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Combs G F GF - - 2000
Micronutrient deficiencies affect nearly half the world's population, impairing child development, reducing work productivity, and increasing mortality and morbidity rates by affecting both infectious and chronic diseases. To feed a growing world, it will be necessary to consider agriculture in the broad context of a food system as an instrument ...
Janghorbani M - - 1999
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of Se restriction on the excretion of Se in men who had consumed high levels of this element during their entire lives. With the use of stable isotopes of Se as selenite, the excretion of methylated Se in urine ...
Irion C W - - 1999
The concentrating of essential minerals, vitamins, and bioactive phytochemicals into human foodstuffs is of vital importance in our rapidly expanding world. Selenium is an essential micronutrient which is currently receiving much publicity for its anticarcinogenic potentials. Unfortunately, this mineral is deficient in most soils worldwide, and as a result most ...
Renner R - - 1999
As the US EPA revises its standards for selenium in fresh water, a heated debate rages between government scientists, who say that existing standards must be tightened because selenium contamination is widespread, and industry scientists who believe that it is an environmental oddity. Fish, crustaceans and birds appear to be ...
Murphy P A - - 1999
A national sampling plan was developed to select the most widely used isoflavone-containing foods in the United States. Foods were selected based on their retail volume and sampled in five geographical areas representing seven metropolitan areas. Isoflavones were analyzed from composite samples, raw and cooked, and reported by brand. Quality ...
Holben D H - - 1999
Selenium functions within mammalian systems primarily in the form of selenoproteins. Selenoproteins contain selenium as selenocysteine and perform a variety of physiological roles. Eleven selenoproteins have been identified: cellular or classical glutathione peroxidase; plasma (or extracellular) glutathione peroxidase; phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase; gastrointestinal glutathione peroxidase; selenoprotein P; types 1, 2, ...
Kirk P - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To develop a dietary assessment instrument to measure soy food consumption and isoflavone intake and test it for reliability. DESIGN: A soy food frequency questionnaire, designed for use in this study, was administered twice to participants, separated by a 2-week interval. The questionnaire was tested for reproducibility of estimates ...
Thomas B V - - 1999
The input of selenium from subsurface agricultural drainage into surface water systems can result in the accumulation of toxic concentrations of selenium in aquatic food chains. Elevated selenium concentrations in aquatic systems is a significant environmental problem in many areas of the United States. A laboratory investigation was conducted to ...
Song T T - - 1999
Glycitein (4',7-dihydroxy-6-methoxyisoflavone) accounts for 5-10% of the total isoflavones in soy food products. The biological activity of this compound has not been reported to date, although numerous studies have been performed with the other soy isoflavones, daidzein and genistein. Glycitein was isolated from soy germ to 99% purity. Weaning female ...
Franke A A - - 1999
Concentrations and glucosidic conjugation patterns of isoflavones were determined in soy foods consumed by multiethnic populations in Singapore and Hawaii. Six raw and 11 cooked food groups traditionally consumed in Singapore and 8 food groups consumed in Hawaii were analyzed by reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography with diode array detection. Mean ...
Lemly A D - - 1999
Local water quality criteria for selenium should be based on an assessment of the degree of toxicological hazard to fish and wildlife, which is influenced by the spatial and temporal variation of the selenium cycle at the site under consideration. The physical area from which measurements are taken to evaluate ...
Chen Z - - 1999
Soy foods and certain soy constituents, particularly isoflavones, have been suggested to have potential cancer-inhibitory effects in laboratory and epidemiological studies. Chinese women in Shanghai consume high levels of soy foods and have low incidence rates of breast and other hormone-related cancers. To assess the usual dietary consumption of soy ...
Barceloux D G - - 1999
The 4 natural oxidation states of selenium are elemental selenium (0), selenide (-2), selenite (+4), and selenate (+6). Inorganic selenate and selenite predominate in water whereas organic selenium compounds (selenomethionine, selenocysteine) are the major selenium species in cereal and in vegetables. The principal applications of selenium include the manufacture of ...
Shi Y - - 1999
Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and pseudocyclic INAA (PCINAA) have been used to determine the selenium content of a variety of Canadian food items. Use of the 162-keV gamma ray of short-lived 77mSe in INAA allowed relatively simple and rapid determinations and was suitable for many of the foods. PCINAA ...
Wakai K - - 1999
We examined the dietary intake and sources of isoflavones (daidzein and genistein) among Japanese subjects based on dietary records (DRs). The subjects comprised two groups: 1,232 who completed one-day DRs (Group 1) and 88 men and women who kept four four-day (16-day) DRs. For quantitative data on the level of ...
Allan C B - - 1999
Selenocysteine-containing enzymes that have been identified in mammals include the glutathione peroxidase family (GPX1, GPX2, GPX3, and GPX4), one or more iodothyronine deiodinases and two thioredixin reductases. Selenoprotein P, a glycoprotein that contains 10 selenocysteine residues per 43 kDa polypeptide and selenoprotein W, a 10 kDa muscle protein, are unidentified ...
Coward L - - 1998
The principal chemical forms of isoflavones in soybean are their 6''-O-malonyl-beta-glucoside (6OMalGlc) conjugates. Experiments were carried out to determine the best conditions for extraction of isoflavones from soyfoods and the effects of commercial processing procedures and of cooking on isoflavone concentrations and composition. Hot alcohol extraction of ground soybeans deesterified ...
Anderson J J - - 1998
Practically all plant foods contain small amounts of the diverse phytoestrogen molecules that have the potential to improve health. Phytoestrogens, especially the soy-derived isoflavones, are receiving great scrutiny as food supplements for the purposes of both enhancing the health of tissues and preventing several common diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, ...
Kay T - - 1998
Since the beginning of 1970, there has been a great breakthrough in the popularization of soy-bean-based food in Nigeria and in many parts of the developing world, especially for use in the prevention of kwashiorkor. Since 1975, soy bean has become a main source of daily dietary protein in many ...
Klapec T - - 1998
Data on the selenium content in the soil and human milk in eastern Croatia indicate a possibility of inadequate Se status of people in the area. In order to determine the daily dietary intake of Se in eastern Croatia, a 7-day duplicate diet study was performed. There were 41 participants ...
Bingham S A - - 1998
Phyto-oestrogens have emerged from their esoteric role in animal husbandry following the hypothesis that the human Western diet is relatively deficient in these substances compared with societies where large amounts of plant foods and legumes are eaten. Evidence is beginning to accrue that they may begin to offer protection against ...
Thomson C D - - 1998
Selenium consumed by humans in foods and in supplements exists in a number of different organic and inorganic forms including selenomethionine, selenocysteine, selenate and selenite. Animal and human studies have established that the bioavailability of the selenium depends upon the chemical form, which also influences the distribution of selenium in ...
Clark N - - 1998
Years ago, folks had little good to say about soy foods. Tofu, which is made from soy, was maligned as a food for "nutty" vegetarians. Textured vegetable protein, a soy-based meat extender, was called "mystery meat." Today, however, people are jumping for soy as the benefits of soy foods are ...
Wichtel J J - - 1998
SELENIUM AVAILABILITY: Selenium deficiency has been an important source of loss to the pastoral industries of New Zealand. About 30% of farmed land in New Zealand is considered to be selenium-deficient and continued development of soils and pasture will tend to further decrease the concentration of selenium in pasture. Formerly ...
Kadrabová J - - 1998
Three models were used to determine the daily dietary Selenium intake in Slovakia. The Selenium content of food produced and consumed in the Slovak Republic was used to estimate and calculate the daily Selenium intake based on food consumption data per capita and seven days, (24 h) eating protocol models. ...
Narimatsu H - - 1998
The effect of doses of the secretor (Se) and Lewis (Le) genes on the serum levels of CA19-9 and DU-PAN-2 was investigated in 400 normal individuals. It was clearly demonstrated that the Se gene dosage negatively affected both the CA19-9 and DU-PAN-2 values, whereas the Le gene dosage positively affected ...
Franke A A - - 1998
Evaluation of unknown biological effects of chemicals including food plant products requires the assessment of bioactivity and bioavailability. Epidemiologic studies show consistently a cancer protective effect of fruit and vegetable consumption, but there is little understanding of which phytochemicals account for this observation. Commonly studied antioxidant micronutrients are less consistently ...
Ng M L - - 1998
Listeners were asked to identify six tonal variations in the production of the syllables /ji/ and /si/ produced by 10 normal laryngeal (NL), 10 standard esophageal (SE), and 10 Servox-type electrolarynx (EL) Cantonese speakers. The purpose of the present study was to determine if alaryngeal Cantonese speakers could differentiate meanings ...
Lemly A D - - 1998
This paper describes a method for deriving site-specific water quality criteria for selenium using a two-step process: (1) gather information on selenium residues and biological effects at the site and in down-gradient systems and (2) examine criteria based on the degree of bioaccumulation, the relationship between measured residues and threshold ...
Maksimović Z J - - 1997
Ten years study of selenium status in stream sediments, rocks, soils, water, cereal crops and food, as well as in the human tissues, has shown a Se deficiency in most parts of this country. Some of the results are presented and discussed, especially in connection with etiology of Balkan nephropathy ...
Lemly A D - - 1997
This paper describes a method for using teratogenic deformities in fish as the basis for evaluating impacts of selenium contamination. Teratogenic deformities are reliable bioindicators of selenium toxicosis in fish. They are produced in response to dietary exposure of parent fish and subsequent deposition of selenium in eggs. There is ...
Lemly A D - - 1997
Belews Lake, North Carolina, was contaminated by selenium in wastewater released from a coal-fired electric generating facility during 1974-1985. Selenium bioaccumulated in aquatic food chains and caused severe reproductive failure and teratogenic deformities in fish. Beginning in 1986, the electric utility company changed its ash disposal practices and selenium-laden wastewater ...
Díaz J P - - 1997
The selenium concentrations in different dairy products and drinks in the Mediterranean coastal area of southeastern Spain have been determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Mineralization was carried out with an HNO3-HClO4 mixture (4:1) in a thermostatted sand bath. Selenium determination was carried out by the standard addition method. ...
Kaufman P B - - 1997
Over 80 taxa of mostly agriculturally important legumes were surveyed as sources of the metabolites, genistein and daidzein. Remarkably high concentrations (over 2 g.kg-1 dry weight) of the anticancer metabolite, genistein, were found in the leaves of Psoralea corylifolia (Indian bread root). All other legumes, with the exception of fermented ...
Besser J M - - 1996
Bioaccumulation of selenium (Se) in the fish community of Pigeon River/Pigeon Lake, which receives inputs of Se from a coal fly ash disposal facility, was studied to assess potential hazards of Se to fish, wildlife, and humans. Se concentrations in fish from sites receiving seepage and effluents from fly ash ...
Longnecker M P - - 1996
We examined the validity of using the selenium level in a single biological specimen as a surrogate measure of usual intake. We used data from 77 free-living adults from South Dakota and Wyoming. Subjects provided multiple 1-day duplicate-plate food composites, repeated specimens of blood and toenails, and 24-hour urine collections. ...
Díaz-Alarcón J P - - 1996
Hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine selenium content in cereals, legumes and dry fruits from the coast of the province of Granada (southeastern Spain). Accuracy was assured using both a NIST SRM 1572 and recovery experiments. The precision expressed as relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) varied between 6.50% ...
Fukutake M - - 1996
It has been suggested that the isoflavone, genistein,, may have some role as a chemopreventive agent against cancer in humans. Levels of genistein and its beta-glucoside conjugate, genistin, ingested in soybeans and related bean products by the Japanese were quantified by HPLC, to estimate daily intake of these compounds. Amounts ...
Itoh S - - 1996
The clastogenic effects of chromium compounds (CrCl3 and K2CrO4) and selenium compounds (H2SeO3 and Na2SeO4) in mouse bone marrow cells have been investigated. K2CrO4 induced significant, dose-related increases in micronuclei. H2SeO3 also showed a significant micronucleus induction at the highest dose. CrCl3 and Na2SeO4 were negative for micronuclei induction in ...
Cooper J J JJ Institute of Ecology and Resource Management, University of Edinburgh, Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JG, - - 1996
Domestic hens (Gallus gallus domesticus) from commercial laying strains have been selected for high egg yield and may lay over 300 eggs in their working lives. In conventional wire cages, there is little opportunity to perform either nest seeking or nest building activities, which may lead to frustration each time ...
Shen L - - 1996
The trace element selenium (Se) has been recognized to be essential for human health. The dependence of infants on milk as their principal food source, generally low in Se content, makes them more vulnerable to inadequate Se intake. The present study compared the Se availability as estimated by a simulated ...
Reinli K - - 1996
Plant compounds with estrogenic activity may play a role in cancer prevention, moderation of menopausal symptoms, and other health effects. To facilitate research on these possible actions, the literature was reviewed for quantitative data on the levels of known phytoestrogens (daidzein, genistein, coumestrol, formononetin, and biochanin A) in food plants. ...
Sousa I M - - 1995
Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to study the 7S and 11S globulin fractions extracted from lupin seed (Lupinus luteus) flour. In agreement with previous work on other lupin species, the isolate showed three denaturation peaks compared to the two observed with soy. By comparison with the isolated globulin fractions, ...
Molnár J - - 1995
Selenium concentrations were determined via hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry in more than 100 convenience and fast foods including 34 vegetarian dishes. The foods were purchased mainly in Ayrshire, Scotland but some came from other parts of the UK. The results indicate a considerable amount of selenium in certain mushrooms, ...
Kurzer M S - - 1995
Lignans and isoflavonoids are diphenolic compounds found in plant foods, particularly whole grains and legumes. They have been shown to have anticarcinogenic properties in animal and cell studies, and have been associated with reduced cancer risk in epidemiological studies. In order to perform further epidemiological and metabolic studies on these ...
Amodio-Cocchieri R - - 1995
Food samples and ready-made meals from the traditional Italian-type diet were analysed for selenium content. The average Se content varied in food samples from 7 micrograms/kg w/w (fresh fruit) to 226 micrograms/kg w/w (fish). The highest average contents were obtained in the animal products and in legumes. Among ready-made foods ...
Bellanger J R - - 1995
The wet ashing-dry ashing procedure for destruction of organic matter in high-fat foods for subsequent fluorimetric determination of selenium was investigated. Samples were decomposed by predigestion with nitric acid and dry-ashed with magnesium nitrate and hydrochloric acid. Selenium was recovered quantitatively through the total procedure. Detection limit was about 4 ...
Aro A - - 1995
The Se concentration of foods can be increased by supplementing fertilizers with soluble Se compounds. In Finland the availability of soil Se for plants is poor owing to the relatively low Se concentration, low pH and high iron content of the soil. Since 1984 multimineral fertilizers have been supplemented with ...
Holak W - - 1994
Selenium was determined by cathodic stripping voltammetry in a 1 mol l-1 HCl acid solution containing added CuII. In this medium, selenium was preconcentrated on the hanging mercury drop electrode and stripped cathodically in differential-pulse mode. After a deposition period of 1 min, 0.2 ng ml-1 of selenium could be ...
Sanders R W - - 1994
The transfer of selenium between bacteria and the ciliated protozoan, Paramecium putrinum, was examined in laboratory cultures. The population growth of the ciliate was not inhibited in the presence of the highest concentrations of dissolved selenite or selenate tested (10(3) micrograms liter-1). Experiments with radioactive 75selenite or 75selenate indicated that ...
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