administered alone or in combination, give rise to interoceptive sensory cues like those that are produced by a low (1h) level of food deprivation. Rats were trained with cues arising from 1 ...
Arquier Nathalie - - 2007
Lipids provide an essential source of metabolites and energy in normal development as well as during periods of food deprivation. A recent study in Drosophila (Gutierrez et al., 2007) reveals a novel role in regulating lipid metabolism for specialized cells called oenocytes that present striking functional similarities to mammalian hepatocytes.
Krawczel P D - - 2007
Recommendations for transportation of lambs, horses, calves, and pigs from a committee of the European Commission, which required rest stops of 6 or 24 h, every 8 h, were evaluated using Rambouillet x Suffolk lambs. The lambs of 17.6 +/- 0.5 kg of BW were randomly assigned to 1 of ...
Schneider Jill E - - 2007
Energy consumption is critical for the energetically expensive processes related to reproduction, and thus, mechanisms that increase ingestive behavior are directly linked to reproductive success. Similarly, the mechanisms that inhibit hunger and ingestive behavior might be most adaptive when these mechanisms cause individuals to stop foraging, hoarding and eating in ...
Apparicio Philippe - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Access to varied, healthy and inexpensive foods is an important public health concern that has been widely documented. Consequently, there is an increasing interest in identifying food deserts, that is, socially deprived areas within cities that have poor access to food retailers. In this paper we propose a methodology ...
Kiss P - - 2007
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a pleiotropic neuropeptide exerting diverse actions in the central and peripheral nervous systems. A few studies indicate that PACAP is involved in the regulation of feeding and water homeostasis. The aim of the present study was to investigate changes in PACAP38 concentrations in ...
Macdonald Laura L MRC Social & Public Health Sciences Unit, 4 Lilybank Gardens, Glasgow G12 8RZ, - - 2007
It has been hypothesised that deprived neighbourhoods have poorer quality food environments which may promote the development of obesity. We investigated associations between area deprivation and the location of the four largest fast-food chains in Scotland and England. We found statistically significant increases in density of outlets from more affluent ...
Thomàs-Moyà Elena - - 2007
High-density lipoprotein-associated paraoxonase 1 (PON1) protects the endothelium from the pro-oxidant activity of oxidised low-density lipoprotein. Whereas fasting has been related to increased oxidative stress, intermittent fasting and caloric restriction are associated to increased resistance to oxidative injury. Taking into consideration that serum PON1 activity is modulated by a restriction ...
Ansaldo Martín - - 2007
In a previous study we analysed the effect of diesel seawater contamination in the digestive gland of the Antarctic limpet Nacella concinna. We observed that antioxidant enzyme activities decreased after one-week starvation prior to the experiment, and this was considered in the analysis of the obtained results. To know whether ...
Pierce Andrew A - - 2007
Female mammals are particularly sensitive to changes in food availability. The mechanisms that affect sexual behavior and food intake are closely related to one another; chief among the mechanisms that control sexual behaviors in females is estradiol. In order to understand how food deprivation results in inhibition of sexual behavior ...
Freitas M B - - 2006
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of seasonal variation and fasting on fat reserves of the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus. Plasma free fatty acids (FFA), along with lipid content of the liver and muscles, and fatty acids from the carcass were obtained from bats fed ...
Wojciechowski M S - - 2006
The aim of our study was determine torpor use in the Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) tested in a wide gradient of ambient temperatures (T(a)). Experiments were done on fed and food-deprived animals acclimated to winter-like and summer-like conditions. We found that neither fed nor unfed hamsters acclimated to winter-like or ...
Olivares Mónica - - 2006
Extrinsic factors such as maternal microbiota, bacterial load of the environment, diet and medication modulate the intestinal microbiota. Maturation and function of the immune system is influenced by established gut microbiota. In this work we describe the immunological effects of the dietary deprivation of fermented foods of healthy volunteers. Significant ...
Mayer C H - - 2006
The aim of the present in vivo microdialysis study was to investigate the relation between feeding and changes in glucose concentrations in the rat ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH). Absolute ambient glucose concentrations in VMH were 1.43 mm in non-deprived rats as compared to 0.94 mm after 24-h food deprivation. To examine ...
Nurten Asiye - - 2006
The present study was conducted to evaluate scopolamine-induced convulsions in fasted mice after food intake effects on the cortical electroencephalogram (EEG). Continuous EEG recordings were taken with Neuroscan for 10 min in freely moving mice with six chronic cortical electrode implants. Animals were weighed and deprived of food for 48 ...
Kuba Michael J - - 2006
Studying play behavior in octopuses is an important step toward understanding the phylogenetic origins and function of play as well as the cognitive abilities of invertebrates. Fourteen Octopus vulgaris (7 subadults and 7 adults) were presented 2 Lego objects and 2 different food items on 7 consecutive days under 2 ...
Mauler Birgit I - - 2006
Emotional responding to salient food cues and effects of food deprivation and consumption were investigated in 32 women with bulimia and 32 control women. One half of each group was food deprived before viewing unpleasant, neutral, pleasant, and food-related pictures. Then participants could eat from a buffet before viewing a ...
Wojciechowski MichaƂ S - - 2007
We tested whether food availability, thermal environment and time of year affect torpor use and temperature selection in the large mouse-eared bat (Myotis myotis) in summer and winter. Food-deprived bats were torpid longer than bats offered food ad libitum. Bats placed in a gradient of low (0 degrees C-25 degrees ...
Shalev Uri - - 2006
RATIONALE: Acute 1-day food deprivation reinstates heroin seeking in rats via a leptin-dependent mechanism. However, leptin has no effect on footshock- or heroin-priming-induced reinstatement of drug seeking. These data may indicate that the neuronal systems underlying food-deprivation-induced reinstatement are dissociable from those involved in reinstatement induced by footshock stress. OBJECTIVES: ...
Johnsson Jörgen I - - 2006
Although laboratory and observational studies suggest that many animals are capable of compensatory growth after periods of food shortage, few field experiments have demonstrated structural growth compensation in the wild. Here, we addressed the hypotheses that (i) food restriction can induce structural compensatory growth in free-living animals, (ii) that compensation ...
Jewett David C - - 2006
Rats were trained to discriminate between 2 and 22-h food deprivation in a choice paradigm. During tests, 20 min of food consumption eliminated internal stimuli associated with 22-h food deprivation. In other tests, rats food-restricted for 2 h were given neuropeptide Y or ghrelin by administration into the paraventricular nucleus ...
Nieminen Petteri - - 2006
The American marten (Martes americana) is a boreal forest marten with low body adiposity but high metabolic rate. The study describes the FA composition in white adipose tissue depots of the species and the influence of food deprivation on them. American marten (n = 8) were fasted for 2 d ...
Jarosz Patricia A - - 2006
Previous research has shown that food-deprived rats acquire conditioned place preferences (CPPs) to sweet liquids that are largely attenuated by the opioid antagonist naltrexone (NAL). This study determined if ad libitum Chow-fed rats can learn CPPs when given relatively brief exposures to different solid snack foods (SFs) -- one high ...
Petersen Gitte - - 2006
The anorectic lipid oleoylethanolamide and the orexigenic lipid anandamide both belong to the group of N-acylethanolamines that are generated by the enzyme N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine-hydrolyzing phospholipase D. The levels of the two bioactive lipids were investigated in rat intestines after 24 h of starvation as well as after 1 and 4 h ...
Polakof Sergio - - 2006
The influence of acclimation to different environmental salinities (low salinity water, LSW; seawater, SW; and hyper saline water, HSW) and feeding conditions (fed and food deprived) for 14 days was assessed on osmoregulation and energy metabolism of several tissues of gilthead sea bream Sparus auratus. Fish were randomly assigned to ...
Small Brian C - - 2006
The objective of this study was to assess the effects of food deprivation and exogenous cortisol administration on somatic growth of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, and examine the resultant changes in circulating insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentrations and growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene expression. Integral to this objective, we report ...
Karami Kristophe J - - 2006
We studied the regulation of brain acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC) activity during food deprivation and under the influence of hormones of glucose homeostasis: glucagon and insulin. Mice were deprived of food and water for time periods of 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 24 hours and were then allowed to ...
Wang Tobias - - 2006
The ability of animals to survive food deprivation is clearly of considerable survival value. Unsurprisingly, therefore, all animals exhibit adaptive biochemical and physiological responses to the lack of food. Many animals inhabit environments in which food availability fluctuates or encounters with appropriate food items are rare and unpredictable; these species ...
Edwards Richard - - 2006
The UK government proposed introducing partial smokefree legislation for England with exemptions for pubs and bars that do not prepare and serve food. We set out to test the hypothesis that pubs from more deprived areas and non food-serving pubs have higher levels of particulate air pollution. We conducted a ...
Meyerson Bengt J - - 2006
In this study, we describe the behavior of laboratory rats in a recently developed observation arena, the Concentric Square Field (CSF). The CSF contains a number of areas designed to provoke exploration and behaviors associated with risk assessment, risk taking and security seeking in an environment not previously experienced. The ...
Leland D S - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Attention biases toward food-related stimuli were examined as mediators of normal, healthy motivated behavior. METHODS: Reaction times (RTs) and event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to assess the impact of food-related words on normal food-deprived individuals when used as spatial cues that frequently predicted the location of targets in a ...
Polivy Janet - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: The relation between being deprived of a food and intake and craving for that food was investigated in restrained and unrestrained eaters. METHOD: For 1 week, 103 female undergraduate students were assigned to be chocolate deprived, vanilla deprived, or nondeprived. Only chocolate deprivation was expected to elicit cravings, as ...
Cummins Steven C J - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Features of the local fast food environment have been hypothesized to contribute to the greater prevalence of obesity in deprived neighborhoods. However, few studies have investigated whether fast food outlets are more likely to be found in poorer areas, and those that have are local case studies. In this ...
Macintyre Sally - - 2005
BACKGROUND: There is a popular belief that out-of-home eating outlets, which typically serve energy dense food, may be more commonly found in more deprived areas and that this may contribute to higher rates of obesity and related diseases in such areas. METHODS: We obtained a list of all 1301 out-of-home ...
Weitemier Adam Z - - 2005
The Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EW) produces several neuropeptides, including urocortin 1 and cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transcript, which regulate feeding, energy balance, and anxiety. Additionally, the EW projects to feeding and anxiety-regulatory brain areas. The authors tested the effect of lesions of the EW on the consumption of food, water and flavored solutions, metabolic ...
Stephanie Lab
The Ketogenic Diet (KD), which combines initial food deprivation with a diet high in fat, was first used to treat childhood epilepsy in the 1920s. The KD induces ketosis, producing β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), which appears to be a factor that reduces the frequency of seizures. The purpose of this study was ...
Padalko V I - - 2005
The effect of a moderate ("soft") uncoupling of mitochondria on the lifespan and some parameters of biological age of Drosophila melanogaster strain Oregon was studied. Addition of the uncoupler 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) to the nutritional mixture of larvae significantly increased the average lifespan of the flies without changing their maximal lifespan. ...
Martin-Iverson Mathew T - - 2005
RATIONALE: Emotional modulation of the startle reflex in the rat may be used to assess whether activation of dopamine receptors specifically increases hedonia, incentive, fear or arousal. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study is to determine the effects of apomorphine (0.8 mg/kg s.c.) on the startle reflex of rats (72 ...
Hashimoto Teruo - - 2005
We compared the effects of chronic and acute food deprivation on learning and memory using a dry-type water maze, active avoidance and passive avoidance in C57BL/6L mice. The drive level of the animals--under acute and chronic food deprivation--was matched by a progressive ratio schedule. Both deprivations led to a high ...
Jahng Jeong Won - - 2005
We have previously reported that food deprivation decreases the expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of rats, and this reduction is inhibited by blockade of glucocorticoid receptors. In this study, we examined whether the fasting-induced decrease in nNOS gene expression in the PVN ...
Fusani Leonida - - 2005
Many species of diurnal birds migrate nocturnally. Here, a series of studies of the blackcap (Sylvia atricapilla) on the relationship between nocturnal restlessness and melatonin, a hormone that in birds modulates day-night rhythms, are reviewed. Migratory populations from Sweden and Kenya were compared with resident populations from Cape Verde. In ...
Novak Colleen M - - 2005
Understanding the mechanism of energy flux may be critical for explaining how obesity has emerged as a public health epidemic. It is known that changes in caloric intake predictably alter physical activity levels (PA) in mammals. Here, our goal was to test the hypothesis that fasting induces a biphasic pattern ...
Péron A - - 2005
The first aim of the experiment was to study the effect of wheat (Triticum aestivum) particle size on the digestibility of starch in a pelleted diet given to broilers. The second aim was to study the consequences of food deprivation before the excreta collection period (from 21 to 24 d). ...
Pierce Andrew A - - 2005
Food-deprived meadow voles were used to test predictions of two hypotheses associated with the recovery of sexual behaviors following re-feeding. Specifically, we tested between the body weight set point and metabolic fuels hypotheses. To do so, we determined whether the body weight of previously food-deprived female voles had to return ...
Davidson T L - - 2005
A number of recent studies implicate the gut-brain peptide ghrelin as a putative "hunger signal". Most of these studies, however, rely on either consummatory behavior (in humans or nonhuman animals) or self-report (in humans) to draw conclusions regarding the orexigenic properties of this peptide. The present study employs the deprivation ...
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