Search Results
Results 501 - 550 of 701
< 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 >
Dzanis D A - - 1994
The Association of American Feed Control Official (AAFCO) formed the Canine (1990-1991) and Feline (1991-1992) Nutrition Expert Subcommittees to update the requirements for substantiation of "complete and balanced" claims for pet foods sold in the United States. There are two means by which a company may substantiate nutritional adequacy for ...
Morris J G - - 1994
Despite the lack of precise information on the requirements for many of the nutrients essential for cats and dogs and the paucity of information on the availability of nutrients in foods, many commercial diets support excellent growth, reproduction, and maintenance. However, these diets use empirical information that cannot be readily ...
Zittel T T - - 1994
Nutrients in the intestine inhibit food intake via an action on the vagal afferent pathway. The aim of the present study was to use immunochemical detection of Fos protein-like immunoreactivity (FLI) in the brainstem to trace the neuronal pathways activated by intestinal nutrients. Perfusion of the intestine of awake rats ...
Seddon M R - - 1994
Experience with space exploration to date has raised more questions regarding nutritional requirements for astronauts than it has answered. As mission lengths continue to increase, nutrient imbalances due to alterations in intake, dietary requirements, bioavailability, or excretion, may become more important. Factors adversely affecting intake include those as straightforward as ...
Hendrich S - - 1994
When obtained form a usual diet, a food component that sustains or enhances physiological functions and/or prevents diseases is a nutrient. Isoflavones, tocotrienols, and carotenoids are candidate nutrients which may be of health benefit to humans by inhibiting cancer development and reducing risk of atherosclerosis. The amounts of some of ...
van der Ster Wallin G - - 1994
Food selection and macro nutrient content were evaluated in a group of bulimic subjects, both during the nonpurged intake and the bingeing. Dietary data was assessed by single 24-hour recall. As expected, energy distribution and food selection differed markedly between the nonpurged diet and the binges. The main differences were ...
Haddad E H - - 1994
In the past several years there has been an increase in the number of people who avoid some or all animal products for food. Dietary guides that include animal foods are not designed for vegetarian eating patterns. The purpose of this study was to develop a food guide to be ...
Sjøgren A - - 1994
The aim of the investigation was to study cohort differences at age 70 in probands born in 1901/02 and 1911/12 and to study longitudinal changes of dietary habits and intake of energy and nutrients between ages 70 and 76. The study is part of the gerontological and geriatric population studies ...
Guenther P M - - 1994
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the differences between the procedures and nutrient databases used in the 1977-1978 Nationwide Food Consumption Survey (1977-78 NFCS) and those used in the 1987-88 NFCS could notably affect the estimated mean nutrient intakes. DESIGN: This was a split-sample field experiment. Seventy-two area segments were randomly selected; ...
McBurney M I - - 1994
The gut is an important organ, which not only digests and absorbs food but selectively excludes bacteria and toxins from entering the body. It has one of the highest rates of protein turnover of any tissue in the body. Maintenance of epithelial cell proliferation and secretory, digestive, and gut-associated lymphatic ...
Wellman N S - - 1994
Basic practical advice about healthy food choices is reviewed via the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, the Food Guide Pyramid, and Daily Values on Food Labels. Special considerations for their use with the healthy elderly are included. Nutrient requirements of the elderly are presented for the oldest RDA age category, "51+ ...
Block G - - 1994
The role of nutrient intake in disease outcome is often examined in epidemiologic studies. Most such studies conducted in the United States, however, have not included fortified foods or vitamin supplements. In the United States, these are important sources of vitamins C and E, but not of beta-carotene. In addition, ...
Stein A D - - 1994
Methods for assessing change in the habitual diet of children are essential for diet intervention studies as well as clinical management. Food frequency questionnaires are a potential alternative to recall and record methods, which require multiple days of data collection for stable individual estimates of habitual intake. Over 3 years, ...
Hedley M R - - 1994
The food served in contracted Second Level Lodging Homes (SLLH) in Hamilton-Wentworth was studied to assess compliance with current by-law standards, make recommendations about nutrition standards and identify educational needs. Dietitians collected food frequency data in 62 SLLH and recorded food served during one day. Only 44% of homes provided ...
Hoerr S M - - 1993
Snack selections from unrefrigerated vending machines were studied in relation to increasing availability of nutrient-dense snack options and providing nutrient information at four selected vending sites on a large university campus. Only four of 133 different snacks available for unrefrigerated vending met the criterion for nutrient-dense snacks. When snack proportion ...
Tzonou A - - 1993
In a hospital-based case-control study of common malignant epithelial tumors of the ovary, conducted in Athens (1989-1991), 189 cases were compared with 200 hospital visitor controls. Personal interviews were conducted in all cases and diet was ascertained through a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Nutrient intakes for individuals were estimated by ...
Kalapothaki V - - 1993
In a hospital-based case-control study of pancreatic cancer conducted in Athens (1991-92), 181 patients with histologically confirmed cancer of the exocrine pancreas were compared with hospital patient controls and hospital visitor controls, individually matched to the cases by hospital, age, gender, and interviewer in a 1:1:1 ratio. All interviews were ...
- - 1993
Trends in food and nutrient intake are estimated by per capita food supply data and surveys of individual consumption. A recent study suggests that these two types of estimates do not reflect the same trends in macronutrient intake. These data should be used with caution when developing associations between diet ...
Ernest S L - - 1993
This study was conducted to determine whether significant relationships exist among the masticatory ability, chewing-stimulated salivary flow rate, food preferences, and dietary intake of older adults with complete natural dentitions. Pearson r correlations revealed that significant relationships existed between: (1) salivary flow rate and eighteen out of the twenty-two nutrients ...
Rothenberg E - - 1993
This study is part of a transcultural investigation under the auspices of the International Union of Nutritional Sciences, where dietary habits are studied with similar methodology in different populations throughout the world. The present paper describes and evaluates the intake of energy and nutrients, and food habits in an urban ...
Kerstetter J E - - 1993
Establishing reliable nutrient requirements for individuals over the age of 65 years is a difficult task. Research on nutrient requirements in the aged is sparse and often contradictory. However, there are important clues in the literature suggesting that requirements for certain nutrients are altered with age and that preventable nutrient ...
Cunnane S C - - 1993
Current evolutionary theories do not adequately address the question of how the human brain evolved to be larger and more sophisticated than that of other primates. The human brain/body weight ratio is 4-5 times higher than in primates and, relative to the rest of the body, requires up to 10 ...
Pi-Sunyer F X - - 1993
Macronutrient utilization in humans is a complex phenomenon, with each macronutrient having its separate storage and utilization pathways. Carbohydrate and fat are to some extent interdependent, but while carbohydrate utilization is greatly dependent on intake, fat is not. The food quotient of the diet is important in determining how nutrients ...
Dreon D M - - 1993
In epidemiological studies of diet and chronic disease, a brief yet comprehensive diet history questionnaire must aggregate some foods into food groups. A nutrient density is assigned to each food group by averaging the densities of its constituent foods. A person's intake of a given nutrient is then estimated by ...
Albertson A M - - 1992
Nutrient intakes of American children aged 2 to 10 years were compared for the years 1978 and 1988 using a unique nutrient assessment system designed and developed by the Nutrition Department at General Mills. This system integrated data from three sources: 14-day food consumption diaries collected from 4,000 households in ...
Soden P M - - 1992
A computational method for constructing individually acceptable diets by modifying a chosen diet to meet nutritional requirements is described. The effects on food quantities of imposing different nutrient requirements on a sample diet are demonstrated and techniques which can ensure the acceptability to the individual of the modified diet are ...
Tokach M D - - 1992
Management of the lactating sow influences milk production and subsequent reproduction through changes in nutrient intake. The management goal during lactation is to maximize feed intake. Decreasing the effective environmental temperature, increasing the nutrient density of the lactation diet, maintaining fresh adequate supplies of feed and water, and preventing excess ...
Lee M M - - 1992
Dietary consumption data obtained by food weighing for 539 households in Taiwan in 1980-1981 were used to search for foods predictive of nutrient intake. The average per capita nutrient intake in each household was calculated for total calories, protein, fat and fatty acids (saturated fatty acids, oleic acid and unsaturated ...
- - 1992
Intensive and structure intrahousehold observations of the pattern of food allocation in poor rural Nepalese households indicate no difference in the distribution of nutrients between male and female children. In contrast, preferential food distribution patterns among adults show that women are less likely to achieve recommended levels of some nutrients ...
Block G - - 1992
Nutrient intake data are reported from a 60-item food frequency questionnaire administered in the 1987 National Health Interview Survey to a representative sample of US adults 18 to 99 years of age (n = 22,080). These data provide for the first time an estimate of the distribution of usual nutrient ...
Stevens D A - - 1992
We evaluated nutrient intake (as measured by a 3-day food record) and nondietary factors that may influence nutrient intake in urban (n = 48) and rural (n = 47) elderly clients in the Title III C home-delivered meal program. Mean nutrient intake did not differ significantly between the two populations; ...
Utley R - - 1992
A number of biological and sociological factors affect the ability of the elderly to ingest and utilize nutrients believed to be important in wound healing. Lack of economic resources, lack of the ability or motivation to prepare foods, difficulty digesting certain foods, and chronic illness are all examples of factors ...
Elmer P J - - 1992
It is planned that a wide variety of questions related to nutrient intake and cardiovascular disease will be addressed in NHANES III. Given the scope of these questions and the number of different types of designs that may be utilized--cross-sectional, cohort, and case control--several different dietary methodologies will probably be ...
Bronner Y L - - 1992
Nutritional needs vary during the first year of life according to the infant's individualized pattern of growth and amount of physical activity. After delivery, the infant must make many physiologic adjustments, develop immunologic defenses, and take in adequate nutrients for survival. The type and consistency of foods change as the ...
Nieman D C - - 1992
We compared the general operating features and nutrient databases of six microcomputer dietary analysis systems. A 3-day food record with 73 food items was entered into each program; nutrient averages were compared with the US Department of Agriculture Nutrient Data Base for Standard Reference (USDA NDB), full version, release 9, ...
Overvad K - - 1991
Foods to be included in a Danish self-administered semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire were identified from food tables developed, together with data collected, for the survey 'Dietary habits in Denmark, 1985'. The questionnaire was to be used in a prospective study on diet, cancer and health, and the aim was to ...
Oftedal O T - - 1991
Many studies have examined the proportion of time that primates devote to feeding on various types of food, but relatively little is known about the intake rates associated with each food. However, the nutritional consequences of foraging can only be interpreted by comparing nutrient intakes with estimated nutrient requirements. The ...
Koopmans H S - - 1991
Studies on two different types of one-way crossed-intestines rats have shown that daily food intake is controlled by either endogenous gut signals or absorbed nutrients and their metabolic consequences, or both. If the amount of incoming ingested food is metered somewhere in the body, this could only occur in the ...
Witte D J - - 1991
The relationships between attitudes toward oneself (self-concept) and nutrition-related behavior were examined for 153 single women aged 18 to 35 years. Nutrition-related behaviors were assessed with 3-day food records that were analyzed for nutrient composition and eating patterns (Basic Four Food Group scores, number of meals per day, and percent ...
- - 1991
Individual variations in consumption of several food groups is greater than variation in nutrient intake. For many nutrients a relatively large number of diet records are needed to accurately estimate true intake. The relative-risk estimates in most studies of dietary factors and health outcomes are thereby probably substantially underestimated.
Bragg L E - - 1991
Food is an important stimulus for the growth of gastrointestinal mucosa. Gut structure is influenced by the route of nutrient administration, dietary composition and the availability of specific nutrients. The alterations in intestinal structure and function that occur when enteral nutrition is withheld suggests that the ingestion of food results ...
Obizoba I C - - 1991
This study was designed to determine the effect of soaking, sprouting, fermentation and cooking on nutrient composition and some antinutritional factors of sorghum seeds (guinesia). Standard assay procedures were adopted to resolve both the nutrients and the antinutritional factors content of the products. Combination of cooking and fermentation improved the ...
Semple H A - - 1991
To help clarify whether food or enteral nutrients decrease hydralazine relative bioavailability, eight subjects were given oral hydralazine under four nutritional conditions: fasted (F), with a standard breakfast (SB), with a bolus of enteral nutrients (EB), and with a slow infusion of enteral nutrients administered by nasogastric tube (EI). The ...
Baranowski T - - 1991
We assessed the effects of socioeconomic status and amount of time mother and child were together during the day on the accuracy of the mother's 24-hour recall report of her 3- or 4-year-old child's dietary intake. Accuracy of the mother's report was compared for nutrients and foods with dietary intake ...
de Castro J M - - 1991
The amount of solid food eaten by humans in spontaneously ingested bouts is the most important determinant of the amount and timing of fluid ingestion. In order to investigate whether this relationship occurred as a result of the osmotic and volumetric effects of the ingested nutrients, analyses were performed on ...
Kelly D - - 1991
Gastric intubation was adopted to examine the effect of continuous nutrient supply on digestive development of the pig during the immediate post-weaning period. The 14 d-weaned animals were slaughtered at 3, 5 and 7 d post-weaning (3W, 5W and 7W respectively) and the suckled animals were slaughtered at 14 and ...
Clapp J A - - 1991
Individual intakes of retinol, carotene, vitamin C, and folacin calculated from a food frequency questionnaire using reported portion size were compared with intakes calculated using standard portion size information. Data from a case-control study to determine the association of nutrient intake and risk of cervical dysplasia were supplemented by standard ...
Sandoval W M - - 1991
This paper describes the changes in the food selection patterns of male (n = 7) and female (n = 12) bodybuilders as they prepared for competition. Non-competition dietary data were obtained 6 to 17 weeks (M = 12.5 wks) prior to competition using a 3-day food record. Precompetition food intake ...
Stryker W S - - 1991
Contributions of specific foods and supplements to absolute intake and between-person variance in consumption of 19 macronutrients, vitamins, and minerals were examined using dietary records of all foods consumed over 4 weeks by 194 US nurses aged 34 to 59 years. To measure their contribution to absolute nutrient intake, we ...
Miller J Z - - 1991
Estimates of an individual's intake of specific nutrients is important in epidemiologic investigations of disease-diet relationships. The object of the present investigation was to determine the minimum number of daily food records required to estimate intake of specific nutrients in children. Both members of 70 pairs of twins (n = ...
< 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 >