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Devasagayam T P A - - 2004
Free radicals and related species have attracted a great deal of attention in recent years. They are mainly derived from oxygen (reactive oxygen species/ROS) and nitrogen (reactive nitrogen species/RNS), and are generated in our body by various endogenous systems, exposure to different physicochemical conditions or pathophysiological states. Free radicals can ...
Haskell Marjorie J - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that the vitamin A equivalency of beta-carotene from plant sources is lower than previously estimated. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the effect of 60 d of daily supplementation with 750 microg retinol equivalents (RE) of either cooked, puréed sweet potatoes; cooked, puréed Indian spinach (Basella alba); or synthetic ...
Flood Victoria M - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To compare methods used to assess the validity of nutrient intake data obtained from a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ), using folate and vitamin B12 as nutrient examples. DESIGN: Cross-sectional sample from a population cohort. SETTING: Two postcode areas west of Sydney, Australia. SUBJECTS: In total, 2895 people aged 49 years ...
Brustad M - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To assess vitamin D status and the impact of three fish meals consisting of cod liver and fresh cod-liver oil on the plasma level of vitamin D metabolites in an area with high consumption of cod liver and cod-liver oil. DESIGN: Experimental field study. METHODS: Thirty-two volunteers from the ...
Andrès Emmanuel - - 2004
Vitamin B12 or cobalamin deficiency occurs frequently (> 20%) among elderly people, but it is often unrecognized because the clinical manifestations are subtle; they are also potentially serious, particularly from a neuropsychiatric and hematological perspective. Causes of the deficiency include, most frequently, food-cobalamin malabsorption syndrome (> 60% of all cases), ...
Newmark Harold L - - 2004
Mean dietary intakes of calcium and vitamin D in the US adult population are far below the adequate intake (AI) values recommended by the Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences, and thus substantial segments of the American population have inadequate intakes and elevated ...
Oakes Michael E - - 2004
Male and female dieters and non-dieters (mean age 18.5 years) rated the vitamin levels of ordinary foods (e.g. 'sliced fresh peaches') and counterparts with added fat, sugar or salt (e.g. 'sliced fresh peaches with sugar'). Unlike previous studies, in addition diet foods ('sugar-free ice cream') were compared to their ordinary ...
Mensink G B M - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To explore differences in food and nutrient intake as well as cardiovascular risk factors between the eastern and western parts of Germany in 1998 and to compare food consumption information between 1991 and 1998. DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: In all, 4030 people, aged 18-79 y, sampled from the East and ...
Blum Lauren S - - 2004
Cultural explanations and management strategies for specific signs and symptoms of vitamin A deficiency are explored in a Hausa-speaking community in northern Niger. Their interpretations of the etiology of nightblindness in young children and pregnant women focus on food-related causes, in which "lack of good food" is central. In parallel ...
Greenwood Darren C - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Many public health campaigns encourage increased fibre consumption, but short-term studies suggest that various components of dietary fibre inhibit the absorption of certain micronutrients including carotenoids. These do not take into account long-term adaptation to nutrient intake levels. We aimed to investigate the effect of non-starch polysaccharide (NSP) fibre ...
Moore Carolyn - - 2004
Mean intake of vitamin D in the United States was estimated from food and food plus supplements and compared with recommended intake levels. US men, nonpregnant and nonlactating women, and nonbreastfeeding children aged 1 year and older who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, ...
Garcia V - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To determine the level of agreement between the American (Chilean) and British food composition tables in estimating intakes of macronutrients and antioxidants. DESIGN, SETTING AND SUBJECTS: Information based on a food-frequency questionnaire with emphasis on antioxidants was collected from 95 Chileans aged 24-28 years. Nutritional composition was analysed using ...
Oakes Michael E - - 2004
The addition of disreputable ingredients (e.g. fat) can reduce the perceived health value of foods and cause the foods to take on negative qualities (e.g. promoters of obesity). However, are foods that contain disreputable ingredients perceived to lack positive components (e.g. vitamins and minerals)? In the present study, college students ...
Kuhnlein H V - - 2004
Indigenous Peoples globally are part of the nutrition transition. They may be among the most extreme for the extent of dietary change experienced in the last few decades. In this paper, we report survey data from 44 representative communities from 3 large cultural areas of the Canadian Arctic: the Yukon ...
Jiratanan Thudnatkorn - - 2004
It has been shown that thermal processing of tomatoes and sweet corn results in increased antioxidant activities despite the loss of vitamin C. Until now, it is unclear whether this positive effect of thermal processing occurs with all crop produce. Therefore, analysis of a root vegetable (beets) and of a ...
Akobundu Ucheoma O - - 2004
Food pantries serve over 19 million Americans, yet little is known about the nutritional quality of foods distributed in pantry bags. Foods in bags from 133 clients from 19 pantry sites were itemized, and a mean site value for nutrient and food group content was calculated. If an individual consumed ...
Englberger L - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Many factors need to be considered in a food-based intervention. Vitamin A deficiency and chronic diseases, such as diabetes, heart disease and cancer, have become serious problems in the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) following the decreased production and consumption of locally grown foods. However, agricultural and social conditions ...
Thomas David R - - 2004
The use of various dietary supplements, including vitamins, to prevent or delay disease or aging rests for the most part on epidemiological associations. It does appear from these data that a diet rich in vitamins is associated with a tendency to improved health; however, the results from controlled trials are ...
Kojima T - - 2004
AIM: To determine the concentration of vitamin K including K1 (phylloquinone) and K2 (menaquinone-n; MK-n) in the maternal milk of Japanese women. METHODS: We collected human milk samples from more than 4000 mothers living throughout Japan from December 1998 to September 1999, and analysed the contents of vitamin K1 and ...
Maras Janice E - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To examine alpha-tocopherol intake and food sources of alpha-tocopherol in the US population relative to current Dietary Reference Intakes for vitamin E. DESIGN: We analyzed food source and intake data from the 1994 to 1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) with added values for alpha-tocopherol from ...
Sybesma Wilbert - - 2004
The dairy starter bacterium Lactococcus lactis has the potential to synthesize both folate (vitamin B11) and riboflavin (vitamin B2). By directed mutagenesis followed by selection and metabolic engineering we have modified two complicated biosynthetic pathways in L. lactis resulting in simultaneous overproduction of both folate and riboflavin: Following exposure to ...
Poletti Susanna - - 2004
The low micronutrient content of cereals requires the fortification of food and biofortification of plants. Many laboratories are currently pursuing biofortification using breeding and genetic modification, but progress is challenged by technical hurdles and our understanding of physiological processes. Recent studies have largely been confined to the improvement of levels ...
Rejnmark L - - 2004
In recent studies from Sweden and the United States, a high vitamin A intake has been associated with low bone mineral density (BMD) and increased fracture risk. In Sweden and the United States, food items such as milk and breakfast cereals are fortified with vitamin A, whereas in Denmark there ...
Perlas Leah A - - 2004
Intakes of macronutrients (energy, protein, fat, and carbohydrate) and vitamins (vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamin C) (per day and per 100 kcal) from complementary foods by a cohort of Filipino breast-fed infants and toddlers (n=1794) were studied at 10, 16, and 22 months of age using a single ...
Thane C W - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To examine zinc and vitamin A intake and status and associated dietary, socio-demographic, lifestyle and physiological factors in British young people. DESIGN: National Diet and Nutrition Survey of young people aged 4-18 y. SETTING: Great Britain, 1997. SUBJECTS: Complete 7-day weighed dietary records were provided by 1520 participants, while ...
Ikeda-Douglas Candace J - - 2004
Results of this study support the free-radical theory of aging and demonstrated that providing higher levels of vitamin E in food resulted in higher serum vitamin E concentrations and improved performance on landmark-discrimination tasks in aged dogs. Factors other than vitamin E also contributed to the response but remain undefined.
Leonard Scott W - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Conflicting results from vitamin E intervention studies suggest supplemental vitamin E malabsorption. OBJECTIVE: We compared vitamin E bioavailability from a supplement with that from a fortified breakfast cereal. DESIGN: Vitamin E bioavailability was evaluated by using deuterium-labeled all-rac-alpha-tocopherol in three 4-d trials (2 wk apart). Five fasting subjects sequentially ...
Stabler Sally P - - 2004
Pernicious anemia is a common cause of megaloblastic anemia throughout the world and especially in persons of European or African descent. Dietary deficiency of vitamin B12 due to vegetarianism is increasing and causes hyperhomocysteinemia. The breast-fed infant of a vitamin B12-deficient mother is at risk for severe developmental abnormalities, growth ...
Gagné Doris - - 2004
As a number of seasonal factors affect cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D, especially in young children, our objective was to verify if winter and summer vitamin D intakes in Quebec preschoolers reach the adequate intake of 5 microg/day. A three-month retrospective food frequency questionnaire and a 24-hour food recall were ...
Underwood Barbara A - - 2004
Visual symptoms (night blindness) of vitamin A deficiency (VAD) were among the earliest diet-related deficiencies documented. Knowledge of vitamin A chemistry, metabolism and deficiency consequences accrued rapidly during the first eight decades of the 20th century. A series of disorders were described in animals, including impaired growth, reproduction, epithelial integrity, ...
Hokin Bevan - - 2004
Differences in the dietary intake of cobalt were assessed for vegans, lacto-ovo-vegetarian and non-vegetarian Australians using food intake logs, and daily or average trend recall over three months. A significant decrease in cobalt intake was observed for the lacto-ovo-vegetarian population compared with the intake in vegans and omnivores. There is ...
Gorstein Jonathan - - 2003
A study was carried out in Orissa, India, to evaluate the impact on vitamin A status of vitamin A supplementation integrated with an immunization campaign. Data were collected from a representative sample of 1,811 children, aged 12 to 48 months, at baseline and then at 4 and 16 weeks following ...
Lasheras C - - 2003
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Total plasma homocysteine (tHcy) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Among other dietary and non-dietary factors, B vitamins, such as folate, riboflavin and cobalamin, are primary determinants of tHcy in the general population. However, research has concentrated on the relationship of these nutrients with tHcy, ...
Dismore MacKenzie L - - 2003
Assessment of vitamin K dietary intakes has been limited by incomplete vitamin K food composition data for the US food supply. The phylloquinone (vitamin K(1)) concentrations of nuts (n=76) and fruits (n=215) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Each sample represented a composite of units obtained from 12 to 24 ...
Englberger Lois - - 2003
This review article points out that bananas are an important food for many people in the world. Thus, banana cultivars rich in provitamin A carotenoids may offer a potential food source for alleviating vitamin A deficiency, particularly in developing countries. Many factors are associated with the presently known food sources ...
Vokó Z - - 2003
In the Rotterdam Study, the authors investigated whether high intake of antioxidants from food is associated with the risk of stroke. Among 5,197 participants who were followed on average for 6.4 years, 227 ischemic strokes occurred. Higher intake of antioxidants was associated with a lower risk of stroke. The relationship ...
Tarwadi Kirtan - - 2003
Green leafy vegetables (GLV) offer a cheap but rich source of a number of micronutrients and other phytochemicals having antioxidant properties. The potential of 30 GLV in the raw and cooked form as natural antioxidant supplements for vegetarian diets was assessed. There was a large variability in the values of ...
Ovesen Lars - - 2003
Vitamin D is produced endogenously when the skin is exposed to sunlight and can be obtained exogenously from a few natural food sources, from food fortification and from supplements. Generally, vitamin D intake is low < or = 2-3 microg/d in Europe. Casual exposure to sunlight is thought to provide ...
Blalock Susan J - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To validate a short food frequency screening instrument designed to assess dietary intakes of calcium and vitamin D. DESIGN: Cross-sectional surveys and food diaries. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-seven university employees. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Calcium and vitamin D intakes of participants were assessed using three instruments: a 7-day food diary, the Block-National ...
Hels Ole - - 2003
A food consumption survey was conducted in rural Bangladesh in January-March 1996 using a 24-h food weighing method. Intakes and adequacies of energy, vitamin A, vitamin C, iron and calcium were estimated for 81 children (aged 24-71 months) and 182 women (aged 18-45 years) using three sets of food composition ...
Galan Pilar - - 2003
The relationship between soup consumption and folic acid, beta-carotene, and vitamin E and C status was assessed in adults who regularly consumed soup compared to those who did not or who were occasional eaters. Data were obtained for 2114 men and 2874 women living in France and participating in the ...
Alexy Ute - - 2003
Intake of vitamins A, C, and E was evaluated and age and time trends were assessed on the basis of 3-day weighed dietary records (n = 5121) of 2- to 18-year old boys (n = 417) and girls (n = 425) enrolled in the DONALD Study (Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric ...
Allen Lindsay H - - 2003
The B vitamins, except for folate, can be classified as group I nutrients during lactation. Nutrients in this category share the following characteristics: low maternal intake or stores during lactation reduce the concentration in human milk, and infants' stores are readily depleted. For some of these nutrients, the infants' stores ...
Lutter Chessa K - - 2003
Adoption of the recommended breast-feeding and complementary feeding behaviors and access to the appropriate quality and quantity of foods are essential components of optimal nutrition for infants and young children between ages 6 and 24 mo. Iron, zinc and vitamin B-6 are deficient in complementary food diets in Bangladesh, Ghana, ...
Lock Gabriela - - 2003
At the behest of UNICEF, conceptual specifications from the International Workshop on Micronutrient Supplementation throughout the Life Cycle (held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in November 1999) were developed for a chewable, flavored multiple-micronutrient vehicle that was a hybrid of a food and a tablet (i.e., "foodLET"). Two varieties of ...
Penniston Kristina L - - 2003
Vitamin A consumption by many Americans is quite high, in part because of the consumption of fortified foods and the use of vitamin supplements. Most multivitamin supplements provide two or more times the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for vitamin A because the daily value (DV) is based on 1968 and ...
Campbell Alison K AK Department of Nutrition, Program in International Nutrition, University of California, Davis, CA, - - 2003
The prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency increases with age, probably resulting from malabsorption of food-bound B-12 secondary to gastric atrophy. On the basis of this assumption, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommends those aged >50 y consume crystalline vitamin B-12. There is limited information on the prevalence of gastric atrophy ...
Gerber Mariette - - 2003
This Review covers the sources and the main effects on human health of well-known micronutrients such as minerals and vitamins and also of microconstituents contained in the Mediterranean diet. Vitamins were first identified because of deficiency diseases still present in certain parts of the world. Hydrosoluble vitamins, among them folic ...
Pollard J - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To assess the variability and validity of plasma-based biomarkers of antioxidant vitamin, and fruit and vegetable intake. SETTING: Leeds, Wakefield, Huddersfield and Bradford, England. SUBJECTS: A total of 54 free-living, nonsmoking women recruited from participants of the UK Women's Cohort Study (UKWCS). METHODS: Two fasting blood samples were taken ...
Andrès Emmanuel - - 2003
BACKGROUND: To date, only case reports or small studies have documented the syndrome of food-cobalamin malabsorption in specific populations of patients or situations. In this paper, we present the data from 80 unselected patients with cobalamin deficiency related to food-cobalamin malabsorption. METHODS: We studied 80 patients with well-established food-cobalamin malabsorption ...
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