Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 703
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Slijkerman Diana M E - - 2005
An approach in determining ecosystem integrity and stress on ecosystem level is to assess processes within ecosystems. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential use of an in situ assay with immobilized Chlorella vulgaris as an indicator of effects on ecosystem functioning with regard to primary ...
- - 2005
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending its regulations concerning the maximum sodium levels permitted for foods that bear the implied nutrient content claim "healthy." The agency is retaining the currently effective, less restrictive, "first-tier" sodium level requirements for all food categories, including individual foods (480 milligrams (mg)) and ...
- - 2005
It is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA) that the best nutritional strategy for promoting optimal health and reducing the risk of chronic disease is to wisely choose a wide variety of foods. Additional nutrients from fortified foods and/or supplements can help some people meet their nutritional needs ...
Schwarz Rakefet - - 2005
Cyanobacteria are equipped with numerous mechanisms that allow them to survive under conditions of nutrient starvation, some of which are unique to these organisms. This review surveys the molecular mechanisms underlying acclimation responses to nitrogen and phosphorus deprivation, with an emphasis on non-diazotrophic freshwater cyanobacteria. As documented for other micro-organisms, ...
Lambert N - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to test the abilities of the newly created smart card system to track the nutrient contents of foods chosen over several months by individual diners in a school cafeteria. METHODS: From the food choice and composition of food data sets, an Access database ...
Lichtenstein Alice H AH Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, MA 02111, USA. - - 2005
The consumption of adequate levels and proper balance of essential nutrients is critical for maintaining health. The identification, isolation, and purification of nutrients in the early 20th century raised the possibility that optimal health outcomes could be realized through nutrient supplementation. Recent attempts using this approach for cardiovascular disease and ...
Antonia Liess
Nutritional constraints on herbivores are important factors structuring food webs. Our study presents field data on the nutrient content of benthic invertebrates from Lake Erken (Sweden). The most abundant benthic invertebrates of the littoral community were sampled in 3 seasons at 5 sites to examine the influence of spatial and ...
Motlagh Bahareh - - 2005
Patients with muscular dystrophy may be prone to nutrient deficiency due to mobility limitations or oropharyngeal weakness. Patients with myotonic muscular dystrophy (DM1) may be particularly prone to nutritional deficiencies from associated dysmotility of the entire gastrointestinal tract. We prospectively evaluated nutritional intake, body composition, and muscle strength in adult ...
Kennedy Eileen - - 2005
This paper reviews the process of developing the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) and provides a synopsis of the micronutrient status of women worldwide. At a 1993 symposium held by the Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) of the Institute of Medicine (IOM), it was decided that the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) ...
Dwyer Johanna T - - 2005
We summarize evidence on the role of dietary supplements in weight reduction, with particular attention to their safety and benefits. Dietary supplements are used for two purposes in weight reduction: (a) providing nutrients that may be inadequate in calorie-restricted diets and (b) for their potential benefits in stimulating weight loss. ...
Weider Lawrence J - - 2005
The role of stoichiometric food quality in influencing genotype coexistence and competitive interactions between clones of the freshwater microcrustacean, Daphnia pulex, was examined in controlled laboratory microcosm experiments. Two genetically distinct clones of D. pulex, which show variation in their ribosomal rDNA structure, as well as differences in a number ...
Taylor Christopher A - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To identify the core and secondary foods among Native-American women in Oklahoma and to determine their impact on nutrient and Food Guide Pyramid serving intakes. DESIGN: This descriptive study explored food intakes from 4-day weighed food records. Nutrient intakes were estimated using reference data used in national survey data. ...
Odenigbo, UM; Department of ...
The thrust of this work was to determine the effects of roasting, boiling, combination of roasting and boiling and soaking on the nutrient and anti-nutrient composition of <I>Afzelia Africana</I>. Two kilograms of <I>Afzelia Africana</I> seeds were purchased from the local market, cleaned and divided into four equal portions for the ...
Williams Peter - - 2005
The aim of this study was to describe the nutrients provided to Australian adults by the breakfast meal and to compare the food and nutrient intakes and health of regular breakfast eaters and breakfast skippers. The Australian Bureau of Statistics was commissioned to undertake additional analysis of data collected in ...
Glynn L - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: To describe the diet of schoolchildren aged 7 years, and identify gender differences in food and nutrient intakes. SUBJECTS: A cohort of children resident in the south-west of England in 1999/2000. METHODS: Diet was assessed using three 1-day unweighed food diaries. Nutrient intakes were compared with dietary reference values ...
Torres, Lisette E.
This study investigates how nutrient cycling rates and ratios vary among fish species and with body size, and how they are related to body nutrient contents according to predictions of ecological stoichiometry. Nutrient excretion rates and body nutrient contents of eight fish species in four families were estimated in a ...
Zhao Shu-jiang - - 2005
The inventories of nutrients in the surface water and large phytoplankton( > 69 microm) were analyzed from the data set of JERS ecological database about a typical coastal waters, the Jiaozhou Bay, China, from 1960s for N, P and from 1980s for Si. By examining long-term changes of nutrient concentration, ...
Wagner Karl-Heinz - - 2005
AIMS: Nutritional surveys in several countries worldwide showed an inadequate intake of some micronutrients. A possibility to challenge this development is the fortification of selected foods with micronutrients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the situation of food fortification in Austria and to elucidate to what extent added ...
Lakshmi A Jyothi - - 2005
The dietary adequacy (qualitative and quantitative) of preschool children residing in rural areas near Mysore (a district in south India) was assessed by the 'Food frequency method' and '24-h recall method'. Food intake assessed in three different seasons revealed that their diets were predominantly cereal based with negligible quantity of ...
Davis Donald R - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate possible changes in USDA nutrient content data for 43 garden crops between 1950 and 1999 and consider their potential causes. METHODS: We compare USDA nutrient content data published in 1950 and 1999 for 13 nutrients and water in 43 garden crops, mostly vegetables. After adjusting for differences ...
Anderson Thomas R - - 2005
Animals encountering nutritionally imbalanced foods should release elements in excess of requirements in order to maintain overall homeostasis. Quantifying these excesses and predicting their fate is, however, problematic. A new model of the stoichiometry of consumers is formulated that incorporates the separate terms in the metabolic budget, namely, assimilation of ...
Mannar M G Venkatesh - - 2004
Deficiencies in intake of essential vitamins and minerals (commonly referred to as micronutrients) that are essential for efficient energy metabolism and other functions of the human body (commonly termed as micronutrients) are severe and widespread in many parts of the world. They cause an immeasurable burden on individuals, on health ...
Fletcher Reginald J - - 2004
Micronutrient malnutrition is widespread throughout the world, with important health and economic consequences. Tools to address this situation include food fortification, supplementation and dietary diversification, each having different and complementary roles. Fortification (mandatory and voluntary) has been practised over several decades in Western countries as well as in developing countries. ...
Kozlov Andrew - - 2004
This paper describes and analyses changes in food composition and nutritional preferences among the Chukchi and Yupik of coastal Chukotka in the last 15 years. The economic collapse of the infrastructure of Chukotka region has resulted in many indigenous northerners reverting to the traditional subsistence economy. Relatively expensive market foods ...
Milner J A - - 2004
Mounting evidence points to dietary habits as an important determinant of cancer risk and tumor behavior. Although the linkages with diet are intriguing, the literature is also laden with inconsistencies. The reasons for these inconsistencies are likely multi-factorial, but probably reflect variations in the ability of bioactive constituents to reach ...
de Castro John M - - 2004
Genes are known to have independent influences on the height and weight of individuals, their overall levels of nutrient intakes and their meal sizes and frequencies. Recent evidence suggests that genes exert multiple and subtle influences on the controls of food intake. There are significant genetic influences on the level ...
Bacciottini Lucia - - 2004
GOALS: The objective of this paper was to present nutrients for bone health along with traditional foods and new foods that can provide the adequate amount of such nutrients. BACKGROUND: Although bone mass and density are certainly determined by various concurrent factors such as genetics, hormones, physical activity, and nutrition, ...
Sclafani Anthony A Department of Psychology, Brooklyn College and the Graduate School, The City University of New York, 2900 Bedford Ave., Brooklyn, NY 11210-2889, USA. - - 2004
Tasty high-fat and high-sugar foods induce overeating and obesity in animals. To separate the roles of oral and postoral factors in food preference and consumption, recent studies have used an "electronic esophagus" preparation. With this system, when an animal drinks a flavored solution, it controls the infusion of nutrients directly ...
Cotton Paul A - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To identify major food sources of 30 nutrients and dietary constituents among US adults during 1994 to 1996, and to compare them with those identified for 1989 to 1991. DESIGN: A total of 6419 foods were assigned to 112 food groups based on similarities in nutrient content or use. ...
Steiling Winfried - - 2004
An in vitro technique for the prediction of percutaneous penetration/dermal absorption is recommended by the European SCCNFP (The Scientific Committee on Cosmetic Products and Non-Food Products intended for consumers) for the safety evaluation of particular ingredients. In 2002, this in vitro method became officially accepted at the OECD level and ...
Balusu Ramesh - - 2004
Plackett-Burman design, a statistical methodology, was used to screen 23 nutrients belonging to three categories--carbon, nitrogen, and salt/mineral sources--for the production of ethanol from cellulosic biomass by Clostridium thermocellum SS19 in anaerobic submerged fermentation. In this design, just n number of experiments is required for screening n-1 variables. The experimental ...
Hoffmann Kurt - - 2004
Because foods are consumed in combination, it is difficult in observational studies to separate the effects of single foods on the development of diseases. A possible way to examine the combined effect of food intakes is to derive dietary patterns by using appropriate statistical methods. The objective of this study ...
Durtsche Richard D - - 2004
I tested the hypothesis that an animal with an ontogenetic diet shift must have different digestive efficiencies for foods that correspond to its diet shift, so that nutrient and energy extraction are maximized. The iguanine lizard Ctenosaura pectinata undergoes an ontogenetic diet shift from eating insects as a juvenile to ...
Stanley Nicola R - - 2004
In nature, bacteria often exist as biofilms. Here, we discuss the environmental signals and regulatory proteins that affect both the initiation of bacterial biofilm formation and the nature of the mature biofilm structure. Current research suggests that the environmental signals regulating whether bacterial cells will initiate a biofilm differ from ...
Endevelt Ronit - - 2004
Omega-3 appears to be an important nutrient component of the mammalian body, however because of changes in the food chain during the last century it has become increasingly rare in frequently eaten foods. Currently, the main source of omega-3 is fish, which tends to be expensive and is periodically found ...
Torheim L E - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between nutrient adequacy and dietary diversity, and to assess and compare the determinants for the two constructs in an adult population in rural Mali. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study assessing food intake by a validated 7-day quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Two different dietary diversity indexes were created: ...
Ferguson Elaine L - - 2004
Effective food-based dietary guidelines (FBDGs) are required to combat micronutrient deficiencies. This study aimed to develop a rigorous approach for designing population-specific FBDGs. A 4-phase approach based on linear programming analysis was used to design, test, and refine the FBDGs. This was illustrated for Malawian children. In phase I, the ...
Jowett Sarah L - - 2004
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Ulcerative colitis usually follows a relapsing and remitting course. Patients believe that dietary factors are important. We wished to determine the nature of and reasons for patients' dietary beliefs and their effect on relapse and nutrient intake. METHODS: In a 1-year prospective cohort study, patients' nutrient intake ...
Vaask S - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the nutrient content of foods and diets based on data from two food composition databases used in the Baltic Nutrition Surveys (conducted in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania in 1997): an adapted version of the Finnish Micro-Nutrica Nutritional Analysis program (used in ...
McConn Michele M - - 2004
The pads (nopales) of the prickly pear cactus are considered to be a good source of minerals and other nutrients on the basis of compositional analysis. In this study, this analysis is taken a step further by assessing the availability of selected minerals in nopales using an in vitro digestion ...
Armitage Anna R - - 2004
We evaluated the effects of nutrient addition on interactions between the benthic microalgal community and a dominant herbivorous gastropod, Cerithidea californica (California horn snail), on tidal flats in Mugu Lagoon, southern California, USA. We crossed snail and nutrient (N and P) addition treatments in enclosures on two tidal flats varying ...
Block Gladys - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies of diet must balance the goal of comprehensiveness with that of minimizing subject and study burden. Information on the impact of certain additional questionnaire elements may aid in such decisions. METHODS: We administered a food-frequency questionnaire in a large multiethnic cohort of women (Study of Women's Health ...
Lo Schiavo Ada - - 2004
Human skin is continuously exposed to internal and external influences that may alter its condition and functioning. As a consequence, the skin may undergo alterations leading to immune dysfunction, imbalanced epidermal homeostasis, or other skin disorders. New theories are developing that link food intake and health. The objective of this ...
Kerl Marie E - - 2004
Institution of appropriate, timely nutritional support in the anorexic or critically ill patient has become accepted medical practice in people and animals. This article focuses on the benefits of appropriate nutrient intake in critically ill animals, recommended nutrient requirements for dogs and cats receiving enteral feeding, and mechanics of food ...
Siega-Riz Anna Maria - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate nutrient, food intake, and snacking behavior by participation in the WIC (Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children) program. STUDY DESIGN: Secondary data analysis of a nationally representative cross-sectional survey conducted by USDA in 1994 to 1996 and 1998. METHODS: Statistical analysis was performed correcting ...
Acharya Kumud - - 2004
Herbivores often encounter nutritional deficiencies in their diets because of low nutrient content of plant biomass. Consumption of various diet items with different nutrient contents can potentially alleviate these nutritional deficiencies. However, most laboratory studies and modeling of herbivorous animals have been done with diets in which all food has ...
Zhou Zi-Yuan - - 2004
Nationwide surveys of food and nutrient intake in China have revealed geographical variation between urban and rural areas. This study developed a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (SQFFQ) for cancer risk assessment suitable for both urban and rural populations by conducting a survey of food intake in Chongqing, China. We recruited ...
Tokudome Shinkan - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Development of a data-based short food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for evaluating intake of nutrients by middle-aged Japanese. METHODS: Of 102 foods listed in the formerly developed semi-quantitative FFQ, foods having similar nutrient contents were combined into 72 foods/food groups by research dietitians. Nutrient contents were computed by multiplying the ...
Nakagaki Toshiyuki - - 2004
We present evidence that the giant amoeboid organism, the true slime mold, constructs a network appropriate for maximizing nutrient uptake. The body of the plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum contains a network of tubular elements by means of which nutrients and chemical signals circulate through the organism. When food pellets were ...
Phillips Sandy - - 2004
Adolescents need good nutrition, both to grow to their full potential and to decrease their risk of obesity and chronic diseases in adolescence and later life. The Food Habits of Canadians study provides data on the important food sources of energy and nutrients in a sample of Canadian teenagers. One ...
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