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Results 501 - 550 of 836
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Bailey A L - - 1999
OBJECTIVES: Application of a HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) method, using cyanide derivatisation, to the determination of plasma pyridoxal-5-phosphate (PLP) concentrations as an indicator of vitamin B6 adequacy. SETTING: The study was performed at the Institute of Food Research, Norwich, UK. Blood samples were taken at the Institute, at Health ...
Faber M - - 1999
OBJECTIVES: To assess the nutritional status and dietary practices of 4-24-month-old children (under-twos) in a rural South African community. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: A low socioeconomic rural African community (Ndunakazi), approximately 60 km north-west of Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. SUBJECTS: Children (n = 115), 4-24 months old who attended growth ...
Thurnham D I - - 1999
There are two major dietary sources of vitamin A: easily absorbed retinyl palmitate in foods of animal origin, and poorly bioavailable carotenoids from plant foods. Plasma retinol is tightly controlled, probably by regulation of retinol-binding protein (RBP) formation in the liver, and only hormonal factors (e.g. oral contraceptives) and infection ...
Pareo-Tubbeh S L - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: Identification and comparison of frequently consumed foods and important food sources of energy, protein, total fat, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin B-6, folate, and calcium of elderly Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites. DESIGN: Dietary intake data were collected using a modified Health Habits and History Questionnaire (a food ...
Smith W - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To assess associations between the stages of age-related maculopathy (ARM) and dietary intake of carotene, vitamin C, retinol, and zinc. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, population-based study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 3654 subjects 49 years of age and older from a defined area, west of Sydney, Australia, participated. A total of 2900 ...
de Pee S - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the relationship between vitamin A intake, from plant and animal foods, and vitamin A status is the same throughout a population. DESIGN: Analysis of cross-sectional data on vitamin A intake, vitamin A status, physiological condition and socio-economic status. SETTING: Central Java, Indonesia. SUBJECTS: Women with a ...
Sharpless K E - - 1999
The preparation of the recently released Standard Reference Material (SRM) 2383 Baby Food Composite and the process used for value assignment of nutrient concentrations are reported. SRM 2383 can be used as a control material when assigning values to in-house control materials and when validating analytical methods for measuring proximates, ...
Sharpless K E - - 1999
In 1997, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) released Standard Reference Material (SRM) 2383 Baby Food Composite. This SRM can be used as a control material when assigning values to in-house control materials and when validating analytical methods for the measurement of proximates, vitamins, minerals, and trace elements ...
Johnston C S - - 1999
Dietary reference intakes (DRIs) for vitamin C for healthy U.S. populations are currently being formulated by the Panel on Dietary Antioxidants and Related Compounds of the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine. A major task of the Panel is to analyze the evidence of adverse effects of ...
Parker R S - - 1999
There is growing need for accurate information regarding the bioavailability of carotenoids, both with respect to carotenoids per se and to the vitamin A value of provitamin A carotenoids in foods or supplement preparations. Little quantitative information is currently available, owing primarily to the lack of adequate methods to assess ...
Andrade Juguan J - - 1999
This cross-sectional study involved 204 elderly individuals (93 males and 111 females). Subjects were randomly recruited using a list on which all 60-75 y-old-people living in seven sub-villages in Jakarta were included. The usual food intake was estimated using semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires. Hemoglobin, plasma retinol, vitamin B-12, red blood ...
Anderson C - - 1999
PURPOSE: The association between self-reported past food intake and Parkinson's disease (PD) was investigated in a case-control study of men and women aged 40-89 years. METHODS: Newly diagnosed idiopathic PD cases were ascertained from neurologists, and from outpatient and pharmacy computerized databases, at the Group Health Cooperative (GHC) clinics in ...
Sakamoto N - - 1999
To assess Vitamin K (VK) status by food questionnaire, healthy young males (32) and females (9) were given a food list of 50 VK rich foods (identified in the 4th edition standard tables of food composition in Japan). After checking the food names and approximate amount eaten for 7 days, ...
Sichert-Hellert W - - 1999
Since the 1980s, fortified food plays an increasing role in food marketing in Germany. However, there is a lack of data concerning fortified food consumption. We therefore evaluated dietary information of the DONALD Study. A total of 2251 3-days weighed records between 1986 and 1996 from 637 different subjects aged ...
Baskaran V - - 1999
Eight types of supplementary foods based on popped cereals (wheat, ragi, bajra and sorghum) blended with legumes (soy and bengal gram) and fortified with essential vitamins and minerals were developed on a pilot plant scale. Four of the supplements were prepared with cereals, soy flour (SF) and bengal gram (BG) ...
Baik H W - - 1999
Vitamin B12 deficiency is estimated to affect 10%-15% of people over the age of 60, and the laboratory diagnosis is usually based on low serum vitamin B12 levels or elevated serum methylmalonic acid and homocysteine levels. Although elderly people with low vitamin B12 status frequently lack the classical signs and ...
Reddy M B - - 1999
Processing (including preparation) makes food healthier, safer, tastier and more shelf-stable. While the benefits are numerous, processing can also be detrimental, affecting the nutritional quality of foods. Blanching, for example, results in leaching losses of vitamins and minerals. Also, milling and extrusion can cause the physical removal of minerals during ...
Rao D S - - 1999
Certain fish are very rich sources of vitamin D as compared to most of the higher vertebrates which have insignificant amounts of this vitamin. Not only the teleosts, which possess a calcified skeleton, but also the elasmobranchs, which lack calcified skeleton, contain extremely high concentrations of this vitamin, leading to ...
Thomson A B - - 1998
Olestra is a fat substitute made from sucrose and vegetable oil. Olestra is neither digested nor absorbed, and therefore adds no calories or fat to the diet. Because the gut is the only organ that is exposed to olestra, the potential for olestra to affect gastrointestinal structure and function, and ...
Faggiotto A - - 1998
Data on the protective role of antioxidants in models of atherosclerosis are only partially confirmed in man. Observational and epidemiological data, as well as randomized trials, provide no clear cut indications, because of positive and disappointing results on the use of antioxidants in cardiovascular protection. Despite the lack of a ...
de Pee S - - 1998
Food-based approaches for controlling vitamin A deficiency and its consequences, such as increased mortality, more severe morbidity, and anemia, have become increasingly important, thus prompting a reassessment of the relation between vitamin A intake and status. A nutrition surveillance system in Central Java, Indonesia, assessed the vitamin A intake and ...
Weusten B L - - 1998
Aphthous ulcers of the oral cavity are frequently encountered in general practice. Although the exact pathophysiology remains obscure, many factors can contribute to the pathogenesis of these lesions, such as immunological factors, local trauma, smoking, stress, hormonal state, family history, food hypersensitivity, and infection. We describe three patients in whom ...
Mueller UG - - 1998
Cultivation of fungi for food by fungus-growing ants (Attini: Formicidae) originated about 50 million years ago. The subsequent evolutionary history of this agricultural symbiosis was inferred from phylogenetic and population-genetic patterns of 553 cultivars isolated from gardens of "primitive" fungus-growing ants. These patterns indicate that fungus-growing ants succeeded at domesticating ...
Jalal F - - 1998
The provision of vitamin A in food sources of beta-carotene is an alternative to the distribution of high-dose capsules. To examine factors that may influence the success of food-based programs, a study was carried out in Sumatra, Indonesia, of the effect of food sources of beta-carotene, extra dietary fat, and ...
Miller A - - 1998
This study was undertaken to determine whether measurements of serum total homocysteine (Hcys) and bound B12 absorption are useful in determining which patients with low- or low-normal levels of serum B12 are B12 deficient. In 40 patients with low or borderline serum levels of B12, food-bound B12 absorptions were determined ...
Visentainer J V - - 1998
Ripe fruits of Barbados cherry Malpighia glabra L. proceeding from the fruit-growing section of Iguatemi Experimental Farm of Universidade Estadual de Maringa (PR), were triturated in a liquefier and hulled in a stainless steel sieve with 25 mesh. The bagasse (seeds and hull) was discarded and the vitamin C content ...
Diplock A T - - 1998
This paper assesses critically the science base that underpins the argument that oxidative damage is a significant causative factor in the development of human diseases and that antioxidants are capable of preventing or ameliorating these disease processes. The assessment has been carried out under a number of headings, and some ...
Severi S - - 1998
We studied the effects of cooking on the vitamin and mineral content of vegetables (vegetable soup, cauliflower), meat (beefsteak) and fish (sole) and those of cutting (fruit salad) and squeezing (orange juice) on the vitamin content of fruits. In cooked dishes, vitamin retention ranged between 0 (folic acid, all dishes) ...
Paleologos M - - 1998
To test the hypothesis that vitamin C protects against cognitive impairment, the authors conducted a cohort study (n=117) in a retirement community in Sydney, Australia. Vitamin C intake was assessed at baseline (1991) with a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, and cognitive function was assessed 4 years later (1995). After adjustment ...
Desobry S A - - 1998
Beta-carotene acts as a pro-vitamin A or anti-cancer compound. Carrots contain the highest amount of beta-carotene of common fruits and vegetables, but each year 25% of carrot production is lost in the U.S. during processing and storage, while, at the same time, the market demand increases. This article is a ...
Beecher G R - - 1998
During the last half-century, the fruit of the cultivated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), commonly considered a vegetable, has become a popular and highly consumed food in the United States. Production of tomatoes in the United States ranks second only to potatoes. As a consequence, tomatoes and tomato-based foods provide a convenient ...
Booth S L - - 1998
The current daily recommended dietary allowance for vitamin K is 1 microg/kg. Reliable measurements of vitamin K content in foods are now available, and data from 11 studies of vitamin K intake indicate that the mean intake of young adults is approximately 80 microg phylloquinone/d and that older adults consume ...
Prince D M - - 1998
In 1987, Procter and Gamble Company (Cincinnati, Ohio) petitioned the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to amend the food additive regulations to allow sucrose esterified with fatty acids (olestra) to be used as a replacement for conventional fats. The petitioner later restricted its request for use in savory snacks. ...
Krause V M - - 1998
Vitamin A intake from food sources, not including breast milk, was determined from seven consecutive 24-h recalls for 55 children (mean age 20.8 mo, SD 8.9) from two poor communities of Guatemala City. Not including vitamin A derived from fortified sugar or breast milk, the median daily vitamin A intake ...
Fillion L - - 1998
Recent consumer interest in 'healthy eating' has raised awareness to limit the consumption of fat and fatty foods. What are the relative nutritional advantages and disadvantages of consuming fried foods? Are all fried foods bad for you? A review on macro- and micronutrients losses and gains during frying is presented ...
Grievink L - - 1998
BACKGROUND: A study was undertaken to investigate the relationships between the intake of the antioxidant (pro)-vitamins C, E and beta-carotene and the presence of respiratory symptoms and lung function. METHODS: Complete data were collected in a cross sectional study in a random sample of the Dutch population on 6555 adults ...
Osler M - - 1998
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Deficiencies in calcium and vitamin D intakes are involved in the aetiology of osteoporosis, and health authorities recommend that the population consume a diet providing sufficient calcium and vitamin D. However, in 1987 the Danish Government withdrew a mandatory fortification of flour with calcium. This study examines intakes ...
Lansdowne A T - - 1998
Mood changes synchronised to the seasons exist on a continuum between individuals, with anxiety and depression increasing during the winter months. An extreme form of seasonality is manifested as the clinical syndrome of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) with carbohydrate craving, hypersomnia, lethargy, and changes in circadian rhythms also evident. It ...
Riddoch C H - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether germinating pulses and beans are a potential source of vitamin C in rations for refugee communities with poor vitamin C status. DESIGN: High pressure liquid chromatographic assessment of vitamin C content of a range of legumes following germination in light and dark and after cooking. RESULTS: ...
Berkner K L - - 1998
Vitamin K-dependent (VKD) proteins require modification by the VKD-gamma-glutamyl carboxylase, an enzyme that converts clusters of glus to glas in a reaction that requires vitamin K hydroquinone, for their activity. We have discovered that the carboxylase also carboxylates itself in a reaction dependent on vitamin K. When pure human recombinant ...
Watanabe F - - 1998
To clarify the effects of microwave heating on the loss of vitamin B(12) in foods, raw beef, pork, and milk were treated by microwave heating and then their vitamin B(12) contents were determined according to a chemiluminescent vitamin B(12) assay with hog intrinsic factor. Appreciable loss ( approximately 30-40%) of ...
Chatard J C - - 1998
The nutritional status of elderly sportsmen has not been reported on, neither has the nutritional balance nor the precise relationship between nutritional status and physical fitness been detailed for this population. Thus, group of 18 sportsmen [age 63 (SD 4.5) years] was monitored by weighing their food during a 6-day ...
Ransome Kimberley - - 1998
This study evaluated the effect of the Alberta School Milk Program (ASMP) on usual calcium and vitamin D intake among elementary students. A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to estimate daily intake of food and supplement sources of calcium and vitamin D. Samples were drawn from schools from Calgary ...
Oguntona C R - - 1998
An assessment of the food and nutrient intake of 81 male and 35 female University students was conducted using structured questionnaires and 24-hr. diet recall procedures. The contribution of Street Foods (SF) to their nutrients intakes was also assessed. The major dietary sources of nutrients for both groups were Cereals, ...
Howells L C - - 1998
High oral doses of vitamin A have been shown to be teratogenic and accordingly the World Health Organization has recommended that the daily intake for pregnant women should not exceed 3.3 mg. Liver contains high concentrations of this vitamin and consequently it has become necessary to assess its level in ...
Kastner P - - 1997
Knock-out of the mouse RXRalpha gene was previously shown to result in a hypoplastic heart ventricular wall, histologically detectable in 12.5 dpc fetuses. We show here that a precocious differentiation can be detected as early as 8.5 dpc in ventricular cardiomyocytes of RXRalpha(-/-) mutants. This precocious differentiation, which is characterized ...
Brants H A - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: The correct classification of adults with a habitual low vitamin B6 intake by means of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Assessment of reproducibility of the food frequency questionnaire and of the relative validity as compared to 3 d diet records (DR). DESIGN: A self-administered food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to ...
Welch R M - - 1997
OBJECTIVES: Review how agricultural systems might be changed to increase the vitamin A density of diets in developing countries to provide sustainable solutions to vitamin A deficiency globally. DESIGN: Develop agricultural systems that not only assure calorie adequacy for people, but also address vitamin A density in diets. SETTINGS: Agricultural ...
Longnecker M P - - 1997
Intake of fruits, vegetables, vitamin A, and related compounds are associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer in some studies, but additional data are needed. To estimate intake of beta-carotene and vitamin A, the authors included nine questions on food and supplement use in a population-based case-control study of ...
Löwik M R - - 1997
To describe the rationale, design and methods for a nutrition surveillance study with special reference to vitamin B6 and other micronutrients. Several studies in the Netherlands have shown that differences in dietary intake and in nutritional status indicators are relatively small among various socio-demographic groups, so that the relevance of ...
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