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Results 451 - 500 of 706
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Cullen Karen Weber - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the impact of changes in school food policy on student lunch consumption in middle schools. METHODS: Two years of lunch food records were collected from students at three middle schools in the Houston, Texas area. During the first year, no changes occurred in the school food ...
Bergeaud-Blackler Florence - - 2006
In less than a decade, European food institutions have gone through a period of important reform. This reform was intended to address new challenges posed by a succession of food safety crises, the entry into the world markets of novel foods, and general public distrust of the actions of the ...
Minaker Leia M - - 2006
In an attempt to elucidate broader determinants of adolescent dietary intake and habits, food intakes and selected food behaviours of grades 9 and 10 students from Ontario and Alberta were examined according to school region socio-economic status and urban/rural locale. Using a stratified random sample framework, 53 high schools from ...
Idowu O A - - 2006
Ingestion of infective eggs and cysts of faecal orally transmissible parasites has been linked with the level of environmental and personal hygiene. The possibility of contamination of food with eggs and cysts by infected food vendors has also been recorded. This study was aimed at assessing the prevalence of parasites ...
Aranceta Bartrina Javier - - 2006
School meals have changed during the last decades. The traditional service style with on-site food preparation has shifted towards catering delivery services. Vending machines, school cafeterias and other ways of food distribution are widely used in many schools, particularly in secondary schools. From a health promotion approach, the quality and ...
Caraher Martin - - 2006
AIM: To conduct a policy review of the regulations related to food advertising on television aimed at children. DESIGN: The study consisted of documentary analysis of relevant legislation and policy documents related to children's advertising from both industry and non-governmental organisations at a global level and in 20 countries. This ...
Finch Meghan - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To identify sources of food eaten during the school day, the types of foods and frequency of purchases from the canteen and association with SES and weight status in primary school-aged children. METHOD: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Hunter region of New South Wales. Primary schools were ...
Johns Timothy - - 2006
Simplification of human diets associated with increased accessibility of inexpensive agricultural commodities and erosion of agrobiodiversity leads to nutrient deficiencies and excess energy consumption. Non-communicable diseases are growing causes of death and disability worldwide. Successful food systems in transition effectively draw on locally-available foods, food variety and traditional food cultures. ...
Kim Daniel - - 2006
This article highlights characteristics of two related yet distinct economic approaches to addressing the current obesity epidemic in the United States: the general taxation of soft drinks, snack foods, and/or fast foods, and the application of pricing incentives/disincentives on foods sold in schools and worksites. The article specifically focuses on ...
Izumi Betty T - - 2006
The purpose of this study was to investigate Michigan school food service directors' interest in, and opportunities and barriers to, implementing a farm-to-school program. Farm-to-school may be a timely and innovative approach to improving the school food environment and helping food service directors meet their nutrition goals for school meals. ...
Regan Gail - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Obesity prevalence is higher among those who live in impoverished environments. This investigation identified obesogenic factors in urban neighborhoods surrounding public housing developments (HDs). DESIGN: Cross-sectional quantitative survey data from 14 HD neighborhoods and qualitative interviews of the HD managers. SETTING: Kansas City, Kansas, and Kansas City, Missouri. SUBJECTS: ...
Temple Norman J - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the food consumption patterns of adolescent students at schools. Our findings are intended to reveal the overall nutritional quality of foods eaten by students at school, including foods brought to school and foods purchased at school. METHODS: A questionnaire was completed by 476 students, mostly from grades ...
MacDonald Anita - - 2006
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessively inherited disorder which prevents the normal metabolism of protein foods. Phenylalanine builds up in the blood and if untreated will cause mental retardation. PKU is treatable by a low-phenylalanine diet for life. The prognosis is good provided the condition is diagnosed within the first ...
Hewson Caroline J - - 2006
Veterinarians who work in food-animal production and food safety help to deliver food policy by enabling farmers to supply safe, affordable food. However, existing food policy reflects a production bias and is increasingly being criticized for its hidden costs. These costs include reduced animal welfare, the inflated risk of anti-microbial ...
Cawley John - - 2006
In examining the childhood obesity epidemic from the perspective of economics, John Cawley looks at both possible causes and possible policy solutions that work through markets. The operation of markets, says Cawley, has contributed to the recent increase in childhood overweight in three main ways. First, the real price of ...
Greves H Mollie - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Federal nutritional guidelines apply to school foods provided through the national school lunch and breakfast programs, but few federal regulations apply to other foods and drinks sold in schools (labeled "competitive foods"), which are often high in calories, fat and sugar. Competitive food policies among school districts are increasingly ...
Kremer Peter J - - 2006
There is a pressing need in Australia and other countries to develop systems for monitoring secular trends in childhood obesity and related behavioural and environmental determinants. Energy from foods and beverages consumed at school is an accessible indicator of children's eating patterns and we have developed a school food checklist ...
Story Mary - - 2006
Mary Story, Karen Kaphingst, and Simone French argue that U.S. schools offer many opportunities for developing obesity-prevention strategies by providing more nutritious food, offering greater opportunities for physical activity, and providing obesity-related health services. Meals at school are available both through the U.S. Department of Agriculture's school breakfast and lunch ...
Ruigrok June - - 2006
The purpose of this pilot project is to highlight how food intake, nutrition status and quality of life could be improved for long stay residents of a community nursing unit and demonstrate that assisted feeding can be a more dignified experience for them. A good dining experience involves not just ...
Hawkes Corinna - - 2006
In a "nutrition transition", the consumption of foods high in fats and sweeteners is increasing throughout the developing world. The transition, implicated in the rapid rise of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases worldwide, is rooted in the processes of globalization. Globalization affects the nature of agri-food systems, thereby altering the ...
Kubik Martha Y - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between body mass index in young adolescents and schoolwide food practices such as foods used in school fundraising and in the classroom as incentives and rewards. DESIGN: Using a cross-sectional study design, we collected data from both the schools and the students. School administrators provided ...
Cullen Karen Weber - - 2005
The potential impact of a school food policy change reducing sweetened beverage and high-fat, salty, and sweet food portions on energy consumption of middle-school students was assessed. Snack bar sales for one school year were obtained from 23 schools. Energy content was calculated for each item and energy savings from ...
Caraher Martin - - 2005
AIM: To set out a policy analysis of food taxes as a way of influencing food consumption and behaviour. DESIGN: The study draws on examples of food taxes from the developed world imposed at national and local levels. Studies were identified from a systemised search in six databases with criteria ...
Lawrence Mark - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To identify challenges in translating scientific evidence of a nutrient and health relationship into mandatory food fortification policy. DESIGN: A case study approach was used in which available evidence associated with the folate-neural tube defect relationship was reviewed against the Australia New Zealand Food Regulation Ministerial Council's Policy Guideline ...
Ellison George T H - - 2005
The 1940-45 German occupation of the Channel Islands was accompanied by a gradual deterioration in food availability and culminated in a nine-month siege with severe food shortages after supplies from France were cut off following the liberation of Normandy in 1944. The aim of this study was to compare the ...
Cummings Timothy S - - 2006
There has been renewed concern in recent years about the use of antibiotics in food animal production and the potential risk it may pose to public health due to transfer of antibiotic resistance factors via the food supply. Although a legitimate concern, it bears reminding that this debate is not ...
Popolim W D - - 2005
In Brazil, there is neither a register of the use of sulphites by the food industry nor is research being undertaken on their dietary exposure to the population. The objective of the work reported here was to estimate the dietary exposure to sulphites in two different groups of high school ...
Popkin Barry M - - 2005
In this paper, the environment is defined as the macro- and community-level factors, including physical, legal and policy factors, that influence household and individual decisions. Thus, environment is conceived as the external context in which household and individual decisions are made. This paper reviews the literature on the ways the ...
Neumark-Sztainer Dianne - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: This study examined associations between high school students' lunch patterns and vending machine purchases and the school food environment and policies. METHODS: A randomly selected sample of 1088 high school students from 20 schools completed surveys about their lunch practices and vending machine purchases. School food policies were assessed ...
Vereecken Carine A - - 2005
The present study describes food habits in adolescents in thirty-five countries and regions (European countries/regions, Israel, Canada and the USA), based on the food-frequency questions from the cross-sectional Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey of the year 2001-2. A total of 162,305 pupils of 11, 13 or 15 years of ...
Pettoello-Mantovani Massimo - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To emphasise the importance of defining a new nutrition science and food policy that includes social and environmental dimensions. DESIGN: Nutrition science and food policy is put in the context of sustainable development. Examples are presented to show that a number of factors including exploitation of resources, disrespect for ...
Garbin Clea Adas Saliba - - 2005
Diet control is one of the important factors in the prevention of dental caries because food functions as substratum for fermentation and, consequently, for the formation of the organic acids that demineralize the tooth surface. This study aims to descriptively assess school diet and the associated caries-preventive methods applied to ...
Austin S Bryn - - 2005
We examined the concentration of fast food restaurants in areas proximal to schools to characterize school neighborhood food environments. We used geocoded databases of restaurant and school addresses to examine locational patterns of fast-food restaurants and kindergartens and primary and secondary schools in Chicago. We used the bivariate K function ...
Brown Denise M - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: What is the prevalence of central kitchens that use either cook-chill or cook-freeze production systems in school foodservice settings? DESIGN: A descriptive study using a 5-minute telephone survey during normal working hours was conducted. Questions were designed to be easily answered with minimal need to reference other documentation. SUBJECTS: ...
Probart Claudia - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the types and extent of competitive foods available in public high schools in Pennsylvania. DESIGN: We developed, pilot tested, and distributed surveys to school foodservice directors in a random sample of 271 high schools in Pennsylvania. SUBJECTS: Two hundred twenty-eight surveys were returned, for a response ...
Lambert N - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to test the feasibility of using smart card technology to track the eating behaviours of nearly a thousand children in a school cafeteria. METHODS: Within a large boys' school a smart card based system was developed that was capable of providing a full ...
Maher Anthony - - 2005
AIMS: To examine the extent and content of outdoor food advertisements and food availability from outlets in the vicinity of secondary schools. METHODS: The sample of schools (n=10) was randomly selected from a sample frame of schools in both an urban and rural region (Wellington and Wairarapa regions respectively) and ...
Fox Sarah - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Recent research has shown significant increases in the rates of obesity in US adults and children. Despite the widespread discussion about childhood overweight, relatively little discussion focuses on solutions. METHODS: We reviewed the literature on school programs and policies that address competitive foods-commonly called "junk" foods. These foods tend ...
James W Philip T - - 2005
The original focus on energy and protein needs for combating malnutrition gave way to UNICEF promoted concerns for maternal care and complementary feeding in association with longer-term breast feeding. Nevertheless the World Food Summit's drive to halve malnutrition rates by 2015 was not accelerating the fall in malnutrition prevalences. The ...
Krebs John R - - 2005
We all take risks, but most of the time we do not notice them. We are generally bad at judging the risks we take, and in the end, for some of us, this will prove fatal. Eating, like everything else in life, is not risk free. Is that next mouthful ...
Pingali Prabhu - - 2005
This paper explores linkages between food security and crisis in different contexts, outlining the policy and institutional conditions needed to manage food security during a crisis and to rebuild the resilience of food systems in periods of relative peace. The paper reviews experiences over the past decade of countries in ...
Levinger Beryl - - 2005
Universal access to basic education is a prerequisite for long-term food security, which, in turn, is critical to achieving the Millennium Development goals. This paper examines how Food for Education interventions can contribute to improved food security, improved education outcomes, and a broader set of development goals. Food for Education ...
Hofman Marcel - - 2005
Since the nineteenth century, food toxicology has evolved in several ways. The analytical power of the food toxicologist has been increased. The concept of adulterated food was modified significantly. Most commodities are now processed and addition of numerous non-nutrient additives is legalised. Other "alien" compounds get introduced in the food ...
Flores Margarita - - 2005
This paper considers the principal elements that underpin policy frameworks for supporting food security in protracted crisis contexts. It argues that maintaining the food entitlements of crisis-affected populations must extend beyond interventions to ensure immediate human survival. A 'policy gap' exists in that capacities for formulating policy responses to tackle ...
French Simone A - - 2005
Environmental intervention represents an effective strategy to promote the purchase and consumption of healthful foods in community-based settings. Three such studies promoted the consumption of healthier snacks and lower-fat foods at worksites and at schools. The first study examined lower prices and point-of-purchase promotion on sales of lower-fat snacks in ...
McKinley M C - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To gain an insight into children's views about food and nutrition. DESIGN: Data were collected in focus group discussions; two focus group sessions were undertaken with each school group. SETTING: A total of 11 postprimary schools in Northern Ireland and England. SUBJECTS: In all, 106 children aged 11-12-y-old (n ...
Gunnarsson Nina - - 2005
To find out whether children with exclusion diet at school had allergy-like conditions that could explain their food avoidance, the objective of this study was to describe health-care contacts and diagnostic testing among schoolchildren with exclusion diet and compare the magnitude of allergy-like conditions between those children who had vs. ...
Templeton Susan B - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of competitive foods on energy and nutrient intakes of adolescents participating in a school lunch program. DESIGN: Weighed plate waste data were used to assess the energy and nutrient consumption from school lunch menus items and competitive food items chosen and consumed by adolescents. The ...
Kubik Martha Y - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To assess the opinions and beliefs of parents and teachers of middle school students regarding the school food environment. DESIGN: Surveys mailed to parents and placed in teachers' school mailboxes included questions about adolescents' eating practices, food choice at school, and school-related food policies and practices. SUBJECTS/SETTINGS: A convenience ...
Lang Tim - - 2005
International experience of Policy Councils on food and nutrition has developed over recent decades but they have not received the attention that is due to them. The 1992 International Conference on Nutrition recommended that governments create Food Policy Councils but few have been created. There has been more experience in ...
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