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Evans Korboi N - - 2012
OBJECTIVE:: Heterotopic ossification (HO) develops frequently following modern high-energy penetrating war injuries. The purpose of this prospective study was to identify and characterize the unique cytokine and chemokine profile associated with the development of HO as it pertained to the systemic inflammatory response after penetrating combat-related trauma. METHODS:: Patients with ...
Miao Mingyuan - - 2012
Macrophages play a critical role in wound healing and can be activated to two distinctive phenotypes in vitro: classical macrophage activation (caM) and alternative macrophage activation (aaM). This study investigated whether the impaired cutaneous repair observed in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats was associated with altered macrophage activation. Our results show that ...
Walker Lauren - - 2012
Emerging data from experimental epilepsy models and resected human brain tissue support the proposed involvement of innate immune system activation and consequent inflammation in epilepsy. Key mediators of this process include interleukin-1β, high-mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1), and Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling. These recent findings constitute the basis for ...
Abuzeid Waleed M - - 2011
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss the role of vitamin D in chronic rhinitis and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). RECENT FINDINGS: Vitamin D has been shown to have an immunomodulatory effect with a significant impact on immune function. Specifically, vitamin D regulates the mechanisms which suppress the inflammatory response and direct the ...
Risma Kimberly - - 2011
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is an immune dysregulatory syndrome that is associated with underlying defects of perforin-dependent cytotoxic function. This review seeks to update readers on new scientific insights and evolving clinical concepts related to this rare but fatal disorder. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinically, HLH is defined by severe ...
Shroff Rukshana - - 2011
Pharmacological blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is the cornerstone of renoprotective therapy, and the reduction of persistent RAAS activation is considered to be an important target in the treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Vitamin D is a steroid hormone that controls a broad range of metabolic and cell ...
Isaza-Guzmán Diana M - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to investigate the relationship between patient clinical background, histological features, and immunoexpression of COX-2 and IL-10 in oral pyogenic granuloma (PG). DESIGN: Paraffin-embedded samples of oral PG (n=57) were prepared for histological and immunohistochemical assessment. Based on the histological features, the samples were categorised into lobular ...
Huang Zhi-Gang - - 2011
The role of antioxidant supplementation with vitamin E in the prevention of atherosclerosis has been a topic of considerable recent interest. The relevance of vitamin E for macrophage-derived foam cell formation, a hallmark of atherosclerosis, however, has not been unequivocally resolved. Here, we investigated the effect of Oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) ...
Iqbal Sabah Fatima - - 2011
Vitamin D, or 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D (1,25[OH]D), in its activated form, has long been recognized as a critical mediator in bone health. New research has identified 1,25(OH)D as also vital for respiratory health. Owing to its intrinsic anti-inflammatory properties, 1,25(OH)D may be very important in people with asthma. This review ...
de Lima Oliveira Ana Paula AP Department of Periodontology, School of Dentistry, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, - - 2012
To examine changes in levels of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) cytokines, after periodontal therapy of generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAgP). Twenty-five periodontally healthy and 24 GAgP subjects had periodontal clinical parameters measured and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples collected from up to 14 sites/subject. GCF samples were analysed using multiplex bead ...
Laaksi Ilkka - - 2012
Vitamin D insufficiency is a global issue that has significant implications for health. The classical role of vitamin D in bone mineralisation is well known; vitamin D deficiency leads to rickets, osteomalacia or osteoporosis. The role of vitamin D in an immune system is less known. Vitamin D is not ...
Elmore Susan A - - 2012
Enhanced histopathology (EH) of the immune system is a tool that the pathologist can use to assist in the detection of lymphoid organ lesions when evaluating a suspected immunomodulatory test article within a subchronic study or as a component of a more comprehensive, tiered approach to immunotoxicity testing. There are ...
Conley Mary Ellen - - 2011
There is no clear consensus about the definition of the term primary immunodeficiency in 2011. Although there is general agreement that defects in both adaptive and innate immunity should be included, issues related to the frequency of primary immunodeficiencies, the modes of inheritance, the other types of cells involved, and ...
Mulvey Christine S - - 2011
Elastic scattering spectroscopy (ESS), in the form of wavelength-dependent backscattering measurements, can be used to monitor apoptosis in cell cultures. Early changes in backscattering upon apoptosis induction are characterized by an overall decrease in spectral slope and begin as early as 10 to 15 min post-treatment, progressing over the next ...
Vacca Alessandra - - 2011
Vitamin D is essential not only for calcium and bone metabolism, but it also may exert other biological activities, including immunomodulation through the expression of vitamin D receptor in antigen-presenting cells and activated T cells. Evidence from animal models and human prospective studies of rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, type I ...
Sølling Christoffer - - 2011
  Erythropoietin (EPO) belongs to a group of pharmacological agents with multifunctional effects. EPO was originally acknowledged as the main regulator of erythropoiesis but it also exhibits several extra haematopoietic properties, such as promoting the maintenance of homeostasis of cells under stress. These pleiotropic effects have been extensively investigated in ...
Fullerton James N - - 2011
The physiological and biochemical abnormalities that constitute multiple organ failure represent cellular perturbations that, importantly, need to be reconciled with a lack of significant cell death together with availability but impaired utilization of oxygen. In conjunction with the relatively rapid ability of the organ to recover in surviving patients, a ...
Zhang Wenjian - - 2012
Bcl-2 is widely expressed in a developing tooth organ and regulates tooth morphogenesis. However, whether Bcl-2 is related to tooth damage repair is unknown yet. Using an odontoblast-targeted Bcl-2 overexpression transgenic mouse (Col2.3Bcl-2) and artificial cavity preparation as a model system, the relationship between Bcl-2 and reparative dentinogenesis is investigated ...
Bansal Amolak S - - 2011
The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency has been shown to be increased in many of the common arthritides. Importantly, vitamin D has significant immunomodulatory effects in addition to its role in calcium homoeostasis. Both aspects of its function have a major bearing on joint disease whether as part of an ...
Hu Victor H VH International Centre for Eye Health, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK. - - 2011
To characterize the tissue and cellular changes found in trachomatous scarring (TS) and inflammation using in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). Two complimentary case-control studies. The first study included 363 cases with TS (without trichiasis), of whom 328 had IVCM assessment, and 363 control subjects, of whom 319 had IVCM assessment. ...
Lee D W - - 2011
In acute kidney injury (AKI), many cytokines are released by leukocytes and renal tubular cells in the injured kidney and are important components of both the initiation and extension of inflammation. Cytokines are 1) produced by the kidney and mediate AKI, 2) produced by the kidney, released into the blood ...
Roche N - - 2011
Inflammation plays a central role in the pathophysiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Exposure to cigarette smoke induces the recruitment of inflammatory cells in the airways and stimulates innate and adaptive immune mechanisms. Airway inflammation is involved in increased bronchial wall thickness, increased bronchial smooth muscle tone, mucus hypersecretion ...
Manuprasert Wasin - - 2011
To investigate the toxicity of peritoneal dialysis fluid (PDF) components on peritoneal changes in primary human mesothelial cell. To investigate the mechanism of changes, primary human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs) were isolated from human omental tissue and were exposed for 15 hours with the various concentrations of conventional PDF and ...
Chun Rene F - - 2011
TB remains a major cause of mortality throughout the world. Low vitamin D status has been linked to increased risk of TB and other immune disorders. These observations suggest a role for vitamin D as a modulator of normal human immune function. This article will detail the cellular and molecular ...
Hoes Jos N - - 2011
To investigate whether changes in bone density and turnover are associated with changes in inflammatory mediators in RA patients treated with glucocorticoids (GCs) upon vitamin D treatment in comparison with alendronate treatment. RA patients (n = 40) on long-term oral GC treatment received either alfacalcidol or alendronate. At baseline and after 18 ...
Jin D P - - 2011
The pro-apoptotic effects of hydrogen peroxide and the purported anti-apoptotic effects of Vitamin C on chicken embryonic fibroblasts were investigated. Hydrogen peroxide induced morphological changes in a dose dependent manner, and a myriad of autophagosomes were observed using transmission electron microscopy. Doxorubicin elicited alterations were not inhibited by co-incubation with ...
Durrani Sheharyar R - - 2011
Airway remodeling, or structural changes of the airway wall arising from injury and repair, plays an important role in the pathophysiology of asthma. Remodeling is characterized as structural changes involving the composition, content, and organization of many of the cellular and molecular constituents of the bronchial wall. These structural changes ...
Chen Edward S - - 2011
Sarcoidosis is an uncommon systemic inflammatory disorder characterized by noncaseating granulomatous inflammation that most commonly affects the lungs, intrathoracic lymph nodes, eyes and skin. One-third or more of patients with sarcoidosis have chronic, unremitting inflammation with progressive organ impairment. Findings of family and genetic studies indicate a genetic susceptibility to ...
Trémezaygues Léa - - 2011
Vitamin D and analogs exert in the skin and other tissues potent effects on cellular differentiation and proliferation. Moreover, these compounds regulate apoptosis and exert immunomodulatory effects. During the last decades, it has convincingly been shown that vitamin D compounds are effective and safe in the topical treatment of psoriasis, ...
Benson Jacqueline M - - 2011
Preclinical and clinical studies conducted in the mid-1990s reported strong association and causality between the T-cell helper (T(H)) 1 inductor cytokine interleukin (IL)-12 and numerous immune-mediated disorders, which spurred the development of therapeutic agents targeting IL-12 function. One of the first to enter the clinic, ustekinumab, is a human monoclonal ...
Dyson Alex A Bloomsbury Institute of Intensive Care Medicine, University College London, London, - - 2011
Most studies examining the metabolic fate of NO during systemic inflammation have focused on measuring the quantitatively predominating, stable anions nitrite and nitrate within the circulation. However, these are not necessarily the NO-related products that govern NO metabolism and signaling in tissues. We assessed all major NO derivatives temporally in ...
White Laura E - - 2012
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication during inpatient hospitalization, and clinical outcomes remain poor despite advancements in renal replacement therapy. AKI in the setting of multiple organ failure (MOF) remains a formidable challenge to clinicians and incurs an unacceptably high mortality rate. Kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) incites a ...
Jacono Frank J - - 2011
Acute lung injury evokes a pulmonary inflammatory response and changes in the breathing pattern. The inflammatory response has a centrally mediated component which depends on the vagi. We hypothesize that the central inflammatory response, complimentary to the pulmonary inflammatory response, is expressed in the nuclei tractus solitarii (nTS) and that ...
Rook Graham A W - - 2011
The current 'Darwinian' synthesis of the hygiene (or 'Old Friends') hypothesis suggests that the increase in chronic inflammatory disorders that started in Europe in the mid-19th century and progressed until the late 20th century is at least partly attributable to immunodysregulation resulting from lack of exposure to microorganisms that were ...
Chabaud Stéphane - - 2011
Diffuse systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a fatal autoimmune disease characterized by an excessive ECM deposition inducing a loss of function of skin and internal organs. Apoptosis is a key mechanism involved in all the stages of the disease: vascular damage, immune dysfunction, and fibrosis. The purpose of this paper is ...
Zaragoza Oscar - - 2011
Although morphological transitions (such as hyphae and pseudohyphae formation) are a common feature among fungi, the encapsulated pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans is found during infection as blastoconidia. However, this fungus exhibits striking variations in cellular structure and size, which have important consequences during infection. This review will summarize the main ...
Sundar Isaac K - - 2011
Vitamin D deficiency is linked to accelerated decline in lung function, increased inflammation, and reduced immunity in chronic lung diseases. Epidemiological studies have suggested that vitamin D insufficiency is associated with low lung function in susceptible subjects who are exposed to higher levels of environmental agents (airborne particulates). Recent studies ...
Liong Anne S - - 2010
Catastrophic events often threaten or cause depletion of resources. It is generally accepted that changes inherent to disasters are stressful. The Conservation of Resources Theory predicts that positive and negative changes in resources will have markedly different effects.28 This theory proposes that resource losses are psychologically stressful, whereas resource gains ...
Strober Warren - - 2010
Lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells are key components of the machinery required for the construction of the lymphoid structures underlying immune responses. In this issue of Immunity, Vonarbourg et. al. (2010) describe how these cells assume several different guises, each associated with different LTi functions.
Carvalho Luciana V - - 2010
In 2006, the first report of a nanostructured material as adjuvant was described establishing the effectiveness of the ordered mesoporous SBA-15 silica as an immune adjuvant. The present study evaluated the SBA-15 capacity to modulate the immune responsiveness of High and Low responder mice immunized with BSA encapsulated/adsorbed in SBA-15 ...
Srivastava Raghvendra M - - 2011
Inflammation is a disease of vigorous uncontrolled activated immune responses. Overwhelming reports have suggested that the modulation of immune responses by curcumin plays a dominant role in the treatment of inflammation and metabolic diseases. Observations from both in-vitro and in-vivo studies have provided strong evidence towards the therapeutic potential of ...
Moreno-Rueda G - - 2010
Abstract A trade-off between immune system and moulting is predicted in birds, given that both functions compete for resources. However, it is unclear whether such a trade-off exists during post-breeding moult. This study tests such a trade-off in the house sparrow (Passer domesticus). Males injected with an antigen (lipopolysaccharide) significantly ...
Moreno-Rueda G - - 2010
A trade-off between immune system and moulting is predicted in birds, given that both functions compete for resources. However, it is unclear whether such a trade-off exists during post-breeding moult. This study tests such a trade-off in the house sparrow (Passer domesticus). Males injected with an antigen (lipopolysaccharide) significantly moulted ...
Davis Michael - - 2012
There are many ways to avoid responsibility, for example, explaining what happens as the work of the gods, fate, society, or the system. For engineers, "technology" or "the organization" will serve this purpose quite well. We may distinguish at least nine (related) senses of "responsibility", the most important of which ...
Blair R J R RJ Mood and Anxiety Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD 20892-2670, USA. - - 2010
This article is an author response to Harenski and Kiehl's (2010) commentary on Blair (2010).
Sharma S R Krupesha - - 2010
Immune response in juvenile tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon fed with biofilm (BF) and free cells (FC) of Vibrio alginolyticus was studied by evaluating the hemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity and antibacterial activity. The above immune responses were higher in BF fed shrimp than that in FC fed or control shrimp. Among ...
Niederkorn Jerry Y - - 2010
Corneal transplantation has been performed successfully for over 100 years. Normally, HLA typing and systemic immunosuppressive drugs are not utilized, yet 90% of corneal allografts survive. In rodents, corneal allografts representing maximal histoincompatibility enjoy >50% survival even without immunosuppressive drugs. By contrast, other categories of transplants are invariably rejected in ...
Duan Biyan - - 2010
The second messenger cAMP plays a critical role in regulating immune responses. Although well known for its immunosuppressive effect, cAMP is also required for the development of optimal immune responses. Thus, the regulation of this second messenger needs to be finely tuned and well balanced in a context dependent manner. ...
Maier Elisabeth - - 2010
Food preservatives sodium benzoate and propionic acid and colorant curcumin are demonstrated to suppress in a dose-dependent manner Th1-type immune response in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in vitro. Results show an anti-inflammatory property of compounds which however could shift the Th1-Th2-type immune balance towards Th2-type immunity.
Rabinovich Anna - - 2010
We investigated the interplay between the source of criticism and the attributional content of their message on behavioral responses to group-based criticism. Studies 1 and 2 revealed that outgroup critics were more effective when their criticism included internal attributions (to the ingroup's character) rather than external attributions (the ingroup's circumstances), ...
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