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Results 401 - 450 of 854
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Coppens P - - 2006
BACKGROUND/AIMS: In the European Union, an elaborate legal framework regulates botanical products both under food and medicinal law. The decision as to which legal framework applies to an individual product may differ between the Member States. In the case of botanical food supplements, all food law provisions apply to their ...
Toyofuku Hajime - - 2006
For over centuries developments in food production and new food safety management systems in most developed countries have been perceived by many to be efficient in the prevention of food-borne disease. Nevertheless a number of problems remain dominant, one of these being the high level of food-borne microbiological disease which ...
Garayoa Roncesvalles - - 2005
A survey was conducted to investigate the relationship between knowledge about food safety and actual food handling practices among Spanish university students (mainly from the health sciences disciplines) who usually prepare meals at home. Based on level of education in food safety topics, students were divided in three groups: high, ...
Munro I C - - 2006
This study was conducted to determine the margins of safety between no-observed-effect levels (NOELs) and estimates of daily intake for 809 flavouring substances evaluated by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) between 2000 and 2004. Estimates of daily intake were calculated using two methods, the maximized survey-derived ...
Hothorn Ludwig A - - 2006
The safety assessment of Novel Food, including GM biotechnology-derived crops, starts with the comparison of the Novel Food with a traditional counterpart that is generally accepted as safe based on a history of human food use. Substantial equivalence is established if no meaningful difference from the conventional counterpart was found, ...
Collins Marina V - - 2005
Shellfish have been identified as a potential source of Cryptosporidium infection for humans. The inactivation of Cryptosporidium parvum and other pathogens in raw molluscan shellfish would provide increased food safety for normal and at-risk consumers. The present study identified the efficacy of a non-thermal alternative food-processing treatment, high hydrostatic pressure ...
Vaz Maria Luiza Santomauro - - 2005
The effectiveness of food hygiene training for a group of retail butchers was evaluated with the aim of verifying whether the butchers modified their behavior in the light of knowledge gained and whether their acquired knowledge or behavior change was sustained over a period of time. Microbiological analysis (enumeration of ...
Celec Peter - - 2005
Genetically modified (GM) foods are the product of one of the most progressive fields of science-biotechnology. There are major concerns about GM foods in the public; some of them are reasonable, some of them are not. Biomedical risks of GM foods include problems regarding the potential allergenicity, horizontal gene transfer, ...
Binkley Margaret - - 2005
As Americans have become more pressed for time, the use of convenient, simplified meals become a way of life. One aspect of this trend, known as Home Meal Replacement (IIMR), has increased in sales since its inception. Between 1999 and 2001, the average annual expenditure per consumer rose 5.6 pereent, ...
Renn O - - 2005
Health risks are front-page news. Be it bovine spongiform encephalitis (BSE), surface ozone, or radiation from transmitter stations or mobile phones, the popular press puts out a constant stream of risk warnings and sensational reports about potential health threats. This paper examines how the general public perceives and assesses such ...
Severin I - - 2005
An European Union (EU)-funded project QLK1-CT-2001-00930 (BIOSAFEPAPER) involves the development, validation and intercalibration of a short-term battery of toxicological tests for the safety assessment of food-contact paper and board. Dissemination of the results to industry, legislators (e.g. DG Consumer Protection, DG Enterprises, DG Research), standardization bodies such as CEN, and ...
Nestmann E R - - 2005
The discovery of trace levels of semicarbazide (SEM) in bottled foods (especially baby foods) led to a consideration of the safety of this hydrazine compound by regulatory agencies worldwide. Azodicarbonamide, which is used in the jar-sealing technology known as Press On-Twist Off (or Push-Twist/PT) closures for the formation of a ...
Takeuchi Masami T - - 2005
An intervention to promote use of food thermometers when cooking small cuts of meat was conducted using the Transtheoretical Model. Objectives were to (i) increase use of food thermometers by home food preparers, (ii) improve consumers' attitudes regarding use of a food thermometer, and (iii) examine relationships between stages of ...
Ginsberg Gary - - 2005
Human exposure to perchlorate is commonplace because it is a contaminant of drinking water, certain foods, and breast milk. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a perchlorate risk assessment in 2002 that yielded a reference dose (RfD) based on both the animal and human toxicology data. This assessment has ...
Edwards Gareth - - 2005
Safety assessment of novel foods requires a different approach to that traditionally used for the assessment of food chemicals. A case-by-case approach is needed which must be adapted to take account of the characteristics of the individual novel food. A thorough appraisal is required of the origin, production, compositional analysis, ...
Patil Sumeet R - - 2005
Risk communication and consumer education to promote safer handling of food can be the best way of managing the risk of foodborne illness at the consumer end of the food chain. Thus, an understanding of the overall status of food handling knowledge and practices is needed. Although traditional qualitative reviews ...
Trevisani M - - 2005
Risk assessment is a tool used by manufacturers, governmental, or regulatory bodies to evaluate the safety of food production systems and decide on strategies to protect consumers. This article presents a general approach to the use of probabilistic models to assess the risk related to specific hazards in some categories ...
Stecchini M L - - 2005
A comprehensive food safety strategy involves establishing risk management goals, food safety objectives and, for production systems, performance objectives and performance criteria. The working instructions for each step of the process should be validated for their effect before integration within a specific HACCP plan. The importance of realistic inactivation models ...
Houston David J - - 2005
Annual state observed safety belt use rates over the period 1991-2001 are examined using time-series cross-section regression analysis. It was found that seat belt laws are associated with higher use rates and that the enforcement provision matters. Primary states experience belt use rates that on average are 9.1 percentage points ...
Kennedy J - - 2005
The objectives of this study were to examine domestic food safety knowledge levels of consumers, establish the levels and incidence of bacterial contamination and operational temperatures in domestic refrigerators, and identify areas in which consumer food safety education is necessary in Ireland. A food safety knowledge questionnaire applied to a ...
Bailey Allan B - - 2005
Food contact substances (FCS) include polymers, paper and paperboard, and substances used in their manufacture, that do not impart a technical effect on food. Moreover, FCSs are industrial chemicals generally consumed at dietary concentrations (DC) of less than 1mg/kg food (ppm), and more commonly at less than 0.05 ppm (50 ...
Batz Michael B - - 2005
Identification and prioritization of effective food safety interventions require an understanding of the relationship between food and pathogen from farm to consumption. Critical to this cause is food attribution, the capacity to attribute cases of foodborne disease to the food vehicle or other source responsible for illness. A wide variety ...
Elad Daniel - - 2005
Throughout the last decades of the 20th century, the biological threat evolved from primarily a government-controlled weapon to a tool of terrorism. One of the consequences of this trend is the near impossibility of foreseeing when and how an act of bioterrorism will occur. The suitability of food products for ...
Fischer Arnout R H - - 2005
Microbial food safety has been the focus of research across various disciplines within the risk analysis community. Natural scientists involved in food microbiology and related disciplines work on the identification of health hazards, and the detection of pathogenic microorganisms. To perform risk assessment, research activities are increasingly focused on the ...
Worsfold Denise - - 2005
The European Union Food Hygiene Regulations, which will apply to member states from 2005/06, will replace the existing body of food hygiene legislation with more modern, risk-based requirements. Food businesses (except those in primary production) will be required to put in place food safety management procedures based on Hazard Analysis ...
Gauci Charmaine - - 2005
Food-borne illness causes a significant burden of disease globally. The majority of confirmed cases of food-borne illness in Malta are caused by salmonellosis. Detailed case investigations by the Disease Surveillance Unit, Malta, revealed that most of the notified cases of infectious intestinal disease are most likely to be due to ...
Finch Cristin - - 2005
The food safety knowledge and food-handling behaviors of 267 volunteer and staff workers in emergency food relief organizations in western New York State were assessed before and after food safety training. Training was voluntary and emphasized basic food safety and prevention of foodborne illness. Results from the pre-test showed major ...
Hodges Jill R - - 2005
Practices designed to meet the demands of global trade can amplify food safety problems. Ever-increasing pressure to churn out more product and better sides of beef has generated processes that compromise existing safety measures. Among the concerns are intensified food production, use of antimicrobials and hormones as growth promoters, and ...
Gibson James E - - 2005
The safety and effectiveness of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are assessed through the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) OTC drug review. Prescription drugs are approved through the rigorous new drug application (NDA) process. In contrast, dietary supplements are regulated as foods, and the FDA must determine that a dietary supplement ingredient ...
Smith, Elizabeth Katherine
Day care center reports from the Louisiana Board of Health Sanitarians were generated from day care centers participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) in the state of Louisiana. The types of violations reported included temperature abuse, lack of handwashing supplies, spoiled food, incorrect dishwashing procedures, and ...
Kelly L - - 2005
The comparative approach to food safety assessment is based on the idea that the safety of a new food can largely be determined by its comparison to the benchmark of commonly consumed foods already in the food supply (also called the 'conventional counterpart'). Any differences between the new food and ...
Adams T B - - 2005
This publication is the ninth in a series of safety evaluations performed by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA). In 1993, the Panel initiated a comprehensive program to re-evaluate the safety of more than 1700 GRAS flavoring substances under conditions of intended use. Elements that ...
Jensen K K - - 2005
As in many other areas, there is a divide between lay and expert perceptions of risk within the food sector, and this can lead to disagreement over priorities in food risk management. The risk perception literature tends to stress that the parties involved in this disagreement have different concepts of ...
Valeeva N I - - 2005
This study determined the relative importance of attributes of food safety improvement in the production chain of fluid pasteurized milk. The chain was divided into 4 blocks: "feed" (compound feed production and its transport), "farm" (dairy farm), "dairy processing" (transport and processing of raw milk, delivery of pasteurized milk), and ...
Ringman John M - - 2005
There is substantial in-vitro data indicating that curcumin has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-amyloid activity. In addition, studies in animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) indicate a direct effect of curcumin in decreasing the amyloid pathology of AD. As the widespread use of curcumin as a food additive and relatively small ...
Vialette Michèle - - 2005
The management of microbial risk in food products requires the ability to predict growth kinetics of pathogenic microorganisms in the event of contamination and growth initiation. Useful data for assessing these issues may be found in the literature or from experimental results. However, the large number and variety of data ...
Cerniglia C E - - 2005
The administration of antimicrobial agents to livestock creates potential for antibiotic residues to enter the food supply and be consumed by humans. Therefore, as a process of food animal drug registration, national regulatory agencies and international committees evaluate data regarding the chemical, microbiologic, pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, pharmacologic, toxicologic, and antimicrobial properties ...
Flachowsky Gerhard - - 2005
Plant breeders have made and will continue to make important contributions toward meeting the need for more and better feed and food. The use of new techniques to modify the genetic makeup of plants to improve their properties has led to a new generation of crops, grains and their by-products ...
Poortinga Wouter - - 2005
Although there is ample empirical evidence that trust in risk regulation is strongly related to the perception and acceptability of risk, it is less clear what the direction of this relationship is. This article explores the nature of the relationship, using three separate data sets on perceptions of genetically modified ...
Phillips Tania J - - 2005
Adapalene, tazarotene, and tretinoin are topical retinoids that are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and have overall favorable safety profiles. These agents are effective in a variety of skin disorders. Local adverse events, seen especially during the early course of treatment, include peeling, erythema, dryness, burning, ...
Adams T B - - 2005
This publication is the eighth in a series of safety evaluations performed by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA). In 1993, the panel initiated a comprehensive program to re-evaluate the safety of more than 1700 GRAS flavoring substances under conditions of intended use. Elements that ...
Adams T B - - 2005
This publication is the ninth in a series of safety evaluations performed by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA). In 1993, the Panel initiated a comprehensive program to re-evaluate the safety of more than 1700 GRAS flavoring substances under conditions of intended use. Elements that ...
Friedhoff R A - - 2005
Effective assurance of microbiological food safety practices in small and/or less developed businesses is not yet resolved. Although a start has been made by drafting hygiene codes, feasible methods for verifying manufacturing processes that rely on strict and meaningful criteria to be applied to process points are still lacking. This ...
Alexander C - - 2005
The importance of major stakeholders participating in the formulation of strategies for maintaining food safety and agricultural production following a nuclear accident has been successfully demonstrated by the UK 'Agriculture and Food Countermeasures Working Group' (AFCWG). The organisation, membership and terms of reference of the group are described. Details are ...
Vassioukovitch O - - 2005
Species identification represents a critical issue in food chain safety and quality control. Several procedures are available to detect animal proteins in cattle feed or to trace transgenic foods. The most effective approach is based on the use of DNA as a marker. Amplification of DNA provides rapid, sensitive and ...
Lin Ming-Yu - - 2005
A droplet-based microfluidic system was developed for biochemical assays of triglycerides and methanol as potential applications in medical rapid diagnostics and food safety. We present a novel platform to manipulate biology reaction droplets with features of self-moving, self-mixing, and self-positioning toward the detection spot. The driving force comes from the ...
Bánáti D - - 2005
Food safety problems are gaining importance throughout Europe. National food safety strategies are required and in the center of these strategies are consumers. The aim of our study was to analyse the behavior of Hungarian consumers and their food safety-related knowledge based on cluster analysis of principal component scores. We ...
von Wright Atte - - 2005
This article reviews pertinent legislation regulating the safety of probiotics within the European Union (EU). Currently available probiotic organisms and known issues regarding their safety are briefly summarised. While most of the species and genera, particularly lactobacilli and bifidobacteria are apparently safe, certain micro-organisms may be problematic; particularly the enterococci, ...
Gingerich D A - - 2005
Bovine milk-derived ingredients from cows hyperimmunized with a variety of antigens have been available experimentally or commercially for several decades. Although the safety of milk is rarely questioned, an assessment of ingredients derived from the milk of cows hyperimmunized with a proprietary bacterin (S100) was made to determine that these ...
Redmond Elizabeth C - - 2004
Consumer perceptions of risk, control and responsibility related to microbial food safety in domestic food preparation have been investigated. Results showed that consumers demonstrated judgements of 'optimistic-bias' and the 'illusion of control', as well as notions of perceived invulnerability to food poisoning from self-prepared foods. Statistical associations between perceptions of ...
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