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Results 451 - 500 of 698
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Simpson S J. - - 1997
To investigate the consequences of different patterns of switching between nutritionally complementary foods, nymphs of Locusta migratoria L. (Orthoptera: Acrididae) were forced to alternate between pairs of artificial foods differing only in their protein and carbohydrate content at one of several fixed intervals. Total food and nutrient intake over 6days ...
Thomas D G - - 1997
Max_r, a new method of food subset selection for the measurement of specific nutrient exposures, is programmed. Frequently, epidemiologic questionnaires are designed to measure several individual level exposures, including exposure to one or more nutrients. Although most nutrients are contained in a large number of foods, constraints on questionnaire size ...
Tripp F - - 1997
Research on dietary intake in the elderly shows evidence of both adequate and inadequate nutrient consumption from food. More recent studies have documented inadequate mineral intake from food and confirmed the overall decline in nutrient intake from food as people age. Food is incontrovertibly the best vehicle for nutrient consumption. ...
Bogan A D - - 1997
Nutrient intakes based on six days of food intake were collected from 52 elderly Nova Scotian women. Mean reported energy intake was 1600 kilocalories, of which fat contributed 31%. Mean intakes of zinc and Vitamin D were below recommendations. Other nutrients of concern were protein, calcium, folate, and vitamins B6 ...
Varela P - - 1997
Anthropometric measurements and dietary intakes of male drug addicts (n = 62), infected (n = 23) or not infected (n = 39) with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), who underwent two phases of detoxification (P1:15 d to 1 mo and P2: 5-6 mo) were assessed. Body weight, weight gain during detoxification, ...
Frank G C - - 1997
Teens exist in multiple environments that offer a variety of foods and a range in nutrient intakes. Currently used dietary data-collection methods may not be contemporary and encompass the real world of today's youth. If we consider respondent capability when we design our dietary assessment methods, then we can increase ...
Wirsam B - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: This paper demonstrates that a nutrient intake can be described in a differentiated way and can be evaluated by employing fuzzy decision making. It also examines whether fuzzy decision making can simplify nutrition education by small individual improvements in food selection behaviour. RESULTS: The recommendations for nutrient intakes are ...
Riordan D J - - 1997
Orthodontists often advise their patients to eat soft foods after treatment to avoid pressure sensitivity. Yet there is little research as to how this affects nutrient intake. This study compared nutrient intake before and after orthodontic adjustment to see whether any changes occurred. Ten patients between the ages of 12 ...
Nakatsuka H - - 1997
Historically, when Japanese farmers engaged in hard labor, they were likely to increase their carbohydrate intake without increasing intake of other nutrients. After Japan's economic growth started in the 1960s, however, many kinds of food became available and affordable. We investigated whether farmers today have increased the nutrients in their ...
Mattes R D - - 1997
The importance of sensory factors (both the sensory properties of foods and sensory abilities of consumers) in food selection is widely accepted. Less recognized and understood are the effects of sensory stimulation on physiologic processes. Mere exposure to the sight, smell, taste, and textural attributes of foods elicits myriad digestive, ...
Zizza C - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To highlight the methodology used to determine nutrient per capita per day values, to report values for food energy and 12 nutrients and to compare these values with FAO nutrient per capita values and Recommended Dietary Intakes (RDIs) for Italy. DESIGN: The nutrient content of the Italian food supply ...
Giacosa A - - 1997
Dietary recommendations evolved from instructions directed at prevention of starvation diseases to the level of intake of essential nutrients that are adequate to meet the known nutrient needs of practically all healthy persons. Vitamin requirements have been modified various times over the years and there are still differences in recommended ...
Moon C S - - 1997
Nutrient intake was studied by the total food duplicate method in 141 adult working women (at the ages of 21 to 56 years) in four regions (Seoul, Pusan, Chunan and Haman) in Korea. Clinical, hematological and anthropometrical examinations were conducted in parallel. The nutrient intakes were estimated in reference to ...
Williams R - - 1997
Children with sickle cell disease have decreased height and weight when compared with their peers. Although exact reasons for poor growth have not been established, increased calorie and protein needs and deficiencies in zinc, folic acid, and vitamins A, C, and E may be factors. To determine whether inadequate nutrient ...
Wootton J T - - 1996
We experimentally manipulated nutrient input to a rocky intertidal community, using nutrient-diffusing flowerpots, to determine (i) whether nutrients limited intertidal productivity, (ii) how a large-scale oceanographic disturbance (an El Niño event) affected patterns of nutrient limitation, (iii) the relative impacts of molluscan grazers and nutrient limitation, and (iv) if responses ...
Boulous C - - 1996
Energy-generating nutrients and total energy were computed and analytically determined for four widely used foods in Greece (mousaka, bean soup, infant food, and feta cheese), as well as for the individual food items necessary for their preparation. Standard procedures were used for chemical analyses, whereas computed values were generated through ...
Nordeide M B - - 1996
This paper discusses the nutrient composition and the nutritional importance of green leaves and wild gathered foods in an area with surplus food production in Mali. In this West African country, there is little information about the nutrient composition and the nutritional quality of foods in general, and of wild ...
Dixon Z R - - 1996
Dietary intakes are usually estimated by either a food frequency test, or by food records. We hypothesized that dietary intake estimates for fat soluble vitamins might be more accurate if information from both food frequency tests and food records were used. We estimated dietary intakes in 10 healthy adults by ...
Bidlack W R - - 1996
Nutrition and food science have each enhanced the development of an abundant, nutritious, safe food supply. A healthy diet should contain all of the required nutrients and sufficient calories to balance energy expenditure and provide for growth and maintenance throughout the life cycle. Importantly, dietary factors are associated with 5 ...
Johnson P E - - 1996
Early efforts to establish dietary recommendations were focused on defining minimum intakes of nutrients needed to prevent deficiency diseases. Although these early recommendations have proven to be successful in preventing frank deficiency diseases, new knowledge regarding the functions of nutrients at the biochemical, physiological, and gene levels has shifted the ...
Loreau M - - 1996
A model is developed and analyzed for a nutrient-limited ecosystem containing an arbitrary number of parallel plant-herbivore-detritus food chains in a heterogeneous environment, with a view to exploring interactions among community and ecosystem processes. Physical properties of the environment and functional properties of the entire ecosystem such as nutrient supply, ...
Donovan U M - - 1996
PURPOSE: To determine the energy and nutrient intakes of some omnivorous and vegetarian female adolescents to compare their risk for nutrient inadequacies. METHODS: A convenience sample of 78 lacto-ovo-vegetarians (LOV), 15 semi-vegetarians (SV), and 29 omnivorous (OM) females aged 14-19 years completed three-day weighed records from which mean intakes and ...
Cheney M - - 1996
The nutritional impact of a macronutrient substitute can only be determined after the substitute has been approved for use in foods and there is widespread use by the population over time. Modeling and experimental studies have predictive value, but they cannot replace real life in which the choice of foods ...
Kuhnlein H V - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of food source (traditional or market), season (six seasons), and age (five age groups) on dietary nutrient patterns of Inuit living in Baffin Island, Canada. DESIGN: Twenty-four-hour recall interviews of all residents who had lived > or = 3 years in this one community in ...
Khader V - - 1996
The study reported here was undertaken to investigate the food intake and nutrient adequacy of rural population in Guntur District of Andhra Pradesh. A total of 1200 pre-school children were covered under the study from three divisions of Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh. A 3 day dietary survey was conducted ...
Khan A S - - 1996
Depending on the type of user, it is possible that there are many purposes for retrieval of foods from a computerised nutrient data base. A Dietitian on one occasion may need to come up with a qualified assessment of foods in the process of diet construction so that the process ...
Tappy L - - 1996
The intake of nutrients is known to increase energy expenditure. Measured thermic effects of nutrient are 0-3% for fat, 5-10% for carbohydrates and 20-30% for proteins. Stimulation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis during intestinal absorption, initial metabolic steps and nutrient storage are responsible for this food thermic effect. The autonomic ...
Koopmans H S - - 1995
Studies with crossed intestines rats show that daily food intake is controlled by internal signals that arise at the level of the small intestines or from the absorption of food into the bloodstream and its subsequent metabolism. The gut can produce endogenous signals such as neural messages responding to the ...
Gibson S A - - 1995
Breakfast cereals are nutrient-dense foods that are also low in fat. They could theoretically contribute to lowering the percentage energy from fat in the diet whilst enhancing the intake of certain nutrients. This project is based on a further analysis of dietary data (seven day weighed intakes) from 2705 British ...
Alleman M M - - 1995
The utilization of S-adenosyl-L-[methyl-3H]methionine ([3H-methyl]AdoMet) by Crithidia luciliae was assessed under nutrient-replete and purine-starvation conditions. Uptake experiments with intact cells demonstrated that the radiolabel from this molecule was accumulated by purine-starved organisms at a rate approximately 10-fold greater than that observed in those cultivated in nutrient-replete medium. Purine-starved cells also ...
Kennedy E T - - 1995
To develop an index of overall diet quality. The Healthy Eating Index (HEI) was developed based on a 10-component system of five food groups, four nutrients, and a measure of variety in food intake. Each of the 10 components has a score ranging from 0 to 10, so the total ...
Crowther R S - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: To determine the chemical stability and physical compatibility of ranitidine in enteral nutrient formulas. MEASUREMENTS: A stability-indicating HPLC assay was used to measure the recovery of ranitidine from tablet (dissolved in water) or syrup after up to 24 hours of in vitro incubation in a variety of enteral nutrient ...
Young A L - - 1995
The tools of biotechnology have enormous potential to develop new, safe, and nutritious foods and food products that could benefit the immediate and long-term nutritional and health needs of the pediatric population. This is especially true as more emphasis is placed on the prevention, rather than the treatment, of chronic ...
Haytowitz D B - - 1995
The United States Department of Agriculture's Nutrient Data Bank contains a wealth of information on the composition of foods. These data are made available to the public through Agriculture Handbook No. 8, Composition of Foods: Raw, Processed, Prepared, its computerized form-the USDA Nutrient Data Base for Standard Reference, and other ...
Stordy B J - - 1995
The aim of this study was to analyse the nutrient composition, with respect to energy density, protein, fat, carbohydrate, non-starch polysaccharides and certain micronutrients, of home-prepared infant foods and to compare the nutrient composition with the draft European Commission directive for baby foods, the published nutrient content of manufactured baby ...
Schulz B - - 1995
Food and nutrient intake was assessed in 99 PKU patients (12-29 years old) by two food protocols (7 days and 4 days, respectively). Ninety-three patients completed at least one 7-day food record and 83 both records. Nineteen of 93 patients had already stopped taking the phenylalanine-free amino acid mixture (AAM), ...
Remer T - - 1995
The purpose of this study was to calculate the potential renal acid load (PRAL) of selected, frequently consumed foods. A physiologically based calculation model was recently validated to yield an appropriate estimate of renal net acid excretion (NAE); the model depends primarily on nutrient intake data. When nutrient data from ...
van der Ster Wallin G - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: The food selection and nutrient intake were investigated in women with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and controls. METHODS: Dietary data was obtained by 24-hour recall, and 7-day recording among eating disordered patients, and by 3-day registration among controls. RESULTS: The intake of energy and nutrients differed from controls, as ...
Zive M M - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: To assess vitamin and mineral intakes of Anglo-American and Mexican-American preschoolers. DESIGN: By use of interview and observation methods, acquire food intake data, calculate total nutrient intake, and compare selected nutrients to the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for ethnic and gender groups. SUBJECTS: Low- to middle-income parents and their ...
Katch F I - - 1995
A recent government report from the General Accounting Office concludes that some Handbook 8 nutritional data have so little documentation on how the data were produced that it is possible some nutrient values are not reliable, and that HNIS does not appropriately direct the generation of food composition data under ...
Mares-Perlman J A - - 1995
Relations between diet and nuclear opacities in the lens of the eye were investigated in a population-based cohort of middle-aged and older adults who lived in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin. Nuclear sclerosis was assessed from photographs of the lens taken during 1988-1990 in 1,919 persons in the Beaver Dam Eye Study. ...
Ghadirian P - - 1995
OBJECTIVES: Since the 1960's, marked sociocultural and economic changes have affected lifestyle, religious practices, and family structure among French Canadians in Quebec. Recent nutritional assessment was unavailable, despite indications of change. METHODS: A survey was carried out in 1988 in a representative sample living in Greater Montreal, to obtain current ...
Hathcock J N - - 1995
Intense public and scientific debate exists over whether the intake of some nutrients above the recommended dietary allowances may provide benefits beyond their traditional functions. However, excessive intakes of nutrients are well documented to cause adverse effects. This review focuses on methods that may be useful for identifying chronic intakes ...
Crane S W - - 1995
Tumors directly consume nutrients and produce paraneoplastic pathometabolic changes in food use efficiency. In combination with anorexia, negative energy balance and nutrient depletion can be extensive. Refeeding against catabolic changes supports general and specific host defenses. Enteral feeding methods are preferred to parenteral techniques and nutrient profiles are available that ...
Woteki C E - - 1995
Despite the wide public and scientific interest in antioxidant nutrients and their roles in disease prevention, limited data are available to assess population consumption, individuals' intake patterns, and trends in exposure. This article reviews data on levels of these nutrients in the food supply, intake patterns from food and supplement ...
Johnson L E - - 1995
The evidence that the antioxidant nutrients (vitamin C, vitamin E, and beta-carotene) may play a much more important role in our health and well being is growing rapidly. The knowledge gained by the nutritionists and biochemists will ultimately require a technical transformation to achieve successful application in foods. The physical ...
Christensen L - - 1994
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to assess the dietary intake of individuals experiencing a current episode of major depression. METHODS: Twenty-two females and 7 males experiencing moderate to severe depression completed 3-day food records. These food records were analyzed to obtain an estimate of the nutrient intake of male and ...
Dzanis D A - - 1994
The Association of American Feed Control Official (AAFCO) formed the Canine (1990-1991) and Feline (1991-1992) Nutrition Expert Subcommittees to update the requirements for substantiation of "complete and balanced" claims for pet foods sold in the United States. There are two means by which a company may substantiate nutritional adequacy for ...
Morris J G - - 1994
Despite the lack of precise information on the requirements for many of the nutrients essential for cats and dogs and the paucity of information on the availability of nutrients in foods, many commercial diets support excellent growth, reproduction, and maintenance. However, these diets use empirical information that cannot be readily ...
Zittel T T - - 1994
Nutrients in the intestine inhibit food intake via an action on the vagal afferent pathway. The aim of the present study was to use immunochemical detection of Fos protein-like immunoreactivity (FLI) in the brainstem to trace the neuronal pathways activated by intestinal nutrients. Perfusion of the intestine of awake rats ...
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