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Löwik M R - - 1997
To describe the rationale, design and methods for a nutrition surveillance study with special reference to vitamin B6 and other micronutrients. Several studies in the Netherlands have shown that differences in dietary intake and in nutritional status indicators are relatively small among various socio-demographic groups, so that the relevance of ...
Solomons N W - - 1997
To address, with respect to improvement of human vitamin A status by dietary approaches, the three theoretical postulates that: 1) the most practical and economical manner to increase the amount of dietary vitamin A available to low-income persons in low-income nations is through plant sources of provitamin A carotenoids; 2) ...
Ginter E - - 1997
The life expectancy of the male and female population immediately after World War II was similar in the former Czechoslovakia and in Austria. However, the situation has changed radically over the past 30 years. In 1991 the life expectancy in Czechoslovakia was 4.9 years less for males and 3.6 years ...
Hathcock J N - - 1997
Safety and efficacy are crucial but separate issues for vitamin and mineral supplements. Misinterpretation of "safe and adequate" to mean "safety limit" would impose restrictions on vitamin and mineral intakes that are not needed to ensure safety. Substantial evidence indicates that intakes greater than the recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) of ...
Lawson K D - - 1997
Olestra has been shown to be safe for its intended use by extensive testing in animals and in humans. It is not digested or absorbed and has no effect on the structure or physiology of the GI tract, the only organ of the body that it contacts. Olestra can interfere ...
Peters J C - - 1997
Olestra is a mixture of polyesters formed from sucrose and fatty acids derived from edible fats and oils. It is not absorbed or digested and can serve as a zero-calorie replacement for dietary fat. Because olestra is lipophilic and not absorbed, it has the potential to interfere with the absorption ...
Peters J C - - 1997
Olestra is a zero-calorie fat replacement intended to replace 100% of the fat used in the preparation of savory snacks. Olestra can affect the absorption of other dietary components, especially highly lipophilic ones, when ingested at the same time. The potential effects of olestra on the absorption of essential fat-soluble ...
Fawzi W W - - 1997
Severe deficits in ponderal and linear growth are problems of major public health significance among children in developing countries. We prospectively examined the association of dietary vitamin A intake with child growth among 28,740 Sudanese children ages 6-72 months. At baseline and at each 6-month visit, all subjects were weighed ...
Solomons N W - - 1997
Guatemala is a nation of 10 million persons, at the northern point of the chain of five Republics derived from Spanish colonies on the Isthmus of Central America. The country is diverse in its ethnicities, its climate and terrain, and its agricultural pursuits. The majority of its population is poor, ...
Skinner J D - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To determine the nutrient and food intakes of healthy, white infants from families of middle and upper socioeconomic status and to compare intakes to current recommendations. DESIGN: Using an incomplete random block design, we interviewed 98 mother-infant pairs longitudinally when infants were 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, ...
Swank R L - - 1997
It is of interest that, aside from starvation, the nutrition catastrophes of the past, including scurvy (vitamin C deficiency) resulting from lack of fresh vegetables and fruit and beriberi (vitamin B1 deficiency) from consumption of polished rice, are forgotten and only of interest as history. The problems of vitamins were ...
Eales J G - - 1997
Thyroid-related functions in organisms devoid of follicular thyroid tissue have been reviewed. In the lamprey, a primitive vertebrate, the larva concentrates iodide and synthesizes thyroid hormones (TH) by iodoperoxidase (IP)-mediated iodination of a thyroglobulin (TG)-like molecule in a subpharyngeal afollicular endostyle. The endostyle is the thyroid homolog, and it reorganizes ...
Rosenfeld L - - 1997
In 1905, Cornelius Adrianus Pekelharing found that animals fed purified proteins, carbohydrates, fats, inorganic salts, and water would thrive only if small amounts of milk were added to the diet. He concluded that the milk contained some unrecognized substance that in very small quantities was necessary for normal growth and ...
Booth S L - - 1997
Case reports cited in Medline or Biological Abstracts (1966-1996) were reviewed to evaluate the impact of vitamin K1 dietary intake on the stability of anticoagulant control in patients using coumarin derivatives. Reported nutrient-drug interactions cannot always be explained by the vitamin K1 content of the food items. However, metabolic data ...
Severi S - - 1997
Food processing has the potential to alter the nutrient quality of foods. This review deals with the effects of home-based cooking and storage practices on the micronutrient content of foods. It describes the effects of cooking, freezing and refrigeration on the vitamin and mineral content of meats, fish, fruit, vegetables ...
Nakasaki H - - 1997
We encountered six cases of total parenteral nutrition (TPN)-associated lactic acidosis during the 6-y period of 1988-1993. The patients were characterized by severe disease of the digestive organs, minimal food intake before surgery, and postoperative TPN with no food intake and with no vitamin supplements. Within 4 wk of TPN, ...
Sloan N L - - 1997
OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of vitamin A deficiency has traditionally been assessed through xerophthalmia or biochemical surveys. The cost and complexity of implementing these methods limits the ability of nonresearch organizations to identify vitamin A deficiency. This study examined the validity of a simple, inexpensive food frequency method to identify areas ...
Le Marchand L - - 1997
Cytochrome CYP1A2, a liver enzyme responsible for the metabolic activation of a number of putative human carcinogens, exhibits wide inter-individual differences in activity. In order to characterize sources of variability in CYP1A2 activity, we phenotyped (with the caffeine test) 90 subjects of various ethnic backgrounds in Hawaii. Forty-three subjects were ...
Ahrari M - - 1997
Food intake and Body Mass Index (BMI) of privately institutionalized elderly in Tehran was studied using a 5-day food intake survey and anthropometric measurements. Thirty-seven males and sixty-three females in private institutions were selected. The intake of many nutrients including protein, calcium, zinc, vitamins A. riboflavin, folic acid and cobalamin, ...
Bruins B G - - 1997
Illumination by visible light (400 Ix) of cultures containing larvae of Drosophila melanogaster can reduce survival (Bruins et al., Insect Biochemistry 21:535-539, 1991). Here we show that the effect of light depends on the presence of propionic or acetic acid in the food medium. We also show that survival is ...
Huttly S R - - 1997
An updated review of nonvaccine interventions for the prevention of childhood diarrhoea in developing countries is presented. The importance of various key preventive strategies (breast-feeding, water supply and sanitation improvements) is confirmed and certain aspects of others (promotion of personal and domestic hygiene, weaning education/food hygiene) are refined. Evidence is ...
Young V R - - 1996
The current recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for vitamin C, as proposed by the Food and Nutrition Board/National Research Council in 1980 and reconfirmed in 1989, is 60 mg daily for nonsmoking adult males. Levine et al. [Levine, M., Conry-Cantilena, C., Wang, Y., Welch, R. W., Washko, P. W., et al. ...
Harcourt-Brown F M - - 1996
Poor calcification of the teeth and the bones of the skull predisposes pet rabbits to dental disease. This study is a preliminary investigation into the dietary habits of pet rabbits. Owners were questioned about the feeding preferences of their pets. Manufacturers of rabbit foods were asked about the calcium, phosphorus ...
Matern D - - 1996
Propionic acidemia is often manifested during the neonatal period with vomiting, failure to thrive, lethargy, and hyperammonemic coma when catabolism is prolonged. Mild lactic acidosis frequently accompanies metabolic decompensation. We present two patients with propionic acidemia whose initial manifestation was complicated by severe lactic acidosis caused by thiamine deficiency, which ...
Shimbo S - - 1996
Nutrient intake was surveyed by the total food duplicate method in 49 adult ethnically Malay women (at the ages of 18 to 47 years and mostly at 30-39 years) working in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Simultaneously, hematological examinations, serum biochemistry, anthropometry and clinical examination were conducted. Nutrient intakes were estimated in ...
Dreher M L - - 1996
Throughout history, nuts have been a staple food providing energy, protein, essential fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals. Today, nuts are classified as part of the USDA Food Guide Pyramid's Meat/ Meat Alternate Group. Foods in this group contribute protein as well as important vitamins and minerals to the diet. Nuts ...
Gijsbers B L - - 1996
The human vitamin K requirement is not known precisely, but the minimal requirement is often assumed to be between 0.5 and 1 x 10(-6) g/kg body weight. In the present study we addressed the question to what extent circulating vitamin K concentrations are influenced by the form in which the ...
Rexrode K M - - 1996
Observational studies have found that persons who consume large amounts of fruit and vegetables have lower rates of coronary heart disease. The strength of epidemiologic evidence, however, differs for each of the antioxidant vitamins. High intake of vitamin E from food or supplements has generally been associated with a lower ...
Chapman K M - - 1996
Elderly persons are at risk for developing malnutrition due to a number of age-related factors, and conversely, malnutrition can worsen declining physiological and psychosocial conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the nutritional status of an elderly, ambulatory outpatient population, and to evaluate change in nutritional status over ...
Zive M M - - 1996
PURPOSE: To determine reported vitamin and mineral intakes, vitamin supplement use, and food consumption patterns of young adults. METHODS: Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls were collected from 1988-1991 on a cross-sectional sample of 504 young adults in Bogalusa, Louisiana, between the ages of 19 and 28 years (58% female; 70% white). Reported ...
Booth S L - - 1996
Dihydro-vitamin K1 was recently identified as a dietary form of vitamin K produced during the hydrogenation of vitamin K1-rich vegetable oils. Dihydro-vitamin K1 is absorbed, with measurable levels in human plasma following dietary intake. To determine the primary food sources of dihydro-vitamin K1 in the American diet, 261 foods from ...
Bloem M W - - 1996
BACKGROUND: Vitamin A deficiency is considered to be an important public health problem in Bangladesh. A universal biannual distribution of high-dose vitamin A capsules has been in place for over the past two decades. This supplementation has been beneficial for preschool children. Bangladesh has been exploring more sustainable approaches for ...
Williams P G - - 1996
The vitamins with the greatest losses during hot-holding of food (> 10% after 2 hours) are vitamin C, folate, and vitamin B-6; retinol, thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin appear to be relatively stable. The 66 studies reviewed in this article give inadequate information on the losses of many other vitamins. In ...
Morens D M - - 1996
A nested case-control study of 84 incident cases of patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) detected by June 30, 1994 and 336 age-matched control subjects, compared previously-documented intake of total dietary vitamin E and of selected vitamin E-containing foods. All study subjects had been followed for 27 to 30 years ...
Bouis H - - 1996
Taken together, mineral and vitamin deficiencies affect a greater number of people in the world than does protein-energy malnutrition. If farmers could be induced to grow commonly eaten food staple crops that fortify their seeds with essential vitamins and minerals, a significant, lower cost improvement in human nutrition might occur.
Holick M F - - 1996
Vitamin D plays an essential role in maintaining a healthy mineralized skeleton for most land vertebrates including humans. Sunlight causes the photoproduction of vitamin D3 in the skin. Once formed, vitamin D3 is metabolized sequentially in the liver and kidney to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. The major biological function of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D ...
Shearer M J - - 1996
Vitamin K occurs in nature as a series of compounds with a common 2-methyl- 1,4 naphthoquinone nucleus and differing isoprenoid side chains at the 3 position. They comprise a single major plant form, phylloquinone with a phytyl side chain and a family of bacterially synthesized menaquinones (MKs) with multiprenyl side ...
Booth S L - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To identify important food sources and estimate dietary intake of vitamin K-1 (phylloquinone) in the American diet. DESIGN: Core foods from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Total Diet Study (TDS), which was based on the 1987-88 Nationwide Food Consumption Survey (NFCS), were analyzed for vitamin K-1. These ...
Hicks T - - 1996
New research findings have documented fortification errors in fortified milk products all across the US milk industry. Also, the consumption of overfortified bovine milk has led the public to question whether vitamin fortification is safe. Therefore, North Carolina dairies were surveyed to determine vitamin fortification procedures used and to determine ...
Papadimitriou A - - 1996
Two patients with Kearns-Sayre Syndrome and hypoparathyroidism were treated with alfacalcidol (1a-OH D3) and total serum calcium concentration remained within normal range for a long period. After two months of combined therapy with Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), hypercalcemia was noticed and as a result, 1a-OHD3 was gradually discontinued. Normal total serum ...
Levine M - - 1995
Although the recommended dietary allowance provides an estimate for vitamin C ingestion in humans, optimal vitamin C requirements are unknown. We define optimal vitamin C requirements operationally based on the following: dose-function relations, availability in the food supply, steady state concentrations in plasma and tissues achieved at each dose of ...
Morita T - - 1995
A pathological study on 5 of 21 cats affected naturally with systemic calcinosis was performed. The animals ranged in age from 1 to 9 years. Hematology and serum chemistry analyses showed the elevated values of phosphorus, blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine. X-ray examination disclosed the increased density of systemic ...
Rauma A L - - 1995
The present study examined the vitamin B-12 status in long-term adherents of a strict uncooked vegan diet called the "living food diet." The study was comprised of two parts. In the cross-sectional part, the data on serum vitamin B-12 concentrations and dietary intakes in 21 (1 male, 20 females) long-term ...
Srivastav A K - - 1995
Vitamin D3 (650 pmol and 6.50 nmol/100 g body wt), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (650 pmol and 6.50 nmol/100 g body wt), and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (65 pmol and 650 pmol/100 g body wt) were administered daily to the freshwater snake Natrix piscator for 15 days. Both serum calcium and inorganic phosphate levels ...
Buckley D J - - 1995
Oxidation of lipids is a major cause of deterioration in the quality of muscle foods and can directly affect many quality characteristics such as flavor, color, texture, nutritive value, and safety of the food. Lipid oxidation in muscle systems is initiated at the membrane level in the intracellular phospholipid fractions. ...
Schaefer D M - - 1995
Vitamins E and C are important antioxidants in animals. Their antemortem activity continues to function in postmortem muscle (meat), where they have a critical role in maintaining quality in the food product. Dietary supplementation of vitamin E, and intravenous infusion of vitamin C immediately before harvest, are efficacious techniques for ...
Harris J E - - 1995
This article reviews the published original sources of information on interactions of oral anticoagulants with dietary factors, points out deficiencies in our knowledge of these interactions, and suggests applications for this information in the clinical setting. As with many drug-nutrient interactions, the original references include a few experimental studies and ...
Pogue S J - - 1995
Photosynthesis of vitamin D is an endocrine function of the skin. Unfortunately this function can be affected by several factors, such as seasonal changes, clothing, melanin in the skin, sunscreens, and age. Vitamin D deficiency can be prevalent in the elderly, especially those whose lack of mobility prevents them from ...
Gabel K A - - 1995
Food and fluid intake of 2 male cyclists was assessed to describe dietary intakes of athletes participating in an endurance ride. Cyclists rode 15 to 18 hr each day for 10 days to travel 2,050 miles on the original Pony Express Trail over seven major mountain ranges. Food and fluids ...
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