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Sharma Sangita - - 2007
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: To provide nutritional composition of 34 composite dishes commonly consumed in Cameroon, in order to enable dietary intake to be calculated from a Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire developed specifically for this population to determine associations between diet and diabetes. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: A total of 197 recipes were ...
Hung Jia-Jang - - 2008
The biogeochemistry of Tapong Bay, one of the major lagoons in southern Taiwan, was studied from 1999 to 2004, encompassing a period in 2003 in which aquaculture activities were terminated and the associated structures removed. Removal of the maricultural structures resulted in the reduction of the mean time for water ...
Raubenheimer David - - 2007
It is well established that animal guts are phenotypically plastic, adjusting inter-alia to diet quality. However, the relative contributions due to the two principal dimensions of diet "quality"--nutrient concentration and nutrient balance--remain to be teased apart. We report an experiment using synthetic foods in which the balance and overall concentration ...
Maillot Matthieu - - 2007
Consumers wishing to replace some of the foods in their diets with more nutrient-dense options need to be able to identify such foods on the basis of nutrient profiling. The present study used nutrient profiling to rank 7 major food groups and 25 subgroups in terms of their contribution to ...
Anderson As A Centre for Public Health Nutrition Research, Ninewells Medical School, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 9SY, - - 2007
To develop an objective, nutrient-based, healthy eating indicator shopping basket (HEISB) tool for use in studies of access to healthy food. Tool development used a literature search to identify previous practice, web information on current definition of healthy foods by the UK Food Standards Agency, and population-based dietary surveys to ...
Palter Jaime - - 2007
In the Gulf of Nicoya on the Pacific Coast of Costa Rica, nutrient rich equatorial subsurface water (ESW) is upwelled in much of the lower gulf. These offshore waters are often regarded as the major source of nutrients to the gulf. However, for most of the year, the ESW has ...
Cowin I I Unit of Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK. - - 2007
To investigate the normal range of nutrient intakes and food consumption patterns in 18 month old children. 1,026 children resident in South West England, forming part of the Children in Focus (CIF) research cohort. Diet was assessed using a 3 day unweighed dietary record. Nutrient and food intakes were compared ...
Kaput Jim - - 2007
Nutrigenomics promises personalized nutrition and an improvement in preventing, delaying, and reducing the symptoms of chronic diseases such as diabetes. Nutritional genomics is the study of how foods affect the expression of genetic information in an individual and how an individual's genetic makeup affects the metabolism and response to nutrients ...
Williams Peter - - 2007
The aim of this study was to describe the nutrients provided to Australian children and adolescents by the breakfast meal and compare the food and nutrient intakes and health of regular breakfast eaters (those who ate breakfast 5 days or more a week) and skippers (who are breakfast rarely or ...
Rampersaud G C - - 2007
The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that consumers choose a variety of nutrient-dense foods. Nutrient density is usually defined as the quantity of nutrients per calorie. Food and nutrition professionals should be aware of the concept of nutrient density, how it might be quantified, and its potential application in ...
Krebs-Smith Susan M - - 2007
The Department of Agriculture's MyPyramid is presented as food guidance for the US general public and not "a therapeutic diet for any specific health condition," although many adults in this country are overweight or obese and many experience diet-related disorders. This paper shows the recommendations in MyPyramid are remarkably consistent ...
Scarborough Peter - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Nutrient profiling can be defined as the 'the science of categorising foods according to their nutritional composition'. The purpose of the present paper is to describe a systematic and logical approach to nutrient profiling. DESIGN: A seven-stage decision-making process is proposed and, as an illustration of how the approach ...
Scarborough Peter - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To compare nutrient profile models with a standard ranking of 120 foods. DESIGN: Over 700 nutrition professionals were asked to categorise 120 foods into one of six positions on the basis of their healthiness. These categorisations were used to produce a standard ranking of the 120 foods. The standard ...
Hambidge K Michael - - 2007
In the development and testing of programs designed to improve complementary feeding globally, local nonfortified food-based solutions comprise an important strategy for the foreseeable future. These solutions are especially vital for the rural poor of less-developed countries. Zinc is notable among individual nutrients that have been designated as "problem" nutrients, ...
Lin Carol A - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To determine what foods, nutrients, and dietary patterns are associated with development of kwashiorkor in populations of vulnerable 1- to 3-year-old Malawian children. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a prospective observational study conducted in 8 rural villages. Upon enrollment, demographic, anthropometric, and dietary intake data were collected. Children were ...
Slimani N N Nutrition and Hormones Group, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France. - - 2007
This paper describes the ad hoc methodological concepts and procedures developed to improve the comparability of Nutrient databases (NDBs) across the 10 European countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). This was required because there is currently no European reference NDB available. A large network ...
Tlalka M - - 2007
Fungi play a central role in the nutrient cycles of boreal and temperate forests. In these biomes, the saprotrophic wood-decay fungi are the only organisms that can completely decompose woody plant litter. In particular, cord-forming basidiomycete fungi form extensive mycelial networks that scavenge scarce mineral nutrients and translocate them over ...
Sutton Kevin H - - 2007
The idea that diet and health are related is not new but the concept of direct nutrient-gene interactions is a new one for the food industry and the public to deal with. The ultimate goal of nutrigenomics is the development of foods that can be matched to individual human genotypes ...
Hewitt Gillian - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: To conduct a needs assessment of all aspects of food provision in a residential home and to evaluate a subsequent nutrition intervention. DESIGN: An intervention study using a before and after design. A participatory approach was adopted and quantitative and qualitative methods used throughout. The intervention involved a revised ...
Aggett Peter J - - 2007
Upper levels are estimates of the quantity of a nutrient that can be ingested daily over a lifetime without appreciable risk to health. The approach to establishing upper levels for nutrients, nutrient risk assessment, has derived from the risk assessment of foreign chemicals that are deliberately added to foods, or ...
King Janet C - - 2007
The conceptual framework for the various NIVs is depicted in figure 1 along with the methodological approaches and applications. The NIVs consist of two values derived from a statistical evaluation of data on nutrient requirements, the average nutrient requirement (ANR), or nutrient toxicities, the upper nutrient level (UNL). The individual ...
Parada J - - 2007
There is an increased interest in the role that some nutrients may play in preventing or ameliorating the effect of major diseases (for example, some types of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, eye disorders, among others). In this respect, the bioavailability or the proportion of an ingested nutrient that is made available ...
Barth John A - - 2007
Wind-driven coastal ocean upwelling supplies nutrients to the euphotic zone near the coast. Nutrients fuel the growth of phytoplankton, the base of a very productive coastal marine ecosystem [Pauly D, Christensen V (1995) Nature 374:255-257]. Because nutrient supply and phytoplankton biomass in shelf waters are highly sensitive to variation in ...
Nielsen Martha G - - 2007
A study of 13 small (less than 7.5 km(2)) watersheds on Mt. Desert Island, Maine, was conducted from January 1999 to September 2000 to determine nutrient export delivery to coastal waters around the island, and to determine whether a series of wildfires in 1947 have affected nutrient export in burned ...
Zafra María A - - 2007
In this study we analyzed the effect of the intragastric administration of partially digested and natural nutrients on subsequent food intake, body weight and flavor acceptability in rats. The results showed that enterally administered natural nutrients reduced the subsequent ingestion of food to a greater degree compared with the same ...
Mier Nelda - - 2007
The purpose of this study was to assess whether nutrients offered to border Mexican-American preschool children met the Recommended Dietary Allowances. Nutrient contents of two dietary patterns were examined in this study, one composed exclusively of home foods and one containing a combination of both home and school foods. The ...
Bush Mary A A - - 2007
This article outlines the processes undertaken to revise Canada's Food Guide and shares the updated science that underpins the dietary pattern. The Dietary Reference Intakes provide updated nutrient requirement values and better tools for dietary assessment and planning. Alignment with this updated science was an important component of defining and ...
Kajadphai-Taungbodhitham Anocha - - 2007
This study investigated the nutrient composition of ready cooked foods commonly consumed in southern Thailand. Four samples of fourteen types; eight curry dishes, one sweet and sour curry, a soup dish, one stir-fried curry, one stir-fried dish and two single plate dishes were each purchased from 4 different shops around ...
Murphy Suzanne P - - 2007
Use of multivitamin-multimineral supplements is widespread and can contribute substantially to total nutrient intakes. In the Hawaii-Los Angeles Multiethnic Cohort (MEC), 48% of men and 56% of women without chronic diseases reported use of multivitamin supplements at least weekly over the past year. We calculated the prevalence of nutrient adequacy ...
Ortega-Rivas Enrique - - 2007
Food functionality can be related to nutrient and non-nutrient compounds. Some foods are fortified with various nutrients whereas others are manipulated using their physicochemical properties in order to make them "functional." Texture, color, taste, odor, and other physicochemical properties may affect the overall quality and, hence, acceptance of food products. ...
Rankins Jenice - - 2007
This article presents results of a community-based participatory study (DASH of Soul) designed to produce soul food that meets the nutrient criteria of the DASH diet plan. DASH of Soul was tested during a 10-month period with two sub-groups of low-income African American women: (1) a focus group cooking club ...
Ni Mhurchu Cliona - - 2007
AIM: To estimate the difference in cost and nutrient value for selected regular and healthier supermarket food items in New Zealand. METHOD: Electronic sales data from supermarket shoppers (n=882) from February 2004 to January 2005 were used to determine the 1000 top-selling food items. These items were categorised according to ...
Kaput Jim - - 2007
Food is economically available to 4 billion of the world's 6 billion people, a situation that resulted from dramatically improved methods for producing, storing, and distributing food on a mass scale during the last 100 years. Nevertheless, almost 2 billion people are malnourished through either over-consumption of fats and calories ...
Csizmadi Ilona - - 2007
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Despite assumed similarities in Canadian and US dietary habits, some differences in food availability and nutrient fortification exist. Food-frequency questionnaires designed for the USA may therefore not provide the most accurate estimates of dietary intake in Canadian populations. Hence, we undertook to evaluate and modify the National ...
Ferguson Elaine L - - 2007
The provision of nutrient-dense complementary foods is essential to ensure an infant's nutrient requirements are met. Yet often, relative to recommendations, traditional complementary foods have low levels of nutrients, suggesting a role, for fortified manufactured baby foods, in ensuring dietary adequacy. In this review, the potential benefits and safety of ...
Brown Kenneth H - - 2007
Appropriate breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices are fundamental to children's nutrition, health, and survival during the first 2 years of life. The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months of age and continued breastfeeding for at least 2 years, along with the timely introduction of adequate amounts of ...
Russell Robert M - - 2007
Recommended dietary intake levels are the nutrient standards used in designing food assistance programmes, institutional feeding programmes, counselling and teaching. In the USA, the recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) are the basis for setting the poverty threshold and food stamp allotments. In the 1990s, a new paradigm was put forth for ...
Taylor Christine Lewis - - 2007
Although adverse health effects resulting from excessive intake of nutrients have been studied for some time, nutrient risk assessment is only now gaining ground as a distinct discipline and emerging area of scientific study. Interest in such activities has been driven in part by the increased availability and marketing in ...
Irwin Jennifer D - - 2007
Concerns about adequate food supply is a mounting problem in Canada, making food bank visits a necessity for over 820,000 Canadians. Given this reliance, the purpose of this study was to compare contents of food hampers with Canadian guidelines, at a large urban food bank in Southwestern Ontario that intends ...
Sylvan Jason B - - 2006
The Louisiana shelf is the largest zone of seasonally oxygen-depleted coastal bottom water in the U.S. This condition results from the high freshwater and nutrient input from the Mississippi River and the resulting high primary productivity in the river plume. The hypoxic zone has doubled in area since regular measurements ...
Burkepile Deron E - - 2006
Pervasive overharvesting of consumers and anthropogenic nutrient loading are changing the strengths of top-down and bottom-up forces in ecosystems worldwide. Thus, identifying the relative and synergistic roles of these forces and how they differ across habitats, ecosystems, or primary-producer types is increasingly important for understanding how communities are structured. We ...
Toshimitsu Kumiko - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is one of the most important emerging health issues. Insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome play a central role in the pathogenesis of NASH. Intake of nutrients strongly affects insulin resistance, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and hepatic steatosis. However, there are few reports about the intake of ...
Yamini Sedigheh - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To examine the changes observed in 5 nutrients of selected USDA food subgroups by partitioning the overall changes into those caused by consumption changes over time, and those caused by nutrient database revisions. DESIGN: Population-weighted estimates of food group intakes (composites) were developed using 24-hour recall data from CSFII ...
West Brett J - - 2006
The popularity of noni juice is increasing globally. As such, knowledge of its nutritional properties is needed to make informed decisions regarding its use. This industry-wide mineral profile was determined by analyses of 177 brands of commercial noni juice according to a modified Association of Official Analytical Chemists protocol. A ...
Evans-White Michelle A - - 2006
Stoichiometric constraints within ecological interactions and their ecosystem consequences may depend on characteristics of the abiotic environment such as background nutrient levels. We assessed whether consumer identity, via differing body stoichiometry, could regulate periphyton stoichiometry across nutrient regimes in open systems. In 60 flow-through artificial streams, we factorially crossed dissolved ...
Matsuda-Inoguchi Naoko - - 2006
The study was initiated to identify the effects of recent changes in dietary pattern in Japan on nutrient intake. In the large city of Osaka, Japan, 24-h food duplicate samples were collected from 26 middle-aged women, and nutrients in the duplicates were estimated in reference to standard tables of food ...
Marcoe Kristin - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To identify food selections in each MyPyramid food group or subgroup reflective of typical consumption patterns by Americans, and the nutrient intake that can be expected from consuming a specified amount of these foods from each group, in a low-fat and no-added-sugars form. DESIGN: An analytical process to identify ...
Kato Satoshi - - 2007
A spatially explicit plant-herbivore model composed of planktonic herbivores, algal preys and nutrients was constructed to examine the effects of consumer-driven nutrient recycling (CNR) on the algal species richness with and without spatial structure. The model assumed that either of two essential nutrients (N and P) limited growth of algal ...
Ferguson Elaine L - - 2006
The WHO is urging countries to promote improved complementary feeding practices to ensure optimal health, growth, and development of young children. To help achieve this, a rigorous 4-phase approach for designing optimal population- specific food-based complementary feeding recommendations (CFRs) was developed and is illustrated here. In phase I, an optimized ...
Azaïs-Braesco V - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Nutrient profiling systems aim at positioning foodstuffs relative to each other according to their contribution to a balanced diet. The accuracy and performance of methodologies are still debated. We present here a critical analysis of the structure and efficiency of the current schemes. METHODS: The literature survey detected only ...
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