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Results 401 - 450 of 996
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Cheung H K - - 2003
Background - Betaglycan is a transmembrane proteoglycan in various types of cells. Betaglycan has a high binding affinity to transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) and it plays a physiological role in TGF-beta signal transduction. We have reported earlier the existence of soluble betaglycan in porcine and human milk. Objectives - ...
Hogeveen H - - 2003
Two directions can be distinguished in the development of high-tech milking equipment: 1) high-capacity milking parlors with a high throughput of cows per person per hour and 2) automatic milking systems in which manual labor is replaced by a milking robot. High-capacity milking parlors are developed in such a way ...
Gonzalo C C Departamento de Producción Animal, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de León, 24071-León, Spain. - - 2003
Using the Fossomatic method (FSCC) a total of 23,003 analytical SCC observations were carried out on 6400 aliquots taken from 80 individual ewe milk samples with the objective of studying the influence of 4 preservation procedures (without preservation, potassium dichromate, azidiol, and bronopol), 2 storage temperatures (ambient and refrigeration), 10 ...
Branca F - - 2002
Probiotic bacteria are used for production of fermented dairy products. The use of probiotic bacteria has the potential to replenish the natural intestinal flora of the body. These bacteria competitively inhibit the growth and colonization of pathogenic bacteria. Breastmilk is the best food for babies, also from a probiotic point ...
Smith J W - - 2002
Increasing production by increasing milking frequency (MF) is a management option available to dairy producers. This study examined effects of MF and interactions with region and herd size on measures of herd performance. Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) Holstein herd summary records (n = 10,754, 10,550, and 10,438) for the years ...
Loss C R - - 2002
Postpasteurization addition of CO2 inhibits growth of certain microorganisms in dairy products, but few workers have investigated the effect of CO2 on the thermal inactivation of microorganisms during pasteurization. Concentrations of CO2 ranging from 44 to 58 mM added to raw whole milk significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the number ...
Rasmussen M D - - 2002
The bulk-milk quality of 98 Danish farms with automatic milking systems was analyzed from 1 yr before introduction of automatic milking until 1 yr after. Bulk-milk total bacterial count, spores of anaerobes, somatic cell count (SCC), and freezing point increased when automatic milking was introduced and the frequency of milk-quality ...
Nudda A - - 2002
Sarda (n = 8), Awassi (n = 8), and Merino (n = 8) ewes were subjected unilaterally to once-daily milking (ODM) or twice daily milking (TDM) to test the hypothesis that the two breeds highly selected for milk production (Sarda and Awassi) would not respond as much to a change ...
Raúl Meneses R., Patricio ...
The objective of the study was to study the feasibility of early weaning creole kid goats ( Capra hircus   ) in order to save milk for cheese making. The animals were distributed to four treatments of ten animals each. The treatments were: T1, goat milk feeding twice daily until ...
McKusick B C - - 2002
We investigated whether the inhibition of milk ejection during and/or between machine milkings is responsible for the low milk fat observed in commercial milk obtained from dairy ewes managed with a mixed system (MIX) of partial daily suckling (10 h) and once daily machine milking (after 14 h of udder ...
Kruip T A M - - 2002
The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of robotic milking (RM) on fertility and somatic cell counts (SCC) among dairy herds participating in the national Dutch milk recording system. It was hypothesized that RM, and a higher milking frequency in general, would have negative effects on fertility, ...
Ronco A L - - 2002
In order to investigate possible associations of milk and dairy products and the risk of breast cancer (BC) in Montevideo, the authors performed a case-control study in the period 1999-2001. A total of 333 women were interviewed with a specific questionnaire; 111 of them had been diagnosed with BC and ...
Antonelli M L - - 2002
The free fatty acid (FFA) content together with the lipase activity control can be considered as useful indexes of good quality and correct storage of food, especially for milk. The quantitative analysis of FFA in different kinds of milk has been performed by a potentiometric method, using a new extractive ...
Auld Garry - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: Declining calcium intake among adolescents warrants attention. Our objective was to identify influences on adolescents' consumption of calcium-rich foods. DESIGN: Focus groups were conducted with girls representing 2 age groups (11 to 12 or 16 to 17 years) and 3 macroethnic groups (Asian, Hispanic, or white). SETTING: Public schools ...
McKusick B C - - 2002
Cisternal and alveolar milk fractions were measured in East Friesian crossbred dairy ewes (n = 32) after 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, or 24 h of milk accumulation in a 6 x 6 Latin square design by administration of an oxytocin receptor antagonist for recuperation of cisternal milk followed by ...
Godden S - - 2002
The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of a milk-line sampling device to obtain a representative sample under field conditions by comparing the milk component composition between milk-line and bulk-tank samples, for milk harvested from the same group of cows at the same milking. A total of ...
Bruhn C G - - 2002
A flow injection system with a pre-concentration minicolumn based on a chelating resin was coupled to a flame atomic absorption spectrometer. The focus of this work was the investigation of interference effects and the analytical applicability of the azo-immobilized 8-hydroxyquinoline on controlled-pore glass for the determination of Cr and Mn ...
O'Sullivan M M - - 2002
Transglutaminase (TGase) is an enzyme that cross-links many proteins, including milk proteins. In this study, the effects of TGase on some physico-chemical properties of milk were studied. TGase-treated milk was not coagulable by rennet, which was due to failure of the primary (enzymic) stage of rennet action rather than the ...
O'Brien Bernadette - - 2002
The objective was to determine the effect of once-daily milking (ODM) and omitting one evening milking each week (13TWM), in late lactation on milk production, composition and processability. Seventy-two cows were assigned to three treatments (ODM, 13TWM and twice-daily milking [TDM]) from 4 October to 12 December. Cows were on ...
Papadopoulos George - - 2002
Thirty-two lactating Karagouniko ewes were allocated at random to four groups for 6 weeks, to examine the effect of four diets: C (control treatment, ration without algae); LA (ration with low level of algae); MA (ration with medium level of algae) and HA (ration with high level of algae); containing ...
Turutoglu H - - 2002
It is known that Helicobacter pylori is a cause of chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer disease in humans. However the origin and transmission of this bacterium has not been clearly explained. One of the suggested theories is transmission via raw milk from animals to human beings. In this study, the ...
Belloque Josefina - - 2002
The relative proportion of caseins to total protein is a parameter that can be used to control the protein quality in standardised milk, an increasing tendency in dairy industries. 31P-NMR was used to analyse the casein content of milk, by the quantitation of the area under the resonances belonging to ...
Di Pinto A - - 2002
Cryptosporidium parvum is an emerging protozoan parasite responsible for several serious outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis, an enteric infection characterized by severe intestinal distress. This parasite can be transmitted through contaminated water and raw food in the oocyst form, which is resistant to many environmental stresses and food processes. C. parvum is ...
Gupta Arun - - 2002
Exclusive breastfeeding means that the infant receives only breast milk (from his or her mother or a wet nurse or expressed breast milk) and no other liquids or complementary foods with the exception of undiluted drops or syrups consisting of vitamin and mineral supplements or medicines. During this period water ...
Grant Irene R - - 2002
Over a 17-month period (March 1999 to July 2000), a total of 814 cows' milk samples, 244 bulk raw and 567 commercially pasteurized (228 whole, 179 semi-skim, and 160 skim), from 241 approved dairy processing establishments throughout the United Kingdom were tested for the presence of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis by immunomagnetic ...
Deeth Hilton C - - 2002
The reason for the reported difference in spoilage behaviour of skim and whole pasteurised milks was investigated. The rates of growth of psychrotrophic bacteria were not significantly different in the two milks and the bacterial types, all pseudomonads, present at spoilage were also similar. However, when representative spoilage organisms were ...
Guenther Klaus - - 2002
4-Nonylphenols (NPs) are common products of biodegradation of a widely used group of nonionic surfactants, the nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEs). These compounds are known to be persistent, toxic, and estrogen active. There is a worldwide scientific and public discussion on the potential consequences of human long term dietary exposure to such ...
Alberti-Fidanza A - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: The relationship between antioxidant (pro-)vitamin content of breast milk and diet of pregnant women has been reported. However, the assessment of a complete and reliable antioxidant index, such as the total antioxidant capacity, has never been performed in human milk. METHODS: In the present study, the total antioxidant capacity ...
Wappelhorst Olaf - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: We measured the transfer factors of antimony, cerium, chromium, cobalt, gallium, lanthanum, molybdenum, niobium, ruthenium, silver, thorium, titanium, and uranium from food to milk in nursing mothers. METHODS: Food and milk samples from 19 mothers were taken daily over 2 to 8 wk. The samples were analyzed for element ...
Takeda Eiji - - 2002
The awareness of phosphorus intake is important because hyperphosphatemia and hypophosphatemia both impair bone metabolism. Phosphorus consumption from food was obtained from values in the Food Balance Sheet (PBS) of Japan from 1960 to 1995. The amounts of phosphorus calculated from the FBS increased gradually from 1,243 mg/d in 1960 ...
Stewart S - - 2002
A crossover study design was used in five commercial dairy herds to study the effect of altering the switch point settings for automatic cluster remover units on the average duration of unit attachment, milk flow, and milk yield. Automatic cluster remover switch point settings were alternated, for 1-wk periods, between ...
van Schaik G - - 2002
Milk quality data on a month-by-month basis from March 1999 to December 2000 were studied from five of the largest milk plants operating in New York State. The analyses focused on bulk tank somatic cell count (SCC), bacterial counts in the form of plate loop count (PLC), and antibiotic residue ...
Rychen G - - 2002
Polychlorodibenzo-para-dioxins (PCDDs) and Polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDFs) are ubiquitous in the environment. They are mainly formed as unwanted byproducts during various chemical, industrial, and combustion processes. Thus, these pollutants can be found in the food chain. The aim of this experiment was to study the transfer of PCDD/Fs from spiked milk to ...
Du X Q - - 2002
A cross-sectional study of a random sample of 649 girls, aged 12-14 years (mean +/- SD: 12.9 +/- 0.6 years), in the Beijing area examined the relationship between diet and bone mineral status. Food and nutrient intakes over the past year were estimated by means of a semiquantitative food frequency ...
Sivakesava S - - 2002
The feasibility of measuring tetracycline at the ppb levels in milk was investigated by Fourier transform mid-infrared (FT-MIR) and Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopic techniques. Milk samples spiked with different concentrations of tetracycline were scanned using FT-MIR and FT-NIR spectroscopy. Suitable spectral wave number regions were selected for principal least ...
Veling J - - 2002
Herd-level sensitivities of bacteriological and serological methods were compared in 79 bovine dairy herds, recently infected with Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Dublin. All farms experienced clinical signs of salmonellosis for the first time and had no history of vaccination against salmonellosis. At the start of the study, infection with ...
Thirumala-Devi K - - 2002
High-titer rabbit polyclonal antibodies to aflatoxin M(1) (AFM1) were produced by utilizing AFM1-bovine serum albumin (BSA) conjugate as an immunogen. An indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was standardized for estimating AFM1 in milk and milk products. To avoid the influence of interfering substances present in the milk samples, it was ...
Power Michael L - - 2002
The generalization that anthropoid primates produce dilute milks that are low in protein and energy is based primarily on data from large monkeys of the families Cebidae and Cercopithecidae, as well as humans. The marmosets and tamarins (Callitrichidae) are not only much smaller in body size, but also typically raise ...
Grant Irene R - - 2002
Raw cows' milk naturally infected with Mycobacterium paratuberculosis was pasteurized with an APV HXP commercial-scale pasteurizer (capacity 2,000 liters/h) on 12 separate occasions. On each processing occasion, milk was subjected to four different pasteurization treatments, viz., 73 degrees C for 15 s or 25 s with and without prior homogenization ...
Fujimura S - - 2002
AIMS: To investigate the existence of Helicobacter pylori in cow's milk as one of the foods which most Japanese children eat. METHODS AND RESULTS: Detection of H. pylori was demonstrated by the semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a culture method and electron microscopy. Semi-nested PCR demonstrated the ureA gene of ...
Werner B G - - 2002
The effects of the addition of 11.9 mM CO2 on the growth of Bacillus cereus spores inoculated into sterile homogenized whole milk at 101 and 106 spores/ml and stored at 6.1 degrees C, was examined weekly for 35 d. Colony-forming units from CO2 treated inoculated milks decreased over 35 d ...
Osullivan M M - - 2002
Treatment of milk with transglutaminase (TGase) affects its heat stability, but the manner in which it does so depends on whether or not the milk had been preheated before incubation and on the temperature of preheating. In raw milk, it appears that cross-link formation between the individual caseins is responsible ...
Varcoe J - - 2002
AIMS: To study the effects of the delivery vehicle for Lactobacillus acidophilus on the human faecal microbiota. Our hypotheses were that (i) the delivery vehicle would influence faecal lactobacilli numbers and (ii) consumption of Lact. acidophilus would influence the populations of Bifidobacterium and hydrogen sulphide-producing bacteria. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ten ...
Donohue M J - - 2002
Milk ingested by mammalian offspring, coupled with offspring's utilization of this energetic investment, influences survival and growth. A number of studies have examined milk intake in otariids, but few have examined milk intake over the entire lactation period, and none has independently measured energy expenditure concurrent with milk intake. We ...
Kassem M - - 2002
This study aimed to assess the hygiene quality of some packaged milk (pasteurized or sterilized) and dairy products before and after application of a hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) system at a milk and dairy products company in Cairo, Egypt. The steps taken to put HACCP in place ...
Thilsing-Hansen T - - 2002
Three main preventive principles against milk fever were evaluated in this literature review, and the efficacy of each principle was estimated from the results of controlled investigations. Oral calcium drenching around calving apparently has a mean efficacy of 50%-60% in terms of milk fever prevention as well as prevention of ...
Sevi A - - 2001
Three groups of 12 midlactating Comisana ewes were housed in separate rooms of the same building and assigned to treatments of low (LV, 4.1 m3), medium (MV, 5.6 m3), or high (HV, 7.3 m3) airspace/animal. The concentrations of airborne microorganisms in the experimental rooms were measured twice weekly at 0930 ...
Srivastava V P - - 2001
As part of the programme on monitoring of environmental contaminants in food stuff in Kuwait, 54 samples of fresh full cream and skimmed milk, powdered milk, yoghurt, and infant formula were analysed for aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) by HPLC following sample clean up using immuno-affinity columns. Of samples, 28% were contaminated ...
Vangroenweghe F - - 2001
Three different milk sampling techniques were evaluated during milk sampling: a direct aseptic collection from the udder through a sterile cannula was used as the reference technique, compared with either a manual or a mechanical sampling method. In this study 30 high-yielding Holstein-Friesian dairy cows at different stages of lactation ...
Gill H S - - 2001
The probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 is known to enhance immunity in animal models, following oral delivery. In this study, we investigated the immunoenhancing effects of HN001 delivered to mice in different milk-based substrates, including: whole (full-fat) milk supplemented with HN001; fermented milk supplemented with HN001; or whole milk which had ...
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