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Results 451 - 500 of 837
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Silvers K M - - 2001
Parenteral lipids are susceptible to light-induced peroxidation, particularly under phototherapy. Ascorbic acid is protective. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dark delivery tubing and/or coadministration of multivitamin preparations could prevent peroxidation of Intralipid without undue vitamin loss. In experiments carried out on the benchtop, lipid peroxidation occurred ...
Forshee R A - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: The associations between added sugars intake and consumption of vitamins, minerals and servings of foods in the USDA Food Guide Pyramid were examined. METHODS: Data from the USDA 1994-96 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals were used in multivariate regression analyses to assess the statistical and practical significance ...
Russell R M - - 2001
Nothing is directly known about the bioavailability of vitamin B-12 from dairy products or fortified grain products. We directly studied vitamin B-12 absorption from water, milk and fortified bread in adult subjects using (58)Co-labeled vitamin B-12 and a whole body gamma-ray counter/spectrophotometer. Sixteen healthy men and women over the age ...
Ogura M - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: This study compared food intake among patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) and control patients. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 2129 outpatients of a dental hospital were enrolled. Of these, 118 patients reporting RAS experiences 4 times or more during the past year (RAS group) were selected with age-matched ...
Wierzbicka E - - 2001
The dietary intake of energy, macronutrients, minerals and vitamins was studied in a group of elderly living in urban, suburban, and rural areas of Warsaw region, Poland. The study was conducted in spring 1999 and 298 persons, born between 1919-1924, randomly selected with criteria of age and place of living, ...
Monge-Rojas R - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Although a great deal of attention is given to macronutrient and energy intake in the diet, elements essential to dietary metabolic balance include important micronutrients. Very little information exists on vitamin and mineral intake during adolescence, especially in developing countries. METHODS: The micronutrient intake of urban and rural adolescents ...
Contato R - - 2001
Five prepared catering dishes were analysed to evaluate the proximate composition and the fatty acids, vitamin E, thiamine and riboflavin content. The correspondent values were calculated from actually available food composition tables (two from Italy, one from the UK and one from the USA). When using more than one database ...
Holladay S D - - 2001
Wild-caught box turtles (Terapene carolina carolina) with aural abscesses were observed over a period of several years. Histopathologic evaluation of epithelial tissues (conjunctiva, pharynx, trachea, auditory tube) revealed mucosal hyperplasia and squamous metaplasia, and accumulated keratin-like material in the middle ear cavity. These manifestations suggested the possibility of vitamin A ...
Wattanapenpaiboon N - - 2001
In the past, recommended vitamin or micronutrient intakes have often been based on levels that were adequate to prevent clinical deficiencies from developing. Once these levels were reached, clinicians and nutrition scientists generally attributed little value to higher vitamin intake from supplements or food sources. Evidence has continued to mount ...
Ollilainen V - - 2001
In 1989, the Community Bureau of Reference started a research program to improve the quality of vitamin analysis in food. To achieve this task, vitamin methodology was evaluated and tested by interlaboratory studies and the preparation of certified reference materials, which will be used for quality control of vitamin measurements. ...
Bates C J - - 2001
There is a strong north-south gradient of vascular disease in Britain, whose aetiology is not fully understood. To test the hypothesis, in a cross-sectional survey of older people, that intakes and status indices for protective micronutrients, particularly those for which fruit and vegetables are rich sources, also vary on a ...
Humphrey J - - 2000
OBJECTIVES: To determine if the Simplified Dietary Assessment to Identify Groups at Risk of Inadequate Intake of Vitamin A developed by the International Vitamin A Consultative Group (IVACG) correctly classified a group of vitamin A-deficient children as being at risk, and to see if a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) or ...
Nursal B - - 2000
Frozen spinach, peas, green beans and okra were commercially cooked in three different stewpans (double based stainless steel, teflon, pyrex) with and without thawing. The vitamin C levels were effected both by cooking methods and stewpans. Frozen peas were found to be the least (3.5% loss), and frozen green beans ...
Prince R L - - 2000
Dairy foods provide the major, readily absorbed sources of calcium. Women aged 40 years and over should consume 3-4 serves of low-fat dairy food per day. If calcium supplements are required, the best absorption rate is from a dose of 500-600 mg of calcium once or twice daily. Exercise, alone ...
West C E - - 2000
When the intake of foods or pharmaceutical preparations containing sufficient nutrients of adequate bioavailability are consumed, nutrient requirements are met and optimal nutritional status is maintained. Recent studies have shown that the basis for describing vitamin A activity of carotenoids overestimates the bioavailability of provitamin A carotenoids and their bioconversion ...
Schurgers L J - - 2000
Fluctuations in international normalized ratio values are often ascribed to dietary changes in vitamin K intake. Here we present a database with vitamin K(1) and K(2) contents of a wide variety of food items. K(1) was mainly present in green vegetables and plant margarins, K(2) in meat, liver, butter, egg ...
Couris R R - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a brief, self-assessment instrument (K-Card) to determine daily variations in dietary vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) intake for use in patients receiving oral warfarin anticoagulant therapy. METHODS: The K-Card was designed to include a checklist of selected common foods and beverages providing > or = 5 microg ...
Kidd P M - - 2000
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is the most common behavioral disorder in children. ADHD is characterized by attention deficit, impulsivity, and sometimes overactivity ("hyperactivity"). The diagnosis is empirical, with no objective confirmation available to date from laboratory measures. ADHD begins in childhood and often persists into adulthood. The exact etiology is ...
Frusciante L - - 2000
Many epidemiological studies have shown the importance of fruit and vegetables in the human diet so as to prevent the onset of cardiovascular disease and several forms of cancer. The use for food and pharmaceuticals of two of the most widely grown and genetically well-known species in the world, the ...
Taylor C A - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To determine vitamin C intakes among adults and to identify differences in dietary intake associated with vitamin C consumption. DESIGN: This cross-sectional study compared vitamin C intake, nutrient intake, and food group choices of adults with low (<30 mg/d), marginal (30-60 mg/d), and desirable (>60 mg/d) vitamin C intakes. ...
Thornquist M D - - 2000
In 1996, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved olestra, a fat substitute, for use in snack foods. Previous studies had shown that olestra consumption could reduce absorption of carotenoids and fat-soluble vitamins. To determine the association between consumption of olestra-containing snack foods and serum concentrations of carotenoids and fat-soluble ...
de Jong N - - 2000
Accurate measures of micronutrient levels in newly developed enriched foods are indispensable for valid labelling, for determination of ultimate levels for possible claimed health effects and for safety. To date, only a limited amount of public literature is available on the reproducibility of laboratory analysis and on the similarity within ...
Livaniou E - - 2000
Biotin is a vitamin of the B-complex, which plays an important biochemical role in every living cell. In the recent years, the interest in this vitamin has been rekindled, mainly due to its association with serious human disorders, such as the inherited syndrome multiple carboxylase deficiency, which can be successfully ...
Sharpless K E - - 2000
In recent years, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has developed several food-matrix Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) characterized for vitamins and other organic nutrients. NIST uses several "modes" for assignment of analyte concentrations in SRMs, one of which includes the use of data provided by collaborating laboratories. Certification ...
Meydani M - - 2000
Increased accumulation of free radicals over time reduces the effectiveness of antioxidant defense mechanisms and heightens the vulnerability of older individuals to a variety of oxidative insults and associated pathologic conditions. Both nutritive and nonnutritive components of foods may slow declines in certain body functions. Ingestion of vitamin E, an ...
Wrieden W L - - 2000
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine the contribution of different foods to the estimated intakes of vitamin C among those differing in plasma vitamin C levels, and thereby inform dietary strategies for correcting possible deficiency. DESIGN: Cross sectional random population survey. SETTING: North Glasgow, Scotland, 1992. PARTICIPANTS: 632 men and 635 women, ...
Boros L G - - 2000
The role of food supplements in the form of vitamins has not been extensively investigated in relation to varying cancer rates between populations of different geographical regions. New data indicate that thiamine (vitamin B1), a common food supplement in Western food products, is directly involved in nucleic acid ribose synthesis ...
Huang L T - - 2000
Vitamin D deficiency rickets is rare among infants and children in the industrialized countries. In this paper, we report a 2-year-5-month-old girl with aching and bowed legs. A food allergy with atopic dermatitis was diagnosed since her early infancy. Strict dietary restrictions were done and she was mostly fed soybean ...
Bolton-Smith C - - 2000
This paper reports the compilation of a food composition database for phylloquinone (vitamin K1) derived from the direct analysis of foods, recipe calculation and the assignment of values based on food similarities. All the basic and other food items used in these calculations had been analysed by HPLC and about ...
Kersting M - - 2000
Data on the vitamin intake during childhood and adolescence are rare in Europe. Here, age and sex specific percentiles of the absolute intakes and relative densities (per MJ) of retinol, carotenoids, vitamins A, E, C, B1, B2, B6, niacin and folate in a sample of 627 subjects between the age ...
Tucker K L - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Low vitamin B-12 status is prevalent among the elderly, but few studies have examined the association between vitamin B-12 status and intake. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that vitamin B-12 concentrations vary according to intake source. DESIGN: Plasma concentrations and dietary intakes were assessed cross-sectionally for 2999 subjects in the Framingham ...
Giugliano D - - 2000
The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is associated with life in aerobic conditions. ROS are thought to be implicated in the pathogenesis of various human diseases since they are capable of damaging biological macromolecules such as DNA, carbohydrates and proteins. The organism maintains defense against ROS, including enzymes and ...
Sichert-Hellert W - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: We investigated time trends in consumption patterns, and energy and nutrient intakes (protein, fat, carbohydrates, added sugars, vitamins A, E, C, B1, B2 and B6, niacin, folate, calcium and iron) from fortified food in children and adolescents between 1987 and 1996 in Germany. DESIGN: Mixed longitudinal survey (DONALD study) ...
Blanchet Carole - - 2000
Food composition data were determined for food consumed by 226 Inuit women in Nunavik, estimating the relative contribution of traditional and market food for energy, protein, lipid, carbohydrate, vitamin A, vitamin D, iron, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, selenium, zinc, and eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. Traditional Inuit food was an important source ...
Rondó P H - - 1999
The aim of this study was to compare plasma concentrations of vitamin A in 710 women after delivery, with a simplified Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Vitamin A was determined in plasma, by HPLC. The FFQ included 55 foods, and was based on the typical diet of the low socioeconomic families ...
Mann N J - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of habitual omnivorous and vegetarian diets on folate and vitamin B12 status and the subsequent effect on homocysteine concentration. DESIGN: Cross-sectional comparison of free-living habitual meat-eaters and habitual vegetarians. SETTING: The study was conducted at RMIT University, Melbourne. SUBJECTS: One hundred and thirty-nine healthy male ...
Youngkin E Q - - 1999
Vitamin supplements and therapies have recently gained popularity because of current scientific studies supporting their benefits. Although many consumers are taking vitamins and other supplements, they may not be aware of the numerous benefits and hazards associated with many of these over-the-counter substances. Clinicians should be familiar with common vitamin ...
Mattila P - - 1999
The predominant source of vitamin D is the synthesis of cholecalciferol in the skin by the action of sunlight; however, due to the relative lack of sunlight, the intake of vitamin D from food is emphasized during winter, especially in the northern countries. Only a few foods (fish, eggs, wild ...
Imaeda N - - 1999
Using 351 one-day weighted diet records, we selected foods providing vitamins, minerals and dietary fiber according to contribution analysis (CA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Vitamin C was supplied by various vegetables and fruits, and carotene was specifically derived from green-yellow vegetables based on MRA as well as CA. Vitamin ...
Hemilä H - - 1999
To examine whether vitamin C rich food consumption and related vitamin C intake are associated with the risk of tuberculosis, the authors analyzed 167 incident cases of tuberculosis during a median follow-up time of 6.7 years in a clinical trial cohort of 26,975 Finnish men for whom they had baseline ...
Lehtonen-Veromaa M - - 1999
OBJECTIVES: To study the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D, the effect of vitamin D supplementation on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [S-25(OH)D], and the intakes of vitamin D and calcium in Finnish 9- to 15-year-old athletic and nonathletic girls. DESIGN: 1-year follow-up study (February 1997-March 1998) with three months of vitamin D supplementation ...
Booth S L - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To estimate dietary intakes of phylloquinone and dihydrophylloquinone in a representative sample of the American population using 14-day food diaries. DESIGN: Vitamin K food composition data were applied to 14-day food diaries completed by a nationally representative sample of approximately 2,000 households that participated in a Market Research Corporation ...
Booth S L - - 1999
Warfarin has been successfully used in the medical management of thromboembolic disease for nearly six decades. It is widely assumed that a dietary vitamin K-warfarin interaction exists. To avoid this potential interference with the efficacy of warfarin in stable anticoagulation, patients typically receive instructions to consume a constant dietary intake ...
al-Kanhal M A - - 1999
The nutritive value of nine Saudi breads prepared from wheat, millet and corn were measured chemically by proximate, minerals and vitamins analyses. On fresh weight basis, the bread contained 26.4-44.7% moisture, 6.6-10.4% protein, 0.4-2.4% fat, 40.2-60.6% available carbohydrates, 1.8-5.7% dietary fibre, 0.6-2.4% ash and 190-273 Kcal (metabolizable) per 100 g. ...
Patterson R E - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of a simplified inventory procedure for assessing nutrient intake from vitamin and mineral supplements. DESIGN: Participants brought their supplements to a clinic. An interviewer conducted the supplement inventory procedure, which consisted of recording data on the type of multiple vitamin and single supplements used. For ...
Olson J A - - 1999
Our current knowledge about the bioavailability of provitamin A carotenoids in foods is insufficient, fragmentary and difficult to interpret. Past methods of estimating the vitamin A value of food carotenoids suffer both from uncertainty about the meaning of bioavailability and from the inadequacy of the indicators used in its determination. ...
Nestel P - - 1999
That beta-carotene is the main source of vitamin A in fruits and vegetables has been known for many years. Many studies have been conducted to assess bioconversion of beta-carotene to vitamin A in animals. More recently, bioconversion studies using stable-isotopically labeled beta-carotene have been used to assess bioconversion in humans. ...
Ulrich C M - - 1999
5,10-Methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), an enzyme in folate metabolism, may play a role in the etiology of colorectal adenomas via effects on DNA methylation and nucleotide synthesis. We investigated the association between a common polymorphism (C677T, reduced MTHFR activity) and colorectal adenomas within the Minnesota CPRU case-control study. Cases (n = ...
Ausman L M - - 1999
The experimental evidence that forms the basis for setting recommended intake levels of vitamin C for humans is currently undergoing review. A recent study suggests that a vitamin C intake of 100 mg-200 mg/day is needed, which is two to threefold greater than the current Recommended Dietary Allowance. This study ...
Smith W - - 1999
Should older people eat more carrots, or at least increase their carotene intake to prevent loss of night vision? Participants in the Blue Mountains Eye Study were asked about their ability to see in the dark. Nutrient and food intake were estimated from a food frequency questionnaire. Associations between self-reported ...
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