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Results 401 - 450 of 544
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Barceloux D G - - 1999
The 4 natural oxidation states of selenium are elemental selenium (0), selenide (-2), selenite (+4), and selenate (+6). Inorganic selenate and selenite predominate in water whereas organic selenium compounds (selenomethionine, selenocysteine) are the major selenium species in cereal and in vegetables. The principal applications of selenium include the manufacture of ...
Shi Y - - 1999
Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and pseudocyclic INAA (PCINAA) have been used to determine the selenium content of a variety of Canadian food items. Use of the 162-keV gamma ray of short-lived 77mSe in INAA allowed relatively simple and rapid determinations and was suitable for many of the foods. PCINAA ...
Wakai K - - 1999
We examined the dietary intake and sources of isoflavones (daidzein and genistein) among Japanese subjects based on dietary records (DRs). The subjects comprised two groups: 1,232 who completed one-day DRs (Group 1) and 88 men and women who kept four four-day (16-day) DRs. For quantitative data on the level of ...
Allan C B - - 1999
Selenocysteine-containing enzymes that have been identified in mammals include the glutathione peroxidase family (GPX1, GPX2, GPX3, and GPX4), one or more iodothyronine deiodinases and two thioredixin reductases. Selenoprotein P, a glycoprotein that contains 10 selenocysteine residues per 43 kDa polypeptide and selenoprotein W, a 10 kDa muscle protein, are unidentified ...
Coward L - - 1998
The principal chemical forms of isoflavones in soybean are their 6''-O-malonyl-beta-glucoside (6OMalGlc) conjugates. Experiments were carried out to determine the best conditions for extraction of isoflavones from soyfoods and the effects of commercial processing procedures and of cooking on isoflavone concentrations and composition. Hot alcohol extraction of ground soybeans deesterified ...
Anderson J J - - 1998
Practically all plant foods contain small amounts of the diverse phytoestrogen molecules that have the potential to improve health. Phytoestrogens, especially the soy-derived isoflavones, are receiving great scrutiny as food supplements for the purposes of both enhancing the health of tissues and preventing several common diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, ...
Kay T - - 1998
Since the beginning of 1970, there has been a great breakthrough in the popularization of soy-bean-based food in Nigeria and in many parts of the developing world, especially for use in the prevention of kwashiorkor. Since 1975, soy bean has become a main source of daily dietary protein in many ...
Klapec T - - 1998
Data on the selenium content in the soil and human milk in eastern Croatia indicate a possibility of inadequate Se status of people in the area. In order to determine the daily dietary intake of Se in eastern Croatia, a 7-day duplicate diet study was performed. There were 41 participants ...
Bingham S A - - 1998
Phyto-oestrogens have emerged from their esoteric role in animal husbandry following the hypothesis that the human Western diet is relatively deficient in these substances compared with societies where large amounts of plant foods and legumes are eaten. Evidence is beginning to accrue that they may begin to offer protection against ...
Thomson C D - - 1998
Selenium consumed by humans in foods and in supplements exists in a number of different organic and inorganic forms including selenomethionine, selenocysteine, selenate and selenite. Animal and human studies have established that the bioavailability of the selenium depends upon the chemical form, which also influences the distribution of selenium in ...
Clark N - - 1998
Years ago, folks had little good to say about soy foods. Tofu, which is made from soy, was maligned as a food for "nutty" vegetarians. Textured vegetable protein, a soy-based meat extender, was called "mystery meat." Today, however, people are jumping for soy as the benefits of soy foods are ...
Wichtel J J - - 1998
SELENIUM AVAILABILITY: Selenium deficiency has been an important source of loss to the pastoral industries of New Zealand. About 30% of farmed land in New Zealand is considered to be selenium-deficient and continued development of soils and pasture will tend to further decrease the concentration of selenium in pasture. Formerly ...
Kadrabová J - - 1998
Three models were used to determine the daily dietary Selenium intake in Slovakia. The Selenium content of food produced and consumed in the Slovak Republic was used to estimate and calculate the daily Selenium intake based on food consumption data per capita and seven days, (24 h) eating protocol models. ...
Narimatsu H - - 1998
The effect of doses of the secretor (Se) and Lewis (Le) genes on the serum levels of CA19-9 and DU-PAN-2 was investigated in 400 normal individuals. It was clearly demonstrated that the Se gene dosage negatively affected both the CA19-9 and DU-PAN-2 values, whereas the Le gene dosage positively affected ...
Franke A A - - 1998
Evaluation of unknown biological effects of chemicals including food plant products requires the assessment of bioactivity and bioavailability. Epidemiologic studies show consistently a cancer protective effect of fruit and vegetable consumption, but there is little understanding of which phytochemicals account for this observation. Commonly studied antioxidant micronutrients are less consistently ...
Ng M L - - 1998
Listeners were asked to identify six tonal variations in the production of the syllables /ji/ and /si/ produced by 10 normal laryngeal (NL), 10 standard esophageal (SE), and 10 Servox-type electrolarynx (EL) Cantonese speakers. The purpose of the present study was to determine if alaryngeal Cantonese speakers could differentiate meanings ...
Lemly A D - - 1998
This paper describes a method for deriving site-specific water quality criteria for selenium using a two-step process: (1) gather information on selenium residues and biological effects at the site and in down-gradient systems and (2) examine criteria based on the degree of bioaccumulation, the relationship between measured residues and threshold ...
Maksimović Z J - - 1997
Ten years study of selenium status in stream sediments, rocks, soils, water, cereal crops and food, as well as in the human tissues, has shown a Se deficiency in most parts of this country. Some of the results are presented and discussed, especially in connection with etiology of Balkan nephropathy ...
Lemly A D - - 1997
This paper describes a method for using teratogenic deformities in fish as the basis for evaluating impacts of selenium contamination. Teratogenic deformities are reliable bioindicators of selenium toxicosis in fish. They are produced in response to dietary exposure of parent fish and subsequent deposition of selenium in eggs. There is ...
Lemly A D - - 1997
Belews Lake, North Carolina, was contaminated by selenium in wastewater released from a coal-fired electric generating facility during 1974-1985. Selenium bioaccumulated in aquatic food chains and caused severe reproductive failure and teratogenic deformities in fish. Beginning in 1986, the electric utility company changed its ash disposal practices and selenium-laden wastewater ...
Díaz J P - - 1997
The selenium concentrations in different dairy products and drinks in the Mediterranean coastal area of southeastern Spain have been determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Mineralization was carried out with an HNO3-HClO4 mixture (4:1) in a thermostatted sand bath. Selenium determination was carried out by the standard addition method. ...
Kaufman P B - - 1997
Over 80 taxa of mostly agriculturally important legumes were surveyed as sources of the metabolites, genistein and daidzein. Remarkably high concentrations (over 2 g.kg-1 dry weight) of the anticancer metabolite, genistein, were found in the leaves of Psoralea corylifolia (Indian bread root). All other legumes, with the exception of fermented ...
Besser J M - - 1996
Bioaccumulation of selenium (Se) in the fish community of Pigeon River/Pigeon Lake, which receives inputs of Se from a coal fly ash disposal facility, was studied to assess potential hazards of Se to fish, wildlife, and humans. Se concentrations in fish from sites receiving seepage and effluents from fly ash ...
Longnecker M P - - 1996
We examined the validity of using the selenium level in a single biological specimen as a surrogate measure of usual intake. We used data from 77 free-living adults from South Dakota and Wyoming. Subjects provided multiple 1-day duplicate-plate food composites, repeated specimens of blood and toenails, and 24-hour urine collections. ...
Díaz-Alarcón J P - - 1996
Hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine selenium content in cereals, legumes and dry fruits from the coast of the province of Granada (southeastern Spain). Accuracy was assured using both a NIST SRM 1572 and recovery experiments. The precision expressed as relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) varied between 6.50% ...
Fukutake M - - 1996
It has been suggested that the isoflavone, genistein,, may have some role as a chemopreventive agent against cancer in humans. Levels of genistein and its beta-glucoside conjugate, genistin, ingested in soybeans and related bean products by the Japanese were quantified by HPLC, to estimate daily intake of these compounds. Amounts ...
Itoh S - - 1996
The clastogenic effects of chromium compounds (CrCl3 and K2CrO4) and selenium compounds (H2SeO3 and Na2SeO4) in mouse bone marrow cells have been investigated. K2CrO4 induced significant, dose-related increases in micronuclei. H2SeO3 also showed a significant micronucleus induction at the highest dose. CrCl3 and Na2SeO4 were negative for micronuclei induction in ...
Shen L - - 1996
The trace element selenium (Se) has been recognized to be essential for human health. The dependence of infants on milk as their principal food source, generally low in Se content, makes them more vulnerable to inadequate Se intake. The present study compared the Se availability as estimated by a simulated ...
Reinli K - - 1996
Plant compounds with estrogenic activity may play a role in cancer prevention, moderation of menopausal symptoms, and other health effects. To facilitate research on these possible actions, the literature was reviewed for quantitative data on the levels of known phytoestrogens (daidzein, genistein, coumestrol, formononetin, and biochanin A) in food plants. ...
Sousa I M - - 1995
Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to study the 7S and 11S globulin fractions extracted from lupin seed (Lupinus luteus) flour. In agreement with previous work on other lupin species, the isolate showed three denaturation peaks compared to the two observed with soy. By comparison with the isolated globulin fractions, ...
Molnár J - - 1995
Selenium concentrations were determined via hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry in more than 100 convenience and fast foods including 34 vegetarian dishes. The foods were purchased mainly in Ayrshire, Scotland but some came from other parts of the UK. The results indicate a considerable amount of selenium in certain mushrooms, ...
Kurzer M S - - 1995
Lignans and isoflavonoids are diphenolic compounds found in plant foods, particularly whole grains and legumes. They have been shown to have anticarcinogenic properties in animal and cell studies, and have been associated with reduced cancer risk in epidemiological studies. In order to perform further epidemiological and metabolic studies on these ...
Amodio-Cocchieri R - - 1995
Food samples and ready-made meals from the traditional Italian-type diet were analysed for selenium content. The average Se content varied in food samples from 7 micrograms/kg w/w (fresh fruit) to 226 micrograms/kg w/w (fish). The highest average contents were obtained in the animal products and in legumes. Among ready-made foods ...
Bellanger J R - - 1995
The wet ashing-dry ashing procedure for destruction of organic matter in high-fat foods for subsequent fluorimetric determination of selenium was investigated. Samples were decomposed by predigestion with nitric acid and dry-ashed with magnesium nitrate and hydrochloric acid. Selenium was recovered quantitatively through the total procedure. Detection limit was about 4 ...
Aro A - - 1995
The Se concentration of foods can be increased by supplementing fertilizers with soluble Se compounds. In Finland the availability of soil Se for plants is poor owing to the relatively low Se concentration, low pH and high iron content of the soil. Since 1984 multimineral fertilizers have been supplemented with ...
Holak W - - 1994
Selenium was determined by cathodic stripping voltammetry in a 1 mol l-1 HCl acid solution containing added CuII. In this medium, selenium was preconcentrated on the hanging mercury drop electrode and stripped cathodically in differential-pulse mode. After a deposition period of 1 min, 0.2 ng ml-1 of selenium could be ...
Sanders R W - - 1994
The transfer of selenium between bacteria and the ciliated protozoan, Paramecium putrinum, was examined in laboratory cultures. The population growth of the ciliate was not inhibited in the presence of the highest concentrations of dissolved selenite or selenate tested (10(3) micrograms liter-1). Experiments with radioactive 75selenite or 75selenate indicated that ...
Ip C - - 1994
This presentation focuses on research that could theoretically be applied to implement the strategy of general population chemoprevention. The concept is based on the premise of enhancing foods with known anticarcinogens through either agricultural methods or food-processing technologies. Two areas of our work are described: (a) garlic cultivated with selenium ...
Aro A - - 1994
The selenium concentration in foods grown and consumed and in plasma, red blood cells, and toenails of people living in the district of Chita in the transbaikalian part of Russia were studied in August 1991. Preliminary results from the area have suggested low selenium intakes and the possible occurrence of ...
Park C E - - 1994
The RIDASCREEN SET kit (R-Biopharm GmbH, Darmstadt, Germany), a commercial staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) visual immunoassay kit, was evaluated for its efficacy. The kit utilizes monovalent capture antibodies against SE types A to E (SEA to SEE); therefore, it simultaneously detects and identifies the enterotoxin types. The major advantages of the ...
al-Sabti K - - 1994
The genotoxic effects of low concentrations of Se(IV), Hg2+, and CH3HgCl added separately or together (Se(IV)/CH3HgCI) were studied by determining the induction of micronuclei in the binucleated erythrocytes of Prussian carp. The frequencies of micronuclei were elevated in a dose-dependent manner in all treatments when compared to the relevant controls. ...
Maier K J - - 1994
The toxicology, environmental impacts and risk assessment of Se in freshwater systems are a high priority for research and regulatory agencies. However, understanding Se in freshwater systems is a challenging endeavor. The accurate risk assessment and determination of a water-quality criterion for any freshwater ecosystem are difficult for many reasons. ...
Ip C - - 1994
Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) is one of very few consumable products with exceptionally high levels of selenium. The mean selenium concentrations of two shipments of Brazil nut used in the present study were determined to be 16 and 30 micrograms/g. In contrast, most common foods contain much less selenium, from ...
Brown J S JS - - 1994
Medical geology is the application of trace element geography to epidemiology. This approach is used to compare the geographic distribution of selenium and other trace elements in soil and food with that of high schizophrenia rates in the United States and other countries. Since the comparison is most statistically significant ...
Zhang X - - 1993
The selenium content of some frequently consumed foods from a commercial beef packer, a road-side vendor, and local stores in Lubbock, Texas was determined and compared to selenium data for the same or similar foods in the United States and from other countries. The comparative content of selenium in foods ...
Shen L - - 1993
The present study evaluates the application of an in vitro digestion procedure for estimating the selenium (Se) availability from cow's milk. The results obtained by this in vitro method indicate that only a small portion (< 10%) of milk Se can be estimated as available. The available fraction of whole ...
Xu G S - - 1993
Aluminum contents of 64 kinds mof foods in Tianjin were determined. The results showed that the aluminum levels in different kinds of foods varied greatly, and most foodstuffs from natural sources (including contamination from food processing) contained less than 10 mg/kg. Aluminum contents were higher in foodstuffs of plant origin, ...
Augier H - - 1993
Neutron activation analysis of 13 Mediterranean striped dolphins Stenella coeruleoalba showed high mercury and selenium contaminations of main tissues and organs of these cetaceans. The mercuric contents were excessive, particularly in liver (from 68 to 2272 micrograms/g dry wt. basis), then in kidney, lung, muscle, heart and brain. The selenium ...
Benemariya H - - 1993
Daily dietary intake of copper, zinc and selenium for different population groups in Burundi, Africa, has been determined, using different sampling strategies, by atomic absorption spectrometry. Recommended daily intakes (RDA, National Academy, USA) are met for copper and zinc. For selenium, especially the rural population risk a deficiency as observed ...
Ovaskainen M L - - 1993
Toenail selenium concentration has been proposed as a long-term (6-12 mo) indicator of human selenium status. This study investigated the association between toenail selenium concentration and selenium intake and other dietary factors among 166 urban men aged 55-69 y. The dietary information was collected by food records covering a 6-mo ...
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