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Kadiyala Suneetha S London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; Leverhulme Centre for Integrative Research on Agriculture and Health, London, United - - 2014
In India, progress against undernutrition has been slow. Given its importance for income generation, improving diets, care practices, and maternal health, the agriculture sector is widely regarded as playing an important role in accelerating the reduction in undernutrition. This paper comprehensively maps existing evidence along agriculture-nutrition pathways in India and ...
Cavic Milena M Department of Experimental Oncology, Institute for Oncology and Radiology of Serbia, Pasterova 14, 11000 Belgrade, - - 2014
Actinidin, a kiwifruit cysteine protease, is a marker allergen for genuine sensitization to this food allergen source. Inhalatory cysteine proteases have the capacity for disruption of tight junctions (TJs) enhancing the permeability of the bronchial epithelium. No such properties have been reported for allergenic food proteases so far. The aim ...
Ward Elizabeth - - 2014
A balanced and varied diet is the best source of essential vitamins and minerals; however, nutrient deficiencies occur, including in populations with bountiful food supplies and the means to procure nutrient-rich foods. For example, the typical American diet bears little resemblance to what experts recommend for fruit, vegetables, and whole ...
Kolahdooz Fariba - - 2014
The 12-month Healthy Foods North intervention program was developed to improve diet among Inuit and Inuvialuit living in Arctic Canada and assess the impact of the intervention established for the communities. A quasi-experimental study randomly selected men and women (>=19 years of age) in six remote communities in Nunavut and ...
Huss Magnus M Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA - - 2014
Evolutionary diversification within consumer species may generate selection on local ecological communities, affecting prey community structure. However, the extent to which this niche construction can propagate across food webs and shape trait variation in competing species is unknown. Here, we tested whether niche construction by different life-history variants of the ...
Muraro A A The Referral Centre for Food Allergy Diagnosis and Treatment Veneto Region, Department of Mother and Child Health, Padua General University Hospital, Padua, - - 2014
The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Guidelines, Managing patients with food allergy in the community, intend to provide guidance to reduce the risk of accidental allergic reactions to foods in the community. This document is intended to meet the needs of early childhood ...
Parlesak Alexandr - - 2014
Chronic undernutrition is prevalent in Mozambique, where children suffer from stunting, vitamin A deficiency, anemia, and other nutrition-related disorders. Complete diet formulation products (CDFPs) are increasingly promoted to prevent chronic undernutrition. Using linear programming, to investigate whether diet diversification using local foods should be prioritized in order to reduce the ...
Tiedje Kristina - - 2014
Immigrants and refugees to the United States exhibit lower dietary quality than the general population, but reasons for this disparity are poorly understood. In this study, we describe the meanings of food, health and wellbeing through the reported dietary preferences, beliefs, and practices of adults and adolescents from four immigrant ...
Wilson David R DR Department of Biological Sciences, University of Windsor, 401 Sunset Avenue, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4, Canada. Electronic address: - - 2014
When foraging, male big brown bats produce ultrasonic social calls. The calls repel rival bats from the caller and its prey, and increase the caller's foraging success during their high-speed aerial excursions.
Sauveplane-Stirling V V Human Nutrition, School of Medicine, College of Medical, Veterinary & Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Yorkhill Hospitals, Glasgow G3 8SJ, - - 2014
This study sought to describe the food retail environment and its use in a deprived urban area in Scotland by mapping all food outlets and determining where residents do their main food shopping as well as investigating the availability of fresh fruit and vegetables (F&V) (as an indicator of healthy ...
Wahl Ann A 1Seattle Children's Research Institute, Seattle, WA, - - 2014
With the dramatic increase in the incidence of food allergies, nurses and other school personnel are likely to encounter a child with food allergies. The objectives of this study were to assess the effectiveness of in-person training on enhancing knowledge about food allergies and improving self-confidence in preventing, recognizing, and ...
Kim Tae Hyun TH Graduate School of Public Health and Institute of Health Services Research, Yonsei University, Seoul, South - - 2014
To assess TV fast food ad exposure in South Korea. We assessed time trends of targeted ratings (licensed from Nielsen Media Research Korea) by household income and education during 2004-2010. Lower income groups saw more fast food TV ads during the study period. Exposure decreased in all income groups with ...
Hallgren Per P Department of Biology, Aquatic Ecology, Lund University, Lund, - - 2014
Endocrine-disrupting chemicals are known to alter the fitness of individual organisms via changes in growth, behavior, and reproduction. It is largely unknown, however, whether these effects cascade through the food web and indirectly affect other, less sensitive organisms. The authors present results from a mesocosm experiment whereby the effects of ...
Jang Hyun Min HM School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, San 31, Hyoja-dong, Pohang 790-784, South - - 2014
Single-stage anaerobic digestion (AD) was operated to treat high-strength food wastewater (FWW) derived from food waste recycling facilities at two different organic loading rates (OLRs) of 3.5 (Phase I) and 7 (Phase II) kgCOD/m(3)d. Changes in composition of microbial communities were investigated using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and barcoded-pyrosequencing. At ...
Cummins Steven - - 2014
National and local policies to improve diet in low-income US populations include increasing physical access to grocery stores and supermarkets in underserved neighborhoods. In a pilot study that evaluated the impacts of opening a new supermarket in a Philadelphia community considered a "food desert"-part of the Pennsylvania Fresh Food Financing ...
Roberts Anna Ilona AI Department of Psychology, University of Chester, Parkgate Road, Chester CH1 4BJ, - - 2014
Humans routinely communicate to coordinate their activities, persisting and elaborating signals to pursue goals that cannot be accomplished individually. Communicative persistence is associated with complex cognitive skills such as intentionality, because interactants modify their communication in response to another's understanding of their meaning. Here we show that two language-trained chimpanzees ...
Xu Jun J Donghu Experimental Station of Lake Ecosystems, State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology of China, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430072, People's Republic of China, - - 2014
Ecological regime shifts typically result in abrupt changes in ecosystem structure through several trophic levels, which leads to rapid ecosystem reconfiguration between regimes. An interesting aspect of the impact of regime shift is that alternative regimes may induce distinct shifts in energy pathways; these have been less tested than structural ...
Johnston Yvonne A YA Decker School of Nursing, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York (Ms Johnston); Broome County Health Department, Binghamton, New York (Mss McFadden and Lamphere); Weis Markets Inc, Sunbury, Pennsylvania (Mss Buch and Stark); and Cornell Cooperative Extension-Broome County, Binghamton, New York (Ms - - 2014
The purpose of this article is to describe implementation of and lessons learned from the Broome County Sodium Reduction in Communities grocery store initiative. This pilot project was conducted in collaboration with a regional supermarket chain and endeavored to develop population-based strategies for reducing sodium intake. Key interventions included marketing ...
Phalan Ben B Conservation Science Group, Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, , Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, - - 2014
Increasing agricultural productivity to 'close yield gaps' creates both perils and possibilities for biodiversity conservation. Yield increases often have negative impacts on species within farmland, but at the same time could potentially make it more feasible to minimize further cropland expansion into natural habitats. We combine global data on yield ...
Zhao Yan Y Department of Oceanography, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, United States of - - 2014
Although the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River system exports large amounts of nutrients to the Northern Gulf of Mexico annually, nutrient limitation of primary productivity still occurs offshore, acting as one of the major factors controlling local phytoplankton biomass and community structure. Bioassays were conducted for 48 hrs at two stations adjacent to ...
Tidball Moira M MM a Seneca County Cornell Cooperative Extension , Cornell University , Waterloo , New York , - - 2014
We highlighted gaps in nutritional data for wild game meat and wild caught fish that have a regulated harvesting season in New York State, and examined the possible role that wild game and fish play in current trends towards consumption of local, healthy meat sources. This project is part of ...
Seabert Timothy A TA Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ontario, - - 2014
Indigenous communities in Boreal environments rely on locally-harvested wild foods for sustenance. These foods provide many nutritional benefits including higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs; such as ω-3) than what is commonly found in store-bought foods. However, wild foods can be a route of exposure to dietary mercury and ...
Pereira Raquel F RF Raquel F. Pereira, MS, RD, Community Project Manager, Heart of New Ulm Project, Department of Education, Minneapolis Heart Institute Foundation, 920 E 28th St, Suite 100, Minneapolis, MN, 55407. E-mail: - - 2014
Changes in the food environment in the United States during the past few decades have contributed to increased rates of obesity, diabetes, and heart disease. Improving the food environment may be an effective primary prevention strategy to address these rising disease rates. The purpose of this study was to assess ...
McClain Craig C National Evolutionary Synthesis Center, , 2024 West Main St., Durham, NC 27705, - - 2014
Wood falls on the deep-sea floor represent a significant source of energy into the food-limited deep sea. Unique communities of primarily wood- and sulfide-obligate species form on these wood falls. However, little is known regarding patterns and drivers of variation in the composition of wood fall communities through space and ...
Douglas Vasiliki - - 2014
Background: Because of a lack of transportation infrastructure, Old Crow has the highest food costs and greatest reliance on traditional food species for sustenance of any community in Canada's Yukon Territory. Environmental, cultural, and economic change are driving increased perception of food insecurity in Old Crow.Objectives: To address community concerns ...
Allen Maximilian L ML School of Biological Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New - - 2014
Scavenging is a widespread behaviour and an important process influencing food webs and ecological communities. Large carnivores facilitate the movement of energy across trophic levels through the scavenging and decomposition of their killed prey, but competition with large carnivores is also likely to constrain acquisition of carrion by scavengers. We ...
Roy Virginie V Institut des sciences de la mer de Rimouski, Université du Québec à Rimouski, Rimouski, Québec, - - 2014
Environmental gradients and their influence on benthic community structure vary over different spatial scales; yet, few studies in the Arctic have attempted to study the influence of environmental gradients of differing spatial scales on megabenthic communities across continental-scales. The current project studied for the first time how megabenthic community structure ...
Yi Jing J National Engineering Research Center for Urban Pollution Control, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, People's Republic of - - 2014
The total solids content of feedstocks affects the performances of anaerobic digestion and the change of total solids content will lead the change of microbial morphology in systems. In order to increase the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, it is necessary to understand the role of the total solids content on ...
Mobley Amy R AR Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA. - - 2014
Fiber continues to be singled out as a nutrient of public health concern. Adequate intakes of fiber are associated with reduced risk for cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, certain gastrointestinal disorders and obesity. Despite ongoing efforts to promote adequate fiber through increased vegetable, fruit and whole-grain intakes, average fiber consumption has ...
Guitart Daniela A DA National Climate Change Adaptation Research Facility, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD 4222, Australia. Electronic address: - - 2013
Community garden research has focused on social aspects of gardens, neglecting systematic analysis of what food is grown. Yet agrodiversity within community gardens may provide health benefits. Diverse fruit and vegetables provide nutritional benefits, including vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals. This paper reports research that investigated the agro-biodiversity of school-based community ...
Alric Benjamin B INRA, University of Savoie, UMR 0042 CARRTEL, F-74203 Thonon les Bains, - - 2013
While considerable insights on the ecological consequences of climate change have been gained from studies conducted on remote lakes, little has been done on lakes under direct human exposure. Ecosystem vulnerability and responses to climate warming might yet largely depend on the ecological state and thus on local anthropogenic pressures. ...
Kohl Kevin D KD Department of Biology, University of Utah, 257 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, UT, 84112, - - 2014
Experiments conducted on captive animals allow scientists to control many variables; however, these settings are highly unnatural. Previous research has documented a large difference in microbial communities between wild animals and captive-bred individuals. However, wild-caught animals brought into captivity might retain their natural microbiota and thus provide a better study ...
Fisher Geoffrey - - 2013
Individuals commonly mispredict their future preferences when they make decisions in a visceral state different from their anticipated state at consumption. In the research reported here, we asked subjects to bid on different foods while exogenously varying their hunger levels at the time of decision and at the time of ...
Collins Clare E - - 2013
Poor dietary habits and obesity are more prevalent in lower socio-economic status (SES) communities. The NEAT Girls cluster randomized controlled trial was a school-based obesity prevention program targeting adolescent girls in low SES schools in NSW, Australia. The aim was to evaluate the 12-month impact of key nutrition program messages ...
West Stephanie T - - 2013
Understanding barriers and facilitators to strategies directed at obesity-prevention policy change, particularly in rural, southern US counties where obesity is more prevalent, is important so that strategies deemed most winnable can be pursued. As such, community stakeholders and policy makers were interviewed using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's ...
Wada Yoko Y Faculty of Science, Nara Women's University, Nara, Japan. - - 2013
In various terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, predators affect resources indirectly via intermediate prey. Such indirect interactions involve reducing the density of the prey (density-mediated indirect interactions, DMIIs) or changing the behavioral, morphological, or life history traits of the prey (trait-mediated indirect interactions, TMIIs). Although the importance of TMIIs has been ...
Yi Jing - - 2013
Microbial community shifts, associated with performance data, were investigated in an anaerobic batch digester treating high-solid food waste under mesophilic conditions using a combination of molecular techniques and chemical analysis methods. The batch process was successfully operated with an organic removal efficiency of 44.5% associated with biogas yield of 0.82 ...
Ford James D - - 2013
Community food programs (CFPs) provide an important safety-net for highly food insecure community members in the larger settlements of the Canadian Arctic. This study identifies who is using CFPs and why, drawing upon a case study from Inuvik, Northwest Territories. This work is compared with a similar study from Iqaluit, ...
Drieling Rebecca Lucia - - 2013
Low-socioeconomic-status (SES) Latinos are disproportionately represented among the 78 million obese Americans. Tailored behavioral weight-loss interventions show promise, but there is limited adaptation to lower-SES Latino immigrants. This study provides guidance for tailoring obesity-reduction strategies for this population by evaluating food security, educational community resource utilization, education level, depression, sex, ...
Hume Andrew - - 2013
Objective: Remote Aboriginal community gardens (gardens) frequently operate below their full potential. A set of gardening sustainability principles may improve their planning, operation and long-term sustainability. This paper aims to document the principles of sustainability of non-profit remote Aboriginal community gardens in the Top End of the Northern Territory. Methods: ...
Brinsden H - - 2013
The International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases Research, Monitoring and Action Support (INFORMAS) proposes to collect performance indicators on food policies, actions and environments related to obesity and non-communicable diseases. This paper reviews existing communications strategies used for performance indicators and proposes the approach to be taken for INFORMAS. ...
Ni Mhurchu C - - 2013
Retail food environments are increasingly considered influential in determining dietary behaviours and health outcomes. We reviewed the available evidence on associations between community (type, availability and accessibility of food outlets) and consumer (product availability, prices, promotions and nutritional quality within stores) food environments and dietary outcomes in order to develop ...
Cardoso Patrícia Gonçalves - - 2013
The main objective of this paper was to evaluate the impact of mercury on the zooplankton communities' structure and functioning and their bioaccumulation patterns along a contamination gradient in a temperate coastal lagoon. Our results demonstrated that total abundance was not negatively affected by Hg contamination, since the most contaminated ...
Bro-Jørgensen Jakob - - 2013
Predator-prey arms races are widely speculated to underlie fast speed in terrestrial mammals. However, due to lack of empirical testing, both the specificity of any evolutionary coupling between particular predator and prey species, and the relevance of alternative food-based hypotheses of speed evolution, remain obscure. Here I examine the ecological ...
Jang Hyun Min - - 2013
To evaluate the applicability of single-stage thermophilic aerobic digestion (TAD) process treating high-strength food wastewater (FWW), TAD process was operated at four organic loading rates (OLRs) from 9.2 to 37.2kgCOD/m(3)d. The effects of OLRs on microbial community changes were also examined. The highest volumetric removal rate (13.3kgCOD/m(3)d) and the highest ...
Ghattas Hala - - 2013
In the context of recent increases in international food prices, it is hypothesized that in rural communities retaining food production practices is important for protection against food insecurity at both the household and community levels, as well as for protection against the development of poor nutritional outcomes. To investigate this ...
Neltner Thomas G - - 2013
In the United States, chemical additives cannot be used in food without an affirmative determination that their use is safe by FDA or additive manufacturer. Feeding toxicology studies designed to estimate the amount of a chemical additive that can be eaten safely provide the most relevant information. We analyze how ...
Brimblecombe Julie - - 2013
Indigenous Australians suffer a disproportionate burden of preventable chronic disease compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts -- much of it diet-related. Increasing fruit and vegetable intakes and reducing sugar-sweetened soft-drink consumption can reduce the risk of preventable chronic disease. There is evidence from some general population studies that subsidising healthier foods ...
Yengoh Genesis T - - 2013
Although food crop yields per hectare have generally been increasing in Cameroon since 1961, the food price crisis of 2008 and the ensuing social unrest and fatalities raised concerns about the country's ability to meet the food needs of its population. This study examines the country's potential for increasing crop ...
Peacock Re - - 2013
A dog was presented for acute abdominal distension after inadvertent access to a large amount of dry dog food and possibly horse feed consisting of chaff, pony cubes and vitamin, mineral and yeast supplements. A marked hyperchloraemia and decreased anion gap on blood electrolyte analysis prompted a review of the ...
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