Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 702
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Marti Eugènia - - 2004
We tested the effect of nutrient inputs from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on stream nutrient retention efficiency by examining the longitudinal patterns of ammonium, nitrate, and phosphate concentrations downstream of WWTP effluents in 15 streams throughout Catalonia (Spain). We hypothesized that large nutrient loadings would saturate stream communities, lowering nutrient ...
Piammongkol Sumalika - - 2004
The aims of this study were to determine food and nutrient intakes and the socio-economic factors influencing food and nutrient intakes of rural Thai-Muslim women in the third trimester of pregnancy. The study was conducted in Pattani province, Thailand, where 166 women were interviewed between 32 and 40 weeks gestation. ...
Backstrand Jeffrey R - - 2003
Nutrient density, the vitamin or mineral content of a food or diet per unit energy, has long been a useful concept in the nutritional sciences. However, few nutritionists have applied the idea in quantitative, population-based nutrition planning and assessment. This paper discusses the conceptual issues related to the calculation of ...
Hjeljord Linda Gordon - - 2003
ABSTRACT Trichoderma biocontrol isolates are most effective as highly concentrated inocula. Their antagonism to other fungi may be a result of pregermination respiration. In a nutrient-rich medium, almost all Trichoderma atroviride P1 (P1) conidia initiated germination processes and increased respiration, even in dense suspensions. When 1 x 10(7) P1 conidia/ml ...
Schneeman Barbara O - - 2003
Advice on eating behavior, food choices, and food preparation have been incorporated into philosophical and religious writings over the ages; however, in the past 150 years, these recommendations have been based on science related to public health policy and medicine. In the first half of the 20th century, the focus ...
Lee Kwang Pum - - 2003
In an earlier study, we showed that the ingestive responses of the generalist caterpillar Spodoptera littoralis to foods imbalanced in their protein:carbohydrate content is similar to generalist locusts, but differs from that of specialist-feeding locusts. Here we further pursued the comparison by repeating the experiments using a closely related specialist ...
Murphy Suzanne P - - 2003
Animal source foods can provide a variety of micronutrients that are difficult to obtain in adequate quantities from plant source foods alone. In the 1980s, the Nutrition Collaborative Research Support Program identified six micronutrients that were particularly low in the primarily vegetarian diets of schoolchildren in rural Egypt, Kenya and ...
McNamara C - - 2003
The Monte Carlo computational system for stochastic modelling of dietary exposure to food chemicals and nutrients is presented. This system was developed through a European Commission-funded research project. It is accessible as a Web-based application service. The system allows and supports very significant complexity in the data sets used as ...
Cooper S - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Achieving healthy eating targets for low income households can be difficult because of economic barriers. Several UK supermarkets have introduced 'value line' or 'economy line' foods to improve their attractiveness to low income consumers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The costs and nutrient contents of five 'economy' line products of four ...
Leclercq C - - 2003
The data currently available in the European Union in terms of food consumption and of food chemical and nutrient concentration data present many limitations when used for estimating intake. The most refined techniques currently available were used within the European Union FP5 Monte Carlo project to estimate, as accurately as ...
Obici Silvana - - 2003
Obesity is the result of an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. Under most circumstances, the increased availability of nutrients is tightly coupled with nutrient-sensing mechanisms that in turn activate appropriate behavioral and metabolic responses. The latter responses include decreases in food intake and the production of endogenous nutrients ...
Bartali Benedetta - - 2003
The purpose of the study was to provide information on dietary intake in the InCHIANTI study population, a representative sample (n = 1453) of persons living in two towns of Tuscany (Italy), including a large number of old and very old individuals (79.5% >65 y old). We also investigated whether ...
Hakala P - - 2003
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In international surveys of food consumption and nutrient intake, it is essential that the dietary data are comparable when different databases and calculation programs are used. The aim of the present analysis was to examine the comparability of nutrient intake data calculated on the basis of the ...
Chénier Martin R - - 2003
Biofilm communities cultivated in rotating annular bioreactors using water from the South Saskatchewan River were assessed for the effects of seasonal variations and nutrient (C, N, and P) additions. Confocal laser microscopy revealed that while control biofilms were consistently dominated by bacterial biomass, the addition of nutrients shifted biofilms of ...
Alexy Ute - - 2003
The aim of the present analysis was to evaluate the effect of intake of added sugars on intakes of nutrients and food groups. We used a mixed linear model (PROC MIXED) to analyse data from the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) study (an ongoing longitudinal cohort study between ...
Henry C Jeya K - - 2003
The present study investigated the effect of natural food flavours on food and nutrient intake in hospitalized elderly patients in Hong Kong. Food intake was directly measured for breakfast, lunch and dinner over five consecutive days -- two control days and three experimental days. For the three experimental days, six ...
Nielsen Karina J - - 2003
Human activities are significantly altering nutrient regimes and the abundance of consumers in coastal ecosystems. A field experiment in an open-coast, upwelling ecosystem showed that small increases in nutrients increased the biomass and evenness of tide pool macrophytes where consumer abundance and nutrient loading rates were low. Consumers, when abundant, ...
German J Bruce - - 2003
Foods are not purified compounds acting on single molecular targets, but complex mixtures of molecules that modulate many biochemical pathways simultaneously. Diet affects the probability of developing various diseases. Nevertheless, specific recommendations for individual diets are not simple. Recommending nutrient intakes above and beyond those needed to provide adequacy requires ...
Braakhuis Andrea J - - 2003
A routine activity for a sports dietitian is to estimate energy and nutrient intake from an athlete's self-reported food intake. Decisions made by the dietitian when coding a food record are a source of variability in the data. The aim of the present study was to determine the variability in ...
Davis Cindy D - - 2003
A host of bioactive food components have been proposed to promote health and reduce the risk of disease states. It is clear that not all individuals respond identically to these essential and nonessential food components. Genetic polymorphisms may influence absorption, metabolism and accumulation of bioactive food components, thereby influencing their ...
Geddes Pamela - - 2003
The riverine grass shrimp (Palaemonetes paludosus) and eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) consume periphyton and small invertebrates, potentially affecting periphyton through negative effects (i.e., consumption) and/or positive effects such as nutrient regeneration, physical stimulation, and trophic cascades. We performed field experiments in the Everglades in which omnivores and periphyton were maintained ...
Marcenes Wagner - - 2003
This paper reviewed the findings from a national survey in Great Britain which assessed whether dental status affected older people's food selection, nutrient intake, and nutritional status. The survey analyzed national random samples of free-living and institution subjects for dental examination, interview, and four-day food diary as well as blood ...
Gibson Rosalind S - - 2003
The essential design and quality control aspects of dietary assessment, randomized controlled trials (RCT) in developing countries and their subsequent meta-analysis are reviewed. Dietary assessment protocols consist of three stages: measurement of food intakes using a method appropriate for the study objectives, calculation of nutrient intakes and finally an evaluation ...
Meltzer Helle M - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To describe how a risk analysis can be applied to food fortification, with emphasis on voluntary fortification and intake levels that might exceed usual dietary levels. DESIGN: Use of the risk analysis model as a frame to classify nutrients according to the risk of exceeding upper safe intake levels. ...
Coulston Ann M. - - 2003
A wealth of nutrition information has been published during the past decade on the healthful nature of nuts. As nut consumption increases, cardiovascular disease risk decreases. This cardioprotective effect of nut consumption is beyond what would be predicted from the fatty acid profile alone. Nuts are a rich source of ...
L'Abbé Mary R - - 2003
For many nutrients, a systematic determination of the effects of high intakes over extended periods of time has not been conducted. Governments and scientific bodies have just begun to establish the methodology for, and to conduct, nutrient risk assessments for setting 'tolerable upper levels of intake' (UL) for nutrients. Nutrient ...
Turner R Elaine - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether nutrient intake from food alone was adequate across trimesters for middle- to upper-income pregnant women when compared with estimated average requirements (EAR), and to determine whether food intake exceeded the tolerable upper intake level (UL) for any nutrient. DESIGN: Observational study in which pregnant women completed ...
Yamamuro M - - 2003
In a coral reef environment, a slight increase in dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN;> or =1.0 micro M) can alter the ecosystem via macroalgal blooms. We collected seagrass leaves from the tropical and subtropical Pacific Ocean in five countries and examined the interactions between nutrient concentrations (C, N, P), molar ratios ...
Stibor Herwig - - 2003
Mixotrophy, a combination of phototrophic and phagotrophic nutrition, has been found in several classes of phytoplankton (Booras et al. 1988, Jones 2000) and appears to be a successful evolutionary strategy. Heterotrophic nutrition of phytoplankton has been suggested to be an important source of mineral nutrients (Nygaard and Tobiesen 1993). Potentially ...
Dewey Kathryn G - - 2003
This paper provides an update to the 1998 WHO/UNICEF report on complementary feeding. New research findings are generally consistent with the guidelines in that report, but the adoption of new energy and micronutrient requirements for infants and young children will result in lower recommendations regarding minimum meal frequency and energy ...
Wang Ying-Ming - - 2003
The intake of food and nutrients differs between urban and rural areas in China. To develop a practical semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire to cover both the urban and rural areas, we conducted diet surveys and compared food and nutrient intake between the two areas. We recruited 198 urban and 214 ...
Carriquiry Alicia L - - 2003
The issue of estimating usual intake distributions using daily intake data as collected by nationwide food consumption surveys is discussed. Of interest are not only the usual nutrient intake distributions based on food intake alone, but also the total nutrient intake distributions that must be based on information on food ...
Dwyer Johanna - - 2003
Relative strengths and potential approaches for improvement of food and dietary supplement databases used for tabulating intakes from the dietary component of the What We Eat in America-National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) are discussed. The U.S. Department of Agriculture's Nutrient Data Laboratory develops and maintains the Nutrient Databank ...
Bell Ronny A - - 2003
This paper describes the major food sources of selected nutrients for an ethnically diverse sample of older adults in rural North Carolina. A representative sample of 130 elders (> 70 years) completed semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires. Percentages of foods most frequently consumed as the lead source of seven nutrients were ...
Fey-Yensan Nancy - - 2003
Nutrition risk, nutrient intake, and selected socioeconomic characteristics of elderly food stamp recipients were compared with elderly people who were eligible for food stamps but did not participate in the program. Data were collected by survey using a convenience sample of 200 low-income elderly people living in subsidized housing. Although ...
Palaniappan U - - 2003
Day-to-day variability in dietary intake makes it difficult to measure accurately the "usual" intake of foods and nutrients. The objectives of the present study were to estimate within- and between-subject variability for foods and nutrients by adjusted and unadjusted models and to assess the number of days required to assess ...
Abrams S A - - 2003
Food fortification with minerals is often undertaken without consideration of the bioavailability or nutrient-nutrient interactions related to its use. Stable isotopes provide a safe and accessible approach to providing direct evidence regarding these issues. Studies can be applied in all areas of the world and in all population groups. Mineral ...
Kant Ashima K - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: Children's self perception of body weight and the medical definition of obesity show poor correlation. This study examined the independent associations of body mass index (BMI) and self-perceived weight status (considered self over-, under-, or right weight) with food reporting, nutrient intake estimates, and biomarkers of dietary exposure. RESEARCH ...
Sharkey Joseph R - - 2002
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of inadequate nutrient intakes among the homebound elderly and their correlation with individual characteristics and health-related factors remain poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the extent of inadequate dietary intakes of key nutrients among the homebound elderly by using the newly released dietary reference intakes and examined the ...
Gagiano Marco - - 2002
Heterotrophic organisms rely on the ingestion of organic molecules or nutrients from the environment to sustain energy and biomass production. Non-motile, unicellular organisms have a limited ability to store nutrients or to take evasive action, and are therefore most directly dependent on the availability of nutrients in their immediate surrounding. ...
Puwastien Prapasri - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: To share experience on the development of national and regional food composition tables (FCTs) and the issues and problems involved. DESIGN: Food composition data analysed at national and regional levels were compiled. Systematic development of FCTs detailing specific criteria and characteristics following the INFOODS and ASEANFOODS guidelines was conducted. ...
Prynne C J - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether there was food and nutrient equality across occupational social classes and geographical region for members of the 1946 British birth cohort at age 4 years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of selected food groups, energy and nutrients from one-day recall diet records. SETTING: England, Scotland and Wales in ...
Mwashote Benjamin M - - 2002
Fluxes of dissolved inorganic nutrients: NH4+, NO2-, NO3-, PO4(3-) and Si(OH)4 from nearshore sediments of Gazi Bay were measured in situ within mangrove, seagrass and coral reef biotopes using benthic flux bell-jar chambers of cross-sectional area 0.066 m2 and volume 0.0132 m3. The objectives were: (1) to determine the influence ...
Kerwin Joseph - - 2002
Food systems and meal components are constantly under review and development at the National Aerospace and Space Administration. The goal of this work is to generate a diet that meets the nutrient requirements of astronauts and satiates them. The constraints involved in shorter- and longer-term missions are described. The insight ...
Nakamura Mieko - - 2002
The National Nutrition Survey is a unique survey that provides nationwide information on nutrient intake in Japan. Descriptive statistical data of nutrient intake, which has not been described in annual reports, are summarized in this report. A dataset from the National Nutrition Survey between 1995 and 1999 was used for ...
Marshall Teresa A - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Limited food choices and inadequate nutrient intake are linked to poor oral health. The authors describe relationships between dietary variety, nutrient intake and oral health measures in community-dwelling, rural Iowans aged 79 years and older. METHODS: Dental examinations were conducted by trained and calibrated examiners, and trained interviewers completed ...
Alexy Ute - - 2002
High intakes of added sugars have often been suspected of lowering nutrient density, especially in the diet of children and adolescents. Because fortified foods, which currently contribute considerably to the intake of vitamins and minerals, are often also sweetened with added sugars, they could counteract this nutrient dilution. Data from ...
Joyanes M - - 2002
BACKGROUND: In the last decade, research in the field of nutrition has grown both in width and depth, and has incorporated the advances of other scientific fields, like artificial intelligence theories. Specifically in the case of recommended nutrient intakes, the fuzzy theory is an interesting contribution to the development of ...
Murphy Suzanne P - - 2002
New Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are being set by the Institute of Medicine, and represent a new way of defining nutrient intake recommendations. For the first time, the recommendations for the United States and Canada allow the calculation of the probability of adequacy for an individual, and the prevalence of ...
Roth James D JD Department of Ecology, Evolution and Behavior, University of Minnesota, 1987 Upper Buford Circle, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA, USA, - - 2002
Consumption of marine foods by terrestrial predators can lead to increased predator densities, potentially impacting their terrestrial resources. For arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus), access to such marine foods in winter depends on sea ice, which is threatened by global climate change. To quantify the importance of marine foods (seal carrion ...
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