Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 703
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Matsuda-Inoguchi Naoko - - 2006
The study was initiated to identify the effects of recent changes in dietary pattern in Japan on nutrient intake. In the large city of Osaka, Japan, 24-h food duplicate samples were collected from 26 middle-aged women, and nutrients in the duplicates were estimated in reference to standard tables of food ...
Marcoe Kristin - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To identify food selections in each MyPyramid food group or subgroup reflective of typical consumption patterns by Americans, and the nutrient intake that can be expected from consuming a specified amount of these foods from each group, in a low-fat and no-added-sugars form. DESIGN: An analytical process to identify ...
Kato Satoshi - - 2007
A spatially explicit plant-herbivore model composed of planktonic herbivores, algal preys and nutrients was constructed to examine the effects of consumer-driven nutrient recycling (CNR) on the algal species richness with and without spatial structure. The model assumed that either of two essential nutrients (N and P) limited growth of algal ...
Ferguson Elaine L - - 2006
The WHO is urging countries to promote improved complementary feeding practices to ensure optimal health, growth, and development of young children. To help achieve this, a rigorous 4-phase approach for designing optimal population- specific food-based complementary feeding recommendations (CFRs) was developed and is illustrated here. In phase I, an optimized ...
Azaïs-Braesco V - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Nutrient profiling systems aim at positioning foodstuffs relative to each other according to their contribution to a balanced diet. The accuracy and performance of methodologies are still debated. We present here a critical analysis of the structure and efficiency of the current schemes. METHODS: The literature survey detected only ...
Soupir M L - - 2006
Land applications of manure from confined animal systems and direct deposit by grazing animals are both major sources of nutrients in streams. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of P-based manure applications on total suspended solids (TSS) and nutrient losses from dairy manures and poultry litter ...
Ensign Scott H - - 2006
Streams alter the concentration of nutrients they transport and thereby influence nutrient loading to estuaries downstream; however, the relationship between in-stream uptake, discharge variability, and subsequent nutrient export is poorly understood. In this study, in-stream N and P uptake were examined in the stream network draining a row-crop agricultural operation ...
Bersamin Andrea - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this pilot study were to describe the nutrient intake of Yup'ik Eskimos in comparison with national intake, identify dietary sources of key nutrients, and assess the utility of the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) to measure diet quality of Yup'ik Eskimos living in rural Alaskan Native communities. ...
Wu Xianli - - 2006
Anthocyanins (ACNs) are water-soluble plant pigments that have important functions in plant physiology as well as possible health effects. Over 100 common foods were screened for ACNs, and 24 of them were found to contain ACNs. Concentrations of total ACNs varied considerably from 0.7 to 1480 mg/100 g of fresh ...
Bucci J P - - 2007
Stable isotope analyses (delta(15)N) were used to examine invertebrate tissue enrichment in two North Carolina estuaries with differing amounts of nutrient loading. Bivalves collected from a nutrient sensitive estuary yielded a significant difference in mean nitrogen isotopic composition of tissue (10.4 per thousand+/-0.82; N=66) compared to bivalves collected from a ...
Morimoto Juliana Masami - - 2006
The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of inadequate usual nutrient intake among female university students. This was a cross-sectional study in which 119 students at a public university in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, completed 3-day estimated food records. These were analyzed for nutrient content, ...
Murphy Suzanne P - - 2006
Guiding principles were recently suggested for revising the Daily Values (DVs) used for nutrition labels on foods and dietary supplements. These principles incorporate the new Dietary Reference Intakes, which are nutrient standards issued between 1997 and 2005 by the Institute of Medicine. Most of the principles are likely to lead ...
Beaton George H - - 2006
The Institute of Medicine (IOM) reports on Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) present a new paradigm for the description of nutrient requirements. Tradition and the DRI reports themselves have created an erroneous impression that the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) is intended for use with individuals and the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) ...
Gibson Rosalind S - - 2006
Plant foods are the major staples of diets in developing countries, in which the consumption of animal-source foods is often low because of economic and/or religious concerns. However, such plant-based diets are often associated with micronutrient deficits, exacerbated in part by poor micronutrient bioavailability. Diet-related factors in plant foods that ...
Boersma Maarten - - 2006
Nutritional imbalances are of great interest in the ecological stoichiometry literature, in which researchers have focused almost exclusively on cases where nutrients are available in low amounts relative to energy (carbon), and animal growth is impaired due to insufficient nutrient intake. Little attention has been given to situations where food ...
Bosch Darrell J - - 2006
Phosphorus (P) runoff from manure can lead to eutrophication of surface water and algae growth. This study evaluates the impacts of alternative P reduction practices on dairy farm net returns and on potential P runoff. The P control practices include dairy herd nutrient management, crop nutrient management, and runoff and ...
Despland Emma - - 2006
Nutritional regulation is a powerful mechanism used by generalist feeders to obtain the balance of nutrients they require from nutritionally diverse, perhaps unbalanced, foods. We examined nutritional regulation in a species with a narrow individual diet breadth: the forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria. Fourth instar caterpillars were provided with artificial ...
Allen Lindsay H - - 2006
Historically, food fortification programs were often undertaken with little attention to issues such as micronutrient bioavailability, optimal levels of addition, or efficacy or to monitoring impact on nutritional status, health, and human function. Several developments in recent years have enabled substantial progress to be made in the design and evaluation ...
Hall Spencer R - - 2006
Ecological stoichiometry and food web theories focus on distinct mechanisms that shape communities. These mechanisms, however, likely interact in ways that neither theory alone addresses. To illustrate, we show how a model that tracks flow of energy and nutrients through two producers and two grazers reveals two indirect, interrelated roles ...
Davis Allen P - - 2006
High nutrient inputs and eutrophication continue to be one of the highest priority water quality problems. Bioretention is a low-impact development technology that has been advocated for use in urban and other developed areas. This work provides an in-depth analysis on removal of nutrients from a synthetic stormwater runoff by ...
Paerl Hans W - - 2006
Eutrophication is a serious water quality problem in estuaries receiving increasing anthropogenic nutrient loads. Managers undertaking nutrient-reduction strategies aimed at controlling estuarine eutrophication are faced with the challenge that upstream freshwater segments often are phosphorus (P)-limited, whereas more saline downstream segments are nitrogen (N)-limited. Management also must consider climatic (hydrologic) ...
Phillips Katherine M - - 2006
The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) develops and maintains the USDA National Nutrient Databank System (NDBS). Data are released from the NDBS for scientific and public use through the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR) ( http://www.ars.usda.gov/ba/bhnrc/ndl ). In 1997 the NDL initiated the ...
Goff Stephen A - - 2006
Plants produce many volatile metabolites. A small subset of these compounds is sensed by animals and humans, and the volatile profiles are defining elements of the distinct flavors of individual foods. Flavor volatiles are derived from an array of nutrients, including amino acids, fatty acids, and carotenoids. In tomato, almost ...
Tappenden Kelly A - - 2006
The role of enteral nutrients in maintaining small intestinal structure and function is well established. Evidence that enteral nutrients induce intestinal adaptation include the structural and functional gradient along the length of the healthy intestine, the atrophy and functional compromise induced by fasting and parenteral nutrition, and the enhanced adaptive ...
Kinabo J - - 2006
Information on the nutrient content of foods commonly consumed (especially indigenous ones) in rural communities of Tanzania is limited. A study was conducted to determine the nutrient content of foods commonly consumed in the Iringa and Morogoro regions. A survey was carried out in six representative villages to identify the ...
Zlotkin Stanley - - 2006
The dietary reference intake (DRI) committees of the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine were charged with establishing DRIs for all of the essential nutrients, including fat and energy. These reference values are quantitative estimates of the nutrient intakes to be used to plan and assess the ...
Munro Ian C - - 2006
This paper is intended to present the background and general principles embodied in the model for the risk assessment of nutrients of the Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) of the Institute of Medicine, National Academies. Because no one had previously developed a comprehensive approach to the risk assessment of nutrients, ...
Belgnaoui Salwa - - 2006
This study aimed to assess dietary intake and nutrient adequacy in pregnant women selected from an agricultural region of Morocco. On a sample of 172 pregnant women from rural and urban area, data on socio-demographic characteristics and dietary habits by a quantified food frequency were collected using questionnaires. Mean daily ...
Blum J W - - 2006
The gastrointestinal tract of neonatal calves is relatively mature but still requires morphological and functional changes. The intake of colostrum with its nutrient and non-nutrient components exerts marked effects on gastrointestinal development and function. Colostrum intake provides immunoprotection (passive immunity by immunoglobulins) and is essential for survival of neonates of ...
Carriquiry Alicia L - - 2006
We discuss the problem of assessing nutrient intake relative to the tolerable upper intake levels (UL) for the nutrient proposed by the Institute of Medicine and focus on 2 important topics: the estimation of usual nutrient intake distributions and the extent to which intakes above the UL can be considered ...
Huisman Jef - - 2006
Deep chlorophyll maxima (DCMs) are widespread in large parts of the world's oceans. These deep layers of high chlorophyll concentration reflect a compromise of phytoplankton growth exposed to two opposing resource gradients: light supplied from above and nutrients supplied from below. It is often argued that DCMs are stable features. ...
Fox Mary Kay - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To identify major sources of energy and 24 nutrients and dietary constituents in the diets of US infants and toddlers and to describe shifts in major nutrient sources as children age. DESIGN: Data from 24-hour recalls collected in the 2002 Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study were analyzed to determine ...
Johnson-Down Louise - - 2006
PURPOSE: Food sources of nutrients in the Canadian diet were explored. Knowledge of these sources is important to public health professionals and to those in clinical practice. METHODS: Using data from the Food Habits of Canadians study, we investigated nutrient sources from detailed food groupings in a sample of 1,543 ...
Bazelmans Christine - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: To develop a Healthy Food and Nutrient Index (HFNI) and to relate this index to the all cause mortality observed in two Belgian communities. DESIGN: Using the 10-years follow-up mortality data from the 'Belgian Inter-university Research on Nutrition and Health' (BIRNH) study, the association of a Healthy Food and ...
Merchant Anwar T - - 2006
Nutritional assessment by diet analysis is a two-stepped process consisting of evaluation of food consumption, and conversion of food into nutrient intake by using a food composition database, which lists the mean nutritional values for a given food portion. Most reports in the literature focus on minimizing errors in estimation ...
Omotoso O T - - 2006
Determination of the proximate, nutritionally valuable minerals and anti-nutrient compositions in larvae of Cirina forda (W) showed that they contained high levels of protein, (55.50%+/-1.20%) with ash, moisture, fat, and carbohydrate levels being (10.26%+/-0.01%), (10.85%+/-0.38%), (4.68%+/-0.01%) and (18.70%+/-0.84%) respectively. Fibre was not detected. Protein solubility was higher in alkaline media ...
Yates Allison A - - 2006
Nutrient reference values provide guidance for maintaining and enhancing health via standard setting and development of nutritionally improved products to decrease the risk of disease. Since 1941, the Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) of the National Academy of Sciences in the United States has developed and periodically revised recommendations for ...
Joyanes María - - 2006
The purpose of this study is to increase the accuracy, reliability, and precision of food composition data and, in consequence, better approximate nutrient intake estimations and recommendations. To do this it is necessary to specify and taken into account factors that play an important role in the variation of composition ...
Sarria Alfonso J - - 2006
The generation by genetic engineering of two murine models to investigate atherosclerosis, such as the apoE- and LDLr- deficient mice, is providing an extraordinaire knowledge of the effect of different nutrients on this complex disease. The present revision provides a comprehensive overview of the advances in this field that point ...
Dickerson Roland N - - 2005
Dehydration is a serious risk for the long-term tube-fed patient who is not allowed oral intake, has an altered mental status, is unable to communicate, is elderly or fluid-restricted, or has thirst impairment. The intent of this review is to provide a case-based discussion regarding the evaluation, treatment, and prevention ...
Pugalenthi M - - 2005
Mucuna pruriens var. utilis, an underutilized tropical legume has a nutritional quality comparable to soya beans and other conventional legumes as it contains similar proportions of protein, lipid, minerals, and other nutrients. The beans have been traditionally used as a food in a number of countries, viz., India, Philippines, Nigeria, ...
Darmon Nicole - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 recommended that consumers give priority to nutrient-dense foods, those that contain substantial amounts of key nutrients in relation to the dietary energy they provide. This study developed a scoring system to estimate the nutritional adequacy of vegetables and fruits, on a per weight, ...
Yoshihara Akihiro - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: This study used a precise weighing method to assess whether tooth loss was related to nutrient intake in elderly Japanese subjects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty-seven subjects aged 74 years were randomly selected from a longitudinal interdisciplinary study of ageing. Complete 3-day food intake data were obtained by a precise ...
Gould Rebecca - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: To determine if the lunchtime food provided to schoolchildren adheres to nutritional standards and to examine the influence of children's food choice on nutrient intake at lunchtime. SUBJECTS/SETTING: Seventy-four children aged 11-12 years were recruited from three secondary schools. The school populations spanned a spectrum of socio-economic deprivation. Lunchtime ...
Sendersky Eleonora - - 2005
Adjustment of photosynthetic light harvesting to ambient conditions is essential to allow efficient energy capturing and to prevent surplus excitation and the cellular damage resulting from it. Degradation of the cyanobacterial light harvesting complex, the phycobilisome, is a general acclimation response occurring under various stress conditions. This study identifies a ...
Azadbakht L - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between variety scores of food groups (between and within food groups) and the probability of nutrient adequacy in Tehranian men. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study assessing food intake by two 24-h recall questionnaires. Dietary diversity was defined according to diet quality index revised, which was used ...
Grilli Federica - - 2005
Nutrient concentrations (orthophosphate, orthosilicate and dissolved inorganic nitrogen-DIN) were measured on three transects in the northern Adriatic approximately monthly in the period June 1999-July 2002. The net nutrient transports across the three transects were estimated from these concentration values and calculated water fluxes [Grilli F, Paschini E, Russo A, Precali ...
Counil E - - 2006
The duration of food consumption survey may have a marked effect on estimates of usual nutrient intakes in individuals and groups. This arises from a high degree of within-person variability in food intakes, primarily on a day-to-day basis. Both the level of observation-populations versus individuals-and the desirable level of precision ...
Douglas Scott J - - 2005
All organisms must acquire nutrients from the ambient environment to survive. In animals, the need to eat has driven the evolution of a rich array of complex food-related behaviours that ensure appropriate nutrient intake in diverse niches. Here, we review some of the neural and genetic components that contribute to ...
Drewnowski Adam - - 2005
The American diet is said to be increasingly energy-rich but nutrient-poor. To help improve the nutrient-to-energy ratio, the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that consumers replace some foods in their diets with more nutrient-dense options. Such dietary guidance presupposes the existence of a nutrient density standard. However, a review ...
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