Search Results
Results 351 - 400 of 698
< 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 >
Sajilata G - - 2002
Although breastmilk is adequate to meet the energy and nutrient requirements of an infant up to four to six months of age, thereafter it is insufficient to sustain normal growth and needs to be supplemented with other foods, such as weaning foods. However, the capacity of a weaning diet to ...
Miller Sanford A. - - 2002
The identification of an increasing number of substances in foods that have health-related biologic activity has opened a serious debate concerning the definition of a nutrient. Although there may be advantages to differentiating these food-borne substances as nutrients and non-nutrients, it is important to recognize that these substances have both ...
Rao B S Narasinga - - 2002
An analysis of current dietary intakes of preschool and school children and adolescents belonging to poor income groups in India indicate that they suffer from deficiencies of several nutrients with associated clinical and functional consequences. The observed deficiencies include energy, calcium, iron, zinc, vitamin A, riboflavin, ascorbic acid, and folate. ...
Ireland J - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To harmonize food classification and food composition databases, allowing comparability of consumption at both food and nutrient levels in Europe. DESIGN: To establish the level of comparability at the food level, the EFCOSUM group benefited from the work already carried out within other European projects, which established a Euro ...
Duggan Christopher - - 2002
Epithelial and other cells of the gastrointestinal mucosa rely on both luminal and bloodstream sources for their nutrition. The term functional food is used to describe nutrients that have an effect on physiologic processes that is separate from their established nutritional function, and some of these nutrients are proposed to ...
Hess L - - 2002
The owners of 135 pet birds were surveyed by questionnaire to determine their birds' weekly food consumption. The birds were divided into six food groups on the basis of the amounts of seeds, formulated products and human food they consumed. The formulated products and seeds were analysed for their nutrient ...
Rabalais Nancy N - - 2002
Aquatic ecosystems respond variably to nutrient enrichment and altered nutrient ratios, along a continuum from fresh water through estuarine, coastal, and marine systems. Although phosphorus is considered the limiting nutrient for phytoplankton production in freshwater systems, the effects of atmospheric nitrogen and its contribution to acidification of fresh waters can ...
Grover James P - - 2002
Models are examined in which two prey species compete for two nutrient resources, and are preyed upon by a predator that recycles both nutrients. Two factors determine the effective relative supply of the nutrients, hence competitive outcomes: the external nutrient supply ratio, and the relative recycling of the two nutrients ...
Nicklas Theresa A - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficiency of breakfast consumption patterns in terms of nutrient-to-cost comparisons. DESIGN: Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls were collected and food items named were priced (prices from local grocery stores and restaurants were averaged). Three breakfast consumption groups were identified: restaurant foods (fast foods), ready-to-eat (RTE) cereal, and other ...
Darmon Nicole - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Food consumption surveys are often used to detect inadequate nutrient intakes but not to determine whether inadequate nutrient intakes are due to suboptimal use of locally available foods or to insufficient availability of nutrient-dense foods. OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to describe the use of linear programming as a method ...
Emmett Pauline - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To investigate food and nutrient intakes in 3-year-old children. SUBJECTS: Eight hundred and sixty-three children resident in South West England (69% of those invited at this age), a randomly selected sub-sample of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ALSPAC). METHODS: Diet was assessed using a 3-day descriptive ...
Ogawa Keiko - - 2002
We determined the sources of nutrient intake of 59 men and 60 women in two rural towns in the Miyagi Prefecture, a northeastern part of Japan. Four 3-day food records were collected in four seasons within a year. The total dishes and recipes were classified into 197 items. Their percent ...
Thathola Anju - - 2002
A weaning food based on malted foxtail millet flour (30%), malted barnyard millet flour (30%), roasted soybean flour (25%) and skim milk powder (15%) was prepared. The mix contained 18.37 g protein and 398 kcal energy per 100g. The nutrient composition of this unfortified weaning (UW) mix met the Prevention ...
Ramaiah N - - 2002
AIMS: Physiological responses of marine luminous bacteria, Vibrio harveyi (ATCC 14216) and V. fischeri (UM1373) to nutrient-limited normal strength (35 ppt iso-osmolarity) and low (10 ppt hypo-osmolarity) salinity conditions were determined. METHODS AND RESULTS: Plate counts, direct viable counts, actively respiring cell counts, nucleoid-containing cell counts, and total counts were ...
Guo-Ross Shirley X - - 2002
Choline, a dietary compound present in many foods, has recently been classified as an essential nutrient for humans. There is evidence from animal models that the availability of choline during the prenatal period influences neural and cognitive development. Here we report that choline supplementation during a 6 d gestational period ...
Onyango Adelheid W - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To understand the relative contributions of breast milk and the weaning diet to overall nutrient intake, with a view to designing and implementing appropriate programmes to improve complementary feeding in developing countries. METHODS: Complementary food intake was measured in a sample of 250 toddlers (mean baseline age: 13.9 +/- ...
Ge K Y - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: Based on the data collected in the 1992 national nutrition survey in China, the food consumption and nutrients intake were calculated, and the consumption of some micronutrients was evaluated. METHOD: Dietary data were obtained by using a three days' inventory change plus food weighing in combination with 24 hours ...
Greenhalgh S - - 2001
Nutrient pollution, now the leading cause of water quality impairment in the U.S., has had significant impact on the nation"s waterways. Excessive nutrient pollution has been linked to habitat loss, fish kills, blooms of toxic algae, and hypoxia (oxygen-depleted water). The hypoxic "dead zone" in the Gulf of Mexico is ...
Jones S A. - - 2001
Synthetic foods varying in protein-carbohydrate ratio and total nutrient concentration were used in food selection experiments to investigate the ingestive and post-ingestive regulation of macronutrients by male and female nymphs of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). For both nutrient imbalance and food dilution, food ingestion varied between ...
Matsuda-Inoguchi N - - 2001
This study was initiated to examine if the revision of the food composition tables from the 4th version to the 5th version has induced any substantial changes in nutrient intake estimation, and if so, in which nutrient item and to what extent. For this purpose, 24-hour duplicates of food samples ...
Berner L A - - 2001
The objective of this work was to quantify the contribution of fortification (defined here as adding nutrients beyond traditional enrichment standards) to dietary nutrient intakes in the United States. A list of fortified foods was developed that was relevant at the time of the analyses, and prefortification (naturally occurring) nutrients ...
Chandy J P - - 2001
Understanding the contribution of both organic and inorganic nutrients to biofilm development and the subsequent impact of developed biofilms on disinfectant decay are important requirements for distribution system management strategies. Nutrient limitation may be one way to control biofilm development without increasing disinfectant dosing. Little is known, however, of the ...
Noble S - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To investigate food and nutrient intakes in 8-month-old infants. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ALSPAC), south-west England. SUBJECTS: A total of 1131 singleton Caucasian infants (82% of those invited) from a 10% random sample of ALSPAC, known as Children in Focus (CIF). METHODS: ...
Sudo N - - 2001
Based on a 4-day questionnaire survey for all meals and snacks consumed by female workers in a computer factory in Japan, consisting of 44 daytime workers and 93 weekly-rotating shift workers (of whom 47 and 46 were engaged in, respectively, early-shift work and late-shift work during the survey week), the ...
Dou Z - - 2001
Reliable estimation of nutrient concentrations is required to manage animal manure for protecting waters while sustaining crop production. This study was conducted to investigate sample variability and reliable nutrient analysis for several manure types and handling systems. Serial samples were collected from dairy, swine, and broiler poultry operations while manure ...
Walczyk T - - 2001
Over the past two decades, new applications of inorganic mass spectrometry have been made possible by the use of stable isotopes as tracers in studies of mineral and trace element metabolism in man. Stable isotope techniques and radioisotope methods are the only reliable tools available for determination of the absorption, ...
Sheiham A - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: To assess how the dental status of older people affected their stated ability to eat common foods, their nutrient intake and some nutrition-related blood analytes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey part of nation-wide British National Diet and Nutrition Survey: people aged 65 years and older. Data from a questionnaire were linked ...
Benezra L M - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine if the food exchange system allows subjects' nutrient intake to remain at recommended levels during a weight-loss program. DESIGN: Subjects in an intervention were prescribed an energy-restriction diet and exercise program lasting 32 weeks, and nutrient intake was measured prestudy and ...
Tucker K L - - 2001
Although dietary guidelines have long advised eating a variety of foods, most nutrition research has focused on specific nutrients and their relationships to health and disease. The recent failure of several randomized trials to confirm results of observational studies linking specific nutrients to disease outcomes, and a growing understanding of ...
de Jong N - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: The appraisal and acceptance of micronutrient-dense versus identical regular foods among frail elderly are described. METHODS: Four types of dairy and four types of fruit products, either enriched with multiple micronutrients or not, were consumed by 150 frail elders for 4 months. In the first 2 and last 2 ...
Kuhnlein H V - - 2001
Traditional food systems research with Canadian Indigenous Peoples has revealed many aspects of benefits and risks of the use of this food. Traditions based in hunting, fishing and gathering contain a great variety of species of wildlife plants and animals that provide rich cultural and nutritional benefits. Dietary change for ...
Leclercq C - - 2001
Sound food composition databases that are both comprehensive and representative of available foods are an essential basic tool to develop Food Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDG). The main drawbacks of current food composition databases available in the European Union are: partial coverage of foods and nutrients, variability of analytical data, lack ...
Heaney R P - - 2001
For non-metabolizable supplemental nutrients, bioavailability is effectively equivalent to absorbability. Methods for measuring absorbability (balance, pharmacokinetic, tracer, urine increment, evoked physiological responses, and in vitro) are briefly characterized and their utility compared. When intrinsic labeling of a source is possible, tracer methods are generally the most accurate and precise, as ...
Worthington V - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: To survey existing literature comparing nutrient content of organic and conventional crops using statistical methods to identify significant differences and trends in the data. DESIGN: Published comparative measurements of organic and conventional nutrient content were entered into a database for calculation. For each organic-to-conventional comparison, a percent difference was ...
Sandström B - - 2001
The nutrient targets derived from analysis of the relation between nutrient intake and disease prevalence or other scientific evidence, have to be translated into food-based guidelines in order to be understood by the general population. Furthermore, Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBGD) have to be realistic, attainable and culturally acceptable and should ...
Yates A A - - 2001
Dietary reference intakes (DRI), like its predecessor, the recommended dietary allowances (RDA) and the Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNIs), are reference values, based on the best scientific evidence available. They serve as reference amounts of specific nutrients and food components for use in assessing the adequacy of and in planning for ...
Leclercq C - - 2001
Food Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDG), in order to be attainable, should take into account the cultural context of the population for which they are developed. They need to focus on foods that actually determine the intake of nutrients for which desirable changes have been identified. Inter-individual variability of nutrient intakes--a ...
Martin A - - 2001
The apports nutritionnels conseillés (ANC) for the French population are the reference which are used in France to assess the nutritional status of the population. These references have been elaborated by a transparent and collective expert process, conferring on them an official reference. The originality of the French method was ...
de Groot C P - - 2001
In old age, the complex relation of food consumption with energy and nutrient requirements finds expression in both single and multiple nutritional problems. Addressing conditions affecting intake -- either from foods or from supplements -- endogenous production, bioefficacy and/or requirements can benefit nutritional health in old age through balancing requirements ...
Bode H - - 2001
In the catchment area of the Ruhr, restructuring and upgrading measures in the domain of wastewater and stormwater treatment have been under way since 1990 to successively implement the currently applicable legal requirements for nutrient removal. With 2.1 million inhabitants and a design capacity of 3.7 million population equivalents (PE), ...
Luo W - - 2001
A longitudinal survey of health and nutrition in China was undertaken in eight provinces (Liaoning, Jiangsu, Shandong, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Guangxi, Guizhou). Data were collected in 1989, 1991, 1993 and 1997. The 1991 and 1993 data were used to investigate factors affecting intrahousehold food distribution. The discrepancy score and the ...
Matsumura Y - - 2001
The National Nutrition Survey (NNS) in Japan has been undertaken annually since 1946. It was originally intended to provide information on the food and nutrient intake of the Japanese people, with a view to acquiring emergency food supplies from other countries when food shortages caused malnutrition in many Japanese. The ...
Brázdová Z - - 2000
Modern dietary guidelines set in terms of food groups are easy to use and understand for target populations, but rather complicated from the point of view of quantification, i.e. the correctly set number of recommended servings in different population groups according to age, sex, physical activity and physiological status on ...
Giddens J B - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To examine the dietary intake of pregnant adolescents during the second and third trimester of pregnancy, and to compare their nutrient intake with that of pregnant adults. DESIGN: Two 7-day food records (14 days) from subjects participating in a larger randomized clinical calcium trial: the first at 19 to ...
Leonard W.R. - - 2000
This study examines variation in dietary patterns and its influence on physical growth among children under 60 months of age from rural households of highland and coastal Ecuador. Differences in subsistence ecology between the regions appear to influence infant and early childhood feeding patterns. Coastal children are weaned significantly earlier ...
Baker J C - - 2000
The role of food intolerance in asthma is well recognized, and where food avoidance measures are instituted considerable improvement in asthma symptoms and in reduction in drug therapy and hospital admissions can result. These benefits may have a greater impact in those patients with greater symptoms. However, the promise of ...
Qu J B - - 2000
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to investigate possible urban-rural differences in food intakes in Jilin province and in continental China as a whole, and to examine possible implications for nutritional status of urban and rural populations. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Communities. SUBJECTS: In total, 499 adult women in ...
McVeagh P - - 2000
BACKGROUND: In Australia good food is abundant and relatively cheap but childhood obesity is increasing and many children are offered suboptimal nutrition. OBJECTIVE: The impediments to healthy food choices and strategies for promoting a healthy diet in childhood are discussed. DISCUSSION: Good nutrition in childhood is important, not only for ...
Kesh D - - 2000
This paper deals with the succession process of a food web model consisting of one herbivore, two autotrophs and available nutrient in the environment in a closed nutrient flux. The model provides a way of describing successional changes in the form of species replacement with increasing nutrient levels. It is ...
Robson P J - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the errors incurred by young adults using single portion size colour food photographs to quantify foods and nutrients consumed at six meals on two non-consecutive days. DESIGN: Breakfast menus remained the same for the 2 days; but lunch and dinner menus varied. The amounts of food eaten ...
< 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 >