Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 698
< 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 >
Lee Y K - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To examine the perceived knowledge and attitudes of dietitians licensed in Oregon (LDs) regarding the effectiveness and safety of functional foods, nutrient supplements, and herbs as complementary medicine as well as their personal use, recommendations for the use of others, and training needs. DESIGN: A mailed survey was used ...
Philip K E - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether a nutrient-fortified fluid-thickening agent (Pablum, H. J. Heinz Co of Canada, North York, Ontario, Canada) replaces nutrients lost to food displacement associated with its use. DESIGN: Seven-day, investigator-weighted, food intake records were evaluated to determine the prevalence of nutrient inadequacy. Nutrient intakes, including and excluding those ...
Craig M R - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To understand how days with atypical food intake affect estimates of usual nutrient intake from 4-day food records. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: Secondary analyses of 4-day food records (4DFRs) (n = 2,560) collected from 1,090 women, aged 50 to 79 years, who participated in the Women's Trial Feasibility Study in Minority Populations, ...
Jang S R - - 2000
A simple food chain which consists of nutrient, prey and predator in which nutrient is growth limiting at low concentrations but growth inhibiting at high concentrations is investigated in this study. It is assumed that the nutrient concentration is separated into internal and external nutrient concentration and only the internal ...
Bruce A - - 2000
The remarkable increase over the past 40 years in some chronic diseases, including the metabolic syndrome, has increased the demand for government and international policies to encourage various approaches to decrease the risk of these disease. There are some prerequisites for working out successful national food and nutrition policies. Firstly, ...
Monteiro J P - - 2000
AIM: To verify whether malnourished inpatients receiving a typical Brazilian diet meet their food requirements. METHODS: Thirty-five consecutive surgical and medical hospitalized adults, able to feed themselves, received rice and beans based diets for 3 consecutive days. All served food was weighed before and after the meals. Nutrient intake was ...
Winkler G - - 2000
The study analyses 10-year trends (1984/1985-1994/1995) in southern Germany in the food sources of nutrients. In two phases of the MONICA Project in Augsburg, dietary surveys were conducted in subsamples of 45 to 64 year-old men. Responses in 1984/1985 and 1994/1995 were 69.8% and 70.8% with eligible samples of 603 ...
Buttriss J - - 2000
In 1991, dietary reference values were published in the UK. These refer to nutrients and provide the basis for dietary advice. To complement this, practical food-based guidance on how to plan a healthy and balanced diet has been developed. Interest continues in how best to establish guidance which helps individuals ...
Heer M - - 2000
An inadequate nutrient intake during space flight may compromise the crewmembers' health status. In fact, during recent European missions (D-2, EuroMIR 94 and EuroMIR 95), monitoring of the astronauts' food intake revealed that they had a deficient energy, fluid, and calcium intake and an excessive sodium consumption compared to the ...
Billen G - - 1999
Although coastal eutrophication is generally recognised as a recent phenomenon related to the well-documented increase in riverine nutrient delivery during the last 30 or 40 years, a few historical records paradoxically show that, in some places like the Southern Bight of the North Sea, or the Northern Adriatic, algal proliferation ...
Anderson A S - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: A novel system for nutrient analysis has been developed and tested over 5 years. Its key features are a nutrient database of 600 commonly eaten foods (95% of foods eaten in 7-day surveys); a booklet identifying each food with a bar code, bar codes for gram weight and for ...
Cowin I - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To assess the degree of underestimation of nutrient intakes caused by missing data in McCance and Widdowson's food tables and supplements, the standard food tables used in the UK. SUBJECTS: 1026 children aged 18 months. SETTING: A research clinic in Bristol. INTERVENTIONS: A 3-day dietary diary was completed for ...
Brussaard J H - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To discuss the approach of the US Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) to daily nutrient requirements and its relevance for Europe. SETTING: A workshop for experts from academia and regulatory bodies, together with members from the FNB Dietary Reference Intakes Subcommittee on Upper Reference Levels of Intake, and from ...
Beecher G R - - 1999
Several "traditional" nutrients and dietary fiber have been associated with both increased and decreased risk of chronic diseases. However, there are many minor components in foods, particularly plant-derived foods, that elicit biologic responses in mammalian systems that are consistent with reduced risk of one or more chronic diseases (phytonutrients). These ...
Nieman D C - - 1999
The available evidence supports neither a beneficial nor a detrimental effect of a vegetarian diet on physical performance capacity, especially when carbohydrate intake is controlled for. Concerns have been raised that an emphasis on plant foods to enhance carbohydrate intake and optimize body glycogen stores may lead to increases in ...
Nasir A - - 1999
To evaluate the effect of corticosterone on nutrient transport, 10-week-old male chickens were grouped in 4 categories and treated as follows: sham-operated, adrenalectomised, corticosterone (4 mg/kg injected subcutaneously for 5 d) in both sham-operated and adrenalectomised. The food intake, food passage time and uptake of calcium, phosphorus and glucose were ...
McCullough M L - - 1999
Accuracy of computerized nutrient databases is an important consideration in selecting a nutrient analysis system. We project compared the nutrient content of daily menus calculated from 4 microcomputer programs to chemical analysis of menus analyzed for the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) trial. Thirty-six menus were entered at 2 ...
Swain J F - - 1999
Outpatient feeding studies are being used increasingly more often than inpatient studies because they are less expensive to conduct and less disruptive to participants' daily lives. Frequently, however, they are more difficult to implement. Studies involving multiple feeding centers add an additional layer of cooperation, coordination, and standardization to the ...
French S J - - 1999
Regulation of short-term energy intake involves the balance of positive drives to eat arising from the sight, smell and palatability of food with negative feedback signals from learned associations, gastrointestinal and metabolic signals. The stomach and small intestine are major sites in the feedback inhibition of food intake and subsequent ...
Lin P H - - 1999
Establishing target levels of nutrients in feeding studies presents a challenge to dietitians. Although researchers studying energy-containing nutrients, such as protein and fat, commonly establish target levels according to body weight or as a percentage of energy, it is less clear how to establish levels of micronutrients. Typically, a constant ...
Butterfield G E - - 1999
Travel to terrestrial altitudes greater than 2500 m, for more than 2 to 3 days, results in acute and long-term physiologic adaptations with the potential to profoundly affect the requirements for some nutrients. This article discusses the evidence for these increased requirements and makes recommendations regarding appropriate intakes at high ...
Cid-Ruzafa J - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To describe the reported usual dietary intakes of the participants in the Salisbury Eye Evaluation (SEE) project and to estimate the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intakes using the probability approach. SUBJECTS/SETTING: A representative sample of elderly residents (aged 65 to 85 years) of Salisbury, Md. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey, using ...
Hoffman L D - - 1999
Electroencephalographic (EEG) activity and auditory event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were assessed in two groups (n = 12 each) of subjects. The 'food-nutrient' group had fasted from the night before and consumed a 500 cal nutrient drink; the 'control' group consumed breakfast but did not consume any nutrients during the recordings. ...
Jacobs Starkey L - - 1999
The number of individuals and families accessing food assistance programs has continued to grow throughout the 1990s. Despite the increased health risk among low-income people, few studies have addressed nutrient intake throughout the month or at the end of the month when food and financial resources are thought to be ...
Dehne L I - - 1999
This article describes the conception and structure of the German Food Code and Nutrient Data Base (BLS). The data bank contains approx. 12,000 coded foods, menus and menu components in different stages of processing with up to 158 nutritional data for each product. Since comparatively few analytical data on the ...
Rainey C J - - 1999
Interest in boron as a naturally occurring trace element nutrient from the food supply is increasing. Mounting evidence suggests that boron is essential to human beings. This study explores the major food and beverage contributors of boron and estimates of daily boron intake from the American diet. Previous estimates in ...
Deharveng G - - 1999
Food composition tables were studied from nine European countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC): Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Great Britain, Italy, The Netherlands, Spain and Sweden. They were compared from the point view of availability, definition, analytical methods, and mode of expression of the ...
Berti Peter R. - - 1999
In evaluating adequacy of nutrient intake and relative contribution of locally harvested food (i.e., "traditional" food) and imported market food for 164 Baffin Inuit children and adolescents, 604 24-hour recalls were obtained over a one-year period (1987 to 1988). Market food contributed an average of 84% of dietary energy and ...
Winkler G - - 1998
Survey data on contemporary supplement intake in Germany are scarce, and the contribution of supplements to nutrient intake is especially unclear. In the MONICA Project Augsburg a dietary survey using 7-day weighed records was carried out in a subsample of 607 eligible men aged 45-64 years from the city of ...
Hatløy A - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: This study assesses whether a simple count of food items and food groups can predict the nutritional adequacy of the diet in an economically poor country. DESIGN: A three-day weighed record of children. SETTING: Koutiala town, in Southeastern Mali. SUBJECTS: Seventy-seven children, 13-58 months of age. One child was ...
Meyer J H - - 1998
Chemosensors throughout small bowel and colon inhibit food intakes when contacted by monomeric nutrients. We postulated that calorie-dependent inhibition of food intakes depended on additions of feedbacks from sensors in proximal and distal bowel contacted after high intakes of nutrients. Therefore, we determined how feedback from sensors in proximal gut ...
Michaelsen K F - - 1998
The growth of children in developing countries often declines with the introduction of complementary foods around the age of 6 mo and continues to decline up to 18 mo. These growth deficits are accompanied by delayed development and increased morbidity and mortality. The main cause is nutritionally inadequate and often ...
Dallongeville J - - 1998
The aim of this investigation was to assess the relationship between smoking status and nutrient intakes using a meta-analysis. Publications in English were sought through a Medline search using the following key words: food habits, eating, feeding behavior, diet, food, nutrition, nutritional status or assessment, tobacco use disorder, tobacco, nicotine ...
Gupta P C - - 1998
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship of specific nutrients and food items with oral precancerous lesions among tobacco users. DESIGN: A population-based case-control study. SETTING: Villages in Palitana taluk of Bhavnagar district, Gujarat, India. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: An interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaire, developed and validated for this population, was used to ...
Koletzko B - - 1998
Few other aspects of food supply and metabolism are of greater biological importance than the feeding of mothers during pregnancy and lactation, and of their infants and young children. Nutritional factors during early development not only have short-term effects on growth, body composition and body functions but also exert long-term ...
Ripp S - - 1998
Pseudolysogeny is an environmental condition in which the starved bacterial cell coexists in an unstable relationship with infecting viral genomes. As nutrients are supplied to the bacterium, the pseudolysogens resolve into either true lysogeny or active production of virions. The direct result of pseudolysogenic relationships is an extension of the ...
Bengmark S - - 1998
Clinical enteral nutrition solutions, produced by mixing chemicals or defined nutrients, have repeatedly been shown to lack important ingredients; in the formulation of these solutions several key nutrients have simply been overlooked. The aim of this particular issue of the journal is to discuss some of these nutrients that were ...
Yates A A - - 1998
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) represent the new approach adopted by the Food and Nutrition Board to providing quantitative estimates of nutrient intakes for use in a variety of settings, replacing and expanding on the past 50 years of periodic updates and revisions of the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs). The DRI ...
Murphy J L - - 1998
The gastrointestinal problems in cystic fibrosis (CF) may limit energy and nutrient availability and also cause symptoms such as abdominal pain and disturbed bowel habit which may further suppress appetite or alter the diet. Taken together this may lead to an inadequate supply of energy and nutrients to meet the ...
Aggett P J - - 1998
Different approaches are used to determine ideal ranges of intakes and threshold levels of safe intakes for nutrients. A consequence of this is that, for inorganic nutrients particularly, a safe level set by traditional toxicologic procedures might be compromised because it is inconsistent with physiologic observations and customary intakes and ...
Tsubono Y - - 1998
OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which interpopulation (between-population) variance, relative to intrapopulation (within-population) variance, contribute to the total variability in nutrient intakes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Five Public Health Center districts in Japan. SUBJECTS: Two hundred and seven men and 183 spouses. INTERVENTIONS: A three-day weighed food record. MAIN ...
Rose D - - 1998
We examined the effects of household participation in the Food Stamp and WIC Nutrition Programs on the nutrient intakes of preschoolers using data from the 1989-1991 Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals. Nonbreastfeeding children, 1-4 y of age, with 3 d of dietary data and whose households had incomes ...
Mertz W - - 1998
History has shown that the consumption of a balanced diet in adequate amounts is consistent with survival of mankind. This fact demonstrates that for each essential nutrient there is not one, but a range of safe and adequate intakes. In the past, the determination of the two endpoints of that ...
Ciappellano S - - 1998
A market based of 91 food items was purchased in Northern Italy, based on a list taken from a food survey previously conducted in the same area. The food items from the survey were grouped into 14 categories. Food samples were collected, homogenized, and frozen for the analysis of both ...
Receveur O - - 1998
Calcium and vitamin A have consistently been reported as nutrients at risk among northern indigenous peoples in Canada. Using a data set recently collected in the Sahtú region of Denendeh, Northwest Territories, potential sources of bias and their effect on estimates of dietary intake are investigated. Calcium and vitamin A ...
Wilson C D - - 1998
Sweet potato has been selected as one of the crops for NASA's Advanced Life Support Program. Sweet potato primarily provides carbohydrate--an important energy source, beta-carotene, and ascorbic acid to a space diet. This study focuses on menus incorporating two sets of sweet potato recipes developed at Tuskegee University. One set ...
Wein E E - - 1998
In order to describe daily food patterns and nutrient intakes of adults in the Inuit community of Sanikiluaq, 48 adults (young and older men and women, 12 per group, randomly selected from all individuals within their age and sex group) provided two 24-hour recalls of food consumption, once each in ...
Worthington V - - 1998
The increasing use of alternative therapies that rely on organically grown foods has renewed interest in the relationship between agricultural methods and food quality. The purpose of this article is to review the literature produced over the last 50 years comparing the nutritional quality of organic with conventional crops. Whereas ...
Rose D - - 1997
OBJECTIVES: Understanding the nutritional consequences of food insufficiency is important for informed policy-making that addresses the problem of domestic hunger. This study estimated the extent to which individuals from food-insufficient households were likely to have low intakes of energy and 14 other nutrients. METHODS: The diets of pre-schoolers, adult women, ...
Brown R G - - 1997
The market presents the buyer with a wide array of pet food choices. Marketing pet foods has changed in the last decade and today foods may be bought at a variety of outlets. The present study compares nutrient composition, digestibility, and effect on urine pH (cat foods only) of selected ...
< 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 >