Search Results
Results 1 - 50 of 2287
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >
Chen Peiming P Department of Pharmaceutics, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 160 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Macrophages are involved in a number of diseases, such as HIV infection/AIDS, tuberculosis, tumor development and atherosclerosis. Macrophages possess several cell surface receptors (e.g., the mannose receptor, MR) that may serve as drug delivery cellular portals for nanocarriers (NCs). In this study, the optimal structural configuration for cell uptake of ...
Gray Lachlan R LR aCentre for Biomedical Research, Burnet Institute bDepartment of Infectious Diseases, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria cSouth Australian Health and Medical Research Institute, Adelaide, South Australia dDepartment of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Melbourne, Parkville eDepartment of Microbiology, Monash University, Clayton fDepartment of Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, - - 2014
To summarize the evidence in the literature that supports the central nervous system (CNS) as a viral reservoir for HIV-1 and to prioritize future research efforts. HIV-1 DNA has been detected in brain tissue of patients with undetectable viral load or neurocognitive disorders, and is associated with long-lived cells such ...
Han Young Woo YW College of Veterinary Medicine and Bio-Safety Research Institute, College of Natural Science, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Republic of - - 2014
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is major emerging neurologic disease caused by JE virus. To date, the impact of TLR molecules on JE progression has not been addressed. Here, we determined whether each TLR modulates JE, using several TLR-deficient mouse strains (TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR7, TLR9). Surprisingly, among the tested TLR-deficient mice ...
Kato Hiroki H Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan; PRESTO, Tokyo, - - 2014
RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) are well-known viral sensors that trigger the antiviral interferon (IFN) response by recognizing the non-self signatures of viral RNAs. The proper induction of the IFN response is known to play a crucial role in protecting against viral infections, whereas aberrant activation can lead to autoimmune disorders. We ...
Onomoto Koji K Division of Molecular Immunology, Medical Mycology Research Center, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8673, - - 2014
Viral infection triggers the activation of antiviral innate immune responses in mammalian cells. Viral RNA in the cytoplasm activates signaling pathways that result in the production of interferons (IFNs) and IFN-stimulated genes. Some viral infections have been shown to induce cytoplasmic granular aggregates similar to the dynamic ribonucleoprotein aggregates termed ...
Wirnsberger Gerald G Institute of Molecular Biotechnology of the Austrian Academy of Sciences (IMBA), Vienna, - - 2014
Neutrophils are key innate immune effector cells that are essential to fighting bacterial and fungal pathogens. Here we report that mice carrying a hematopoietic lineage-specific deletion of Jagn1 (encoding Jagunal homolog 1) cannot mount an efficient neutrophil-dependent immune response to the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Global glycobiome analysis identified ...
Serhan Charles N CN Center for Experimental Therapeutics and Reperfusion Injury, Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, 02115. Electronic address: - - 2014
Acute inflammatory responses are protective, yet without timely resolution can lead to chronic inflammation and organ fibrosis. A systems approach to investigate self-limited (self-resolving) inflammatory exudates in mice and structural elucidation uncovered novel resolution phase mediators in vivo that stimulate endogenous resolution mechanisms in inflammation. Resolving inflammatory exudates and human ...
Lopez Christopher A CA Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, - - 2014
Our long-standing evolutionary association with gut-associated microbial communities has given rise to an intimate relationship, which affects many aspects of human health. Recent studies on the mechanisms that link these microbial communities to immune education, nutrition, and protection against pathogens point to microbiota-derived metabolites as key players during these microbe-host interactions. ...
Liu Yanzhen Y State Key Laboratory of Applied Microbiology Southern China, Guangzhou, 510070, PR China; Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Microbial Culture Collection and Application, Guangdong Institute of Microbiology, Guangzhou, 510070, PR - - 2014
Exposure to environmental endocrine-disrupting chemical Bisphenol-A (BPA) is often associated with dysregulated immune homeostasis, but the mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, the effects of BPA on the cytokines responses of human macrophages were investigated. Treatment with BPA increased pro-inflammation cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) production, ...
Kranzusch Philip J PJ Department of Molecular & Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA; Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI), University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, - - 2014
Cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs) play central roles in bacterial pathogenesis and innate immunity. The mammalian enzyme cGAS synthesizes a unique cyclic dinucleotide (cGAMP) containing a 2'-5' phosphodiester linkage essential for optimal immune stimulation, but the molecular basis for linkage specificity is unknown. Here, we show that the Vibrio cholerae pathogenicity factor ...
Semnani Roshanak Tolouei RT Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA - - 2014
To characterize the function and plasticity of the major human circulating monocyte populations and to explore their role in systemic helminth infection, highly purified (by flow-based sorting) human monocyte subsets (CD14(hi)/CD16(neg) [classical], CD14(+ or hi)/CD16(med) [intermediate], and CD14(neg)/CD16(hi) [non-classical]) were examined at homeostasis and following activation. Among these 3 subsets ...
Barlow Jillian L JL MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Hills Road, Cambridge, - - 2014
Recent decades have seen allergic diseases become endemic in a number of developed countries. Understanding the inflammatory processes that dictate these allergic responses is therefore important. Critical to many allergic responses is the inappropriate release of the type-2 immune-regulatory cytokines: interleukin-4, interleukin-5, interleukin-9, and interleukin-13. The study of these inflammatory ...
Sears Cynthia L - - 2014
The human body comprises fewer host cells than bacterial cells, most of which are obligate anaerobes residing in the gut. The symbiont Bacteroides fragilis constitutes a relatively small proportion (up to 1%-2%) of cultured fecal bacteria, but colonizes most humans. There are 2 classes of B. fragilis distinguished by their ...
Lu Ling L Department of Liver Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, China;Division of Rheumatology and Immunology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033; szheng1@hmc.psu.edu - - 2014
Recent studies have demonstrated that thymus-derived naturally occurring CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) in human and mouse may be unstable and dysfunctional in the presence of proinflammatory cytokines. All-trans RA (atRA), the active derivative of vitamin A, has been shown to regulate Treg and T effector cell differentiation. We hypothesize ...
Shi Jianjin J 1] Peking University-Tsinghua University-National Institute of Biological Sciences Joint Graduate Program, National Institute of Biological Sciences, Beijing 102206, China [2] National Institute of Biological Sciences, Beijing 102206, China - - 2014
The murine caspase-11 non-canonical inflammasome responds to various bacterial infections. Caspase-11 activation-induced pyroptosis, in response to cytoplasmic lipopolysaccharide (LPS), is critical for endotoxic shock in mice. The mechanism underlying cytosolic LPS sensing and the responsible pattern recognition receptor are unknown. Here we show that human monocytes, epithelial cells and keratinocytes ...
Röhner Eric E 1Department of Orthopaedics, Rudolf-Elle-Hospital, Friedrich-Schiller-University of Jena, Eisenberg, - - 2014
ABSTRACT Purpose/Aim of the study: Chlorhexidine and polyhexanide are frequently used antiseptics in clinical practice and have a broad antimicrobial range. Both antiseptics are helpful medical agents for septic wound treatment with a high potential for defeating joint infections. Their effect on human osteoblasts has, so far, not been sufficiently ...
Ripley Delia A DA Cardiff School of Health Sciences, Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff, - - 2014
Hepcidin belongs to the antimicrobial peptide (AMP) family and is the key regulator of iron metabolism. It modulates iron homeostasis by binding to, and degrading the iron exporter molecule, ferroportin, thus inhibiting cellular iron efflux. Many antimicrobial peptides have a dual function; some are able to act directly as an ...
An GuiPeng G Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Ministry of Education and Ministry of Health, Shandong University Qilu Hospital, Jinan, 250012, - - 2014
Complement component 5a (C5a) is a 74 amino acid glycoprotein and an important proinflammatory mediator that is cleaved enzymatically from its precursor, C5, on activation of the complement cascade. C5a is quickly metabolised by carboxypeptidases, forming the less-potent C5a desArg. C5a and C5a desArg interact with their receptors (C5aR and ...
MacEwan David J DJ *Institute of Translational Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GE, - - 2014
Human leukaemia cells have an often unique ability to either undergo apoptotic cell death mechanisms or, at other times, undergo proliferative expansion, sometimes to the same stimulus such as the pluripotent cytokine TNFα (tumour necrosis factor α). This potential for life/death switching helps us to understand the molecular signalling machinery ...
Grether-Beck S S IUF - Leibniz Research Institute for Environmental Medicine, Düsseldorf, - - 2014
Ceramides are the major lipid of lamellar sheets present in intercellular spaces of the stratum corneum contributing to epidermal barrier properties. Therefore ceramides and their analogues have been studied for barrier enhancing and water-holding properties for decades. In vitro studies have indicated cytotoxic potential for cell permeable ceramides thereby raising ...
Russell Alistair B AB Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, - - 2014
Bacteroidetes are a phylum of Gram-negative bacteria abundant in mammalian-associated polymicrobial communities, where they impact digestion, immunity, and resistance to infection. Despite the extensive competition at high cell density that occurs in these settings, cell contact-dependent mechanisms of interbacterial antagonism, such as the type VI secretion system (T6SS), have not ...
Shapiro Hagit H Department of Immunology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, - - 2014
The human meta-organism consists of more than 90% of microbial cells. The gastrointestinal tract harbors trillions of commensal microorganisms that influence the development and homeostasis of the host. Alterations in composition and function of the microbiota, termed dysbiosis, have been implicated in a multitude of metabolic and inflammatory diseases in ...
Simitsopoulou Maria M Infectious Diseases Laboratory, 3rd Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Aristotle University School of Health Sciences, Hippokration Hospital, Thessaloniki, - - 2014
Exserohilum rostratum caused a multistate fungal meningitis outbreak following iatrogenic inoculation of contaminated methylprednisolone in the United States. To gain insight into the immunopathogenesis of this infection, we studied the innate host responses of human neutrophils against E. rostratum conidia and hyphae with or without methylprednisolone. The neutrophil-induced percentage fungal ...
Menckeberg Celia L CL Laboratory of Pediatrics, Division of Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The - - 2014
Repetitive interaction with microbial stimuli renders epithelial cells (ECs) hyporesponsive to microbial stimulation. Previously, we have reported that buccal ECs from a subset of paediatric patients with Crohn's disease are not hyporesponsive and spontaneously released chemokines. We now aimed to identify kinetics and mechanisms of acquisition of hyporesponsiveness to microbial ...
Fruchon Séverine S INSERM, U1043, CNRS, U5282, UPS, Centre de Physiopathologie de Toulouse-Purpan, Université de Toulouse , Toulouse , France - - 2014
Abstract Dendrimers are nanosized hyperbranched polymers synthesized through an iterative step-by-step process; their size and structure are perfectly controlled, and they are widely used for biomedical purposes. Previously, we showed that a phosphorous-based dendrimer capped with anionic AzaBisPhosphonate groups (so-called ABP dendrimer) has immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties toward the human ...
Vogel Carl-Wilhelm CW University of Hawaii Cancer Center, Honolulu, HI 96813, USA; Department of Pathology, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96813, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
The complement system is an integral component of both innate and adaptive immunity. However, complement is also a pathogenetic factor in many diseases. The development of agents for therapeutic complement inhibition is the topic of intense investigations by many investigators. We have developed a distinctly different therapeutic approach: complement depletion ...
Teegler Axel A Institute of Medical Microbiology and Infection Control, University Hospital of Frankfurt, Paul-Ehrlich-Str. 40, D-60596 Frankfurt, - - 2014
Borrelia miyamotoi, a relapsing fever spirochete transmitted by ixodid ticks, is able to cause infections associated with systemic complaints, including malaise and fever, as well as meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised patients. In order to elucidate immune evasion of previously difficult to cultivate B. miyamotoi, we have examined the ability of this ...
Yu Qiang Q 1 Department of Neurosurgery, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University , Wuhan, China - - 2014
Abstract Polyphyllin D (PD), an active component from a traditional medicinal herb Paris polyphylla, which has long been used for the treatment of cancer in Asian countries, has been found to hold significant antitumor activity in vivo or in vitro. However, there were few reports on the effects and underlying ...
Leyrat Cedric C Division of Structural Biology, Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Oxford, OX3 7BN, - - 2014
Human metapneumovirus is a major cause of respiratory tract infections worldwide. Previous reports have shown that the viral glycoprotein (G) modulates innate and adaptive immune responses, leading to incomplete immunity and promoting reinfection. Using bioinformatics analyses, static light scattering and small-angle x-ray scattering, we show that the extracellular region of ...
Fausther-Bovendo Hugues H National Microbiology Laboratory; Public health Agency of Canada; Winnipeg, MB Canada; University of Manitoba; Winnipeg, MB - - 2014
Pre-existing immunity against human adenovirus (HAd) serotype 5 derived vector in the human population is widespread, thus hampering its clinical use. Various components of the immune system, including neutralizing antibodies (nAbs), Ad specific T cells and type I IFN activated NK cells, contribute to dampening the efficacy of Ad vectors ...
Campbell Arezoo A Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Exposure to particulate matter (PM), a component of urban air pollution, may cause adverse effects in the brain. Although the exact mechanisms involved are unknown, both oxidative and inflammatory responses have been reported. Since the main route of exposure to particulate matter is through inhalation, there is a potential for ...
Becker Daniel J DJ http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4315-8628 Odum School of Ecology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA - - 2014
Provisioning of abundant food resources in human-altered landscapes can have profound effects on wildlife ecology, with important implications for pathogen transmission. While empirical studies have quantified the effects of provisioning on host behaviour and immunology, the net interactive effect of these components on host-pathogen dynamics is unknown. We use simple ...
Li Guangming G Key Lab of Infection and Immunity, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of - - 2014
The role of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and pathogenesis remains unclear. HIV-1 infection in the humanized mouse model leads to persistent HIV-1 infection and immunopathogenesis, including type I interferons (IFN-I) induction, immune-activation and depletion of human leukocytes, including CD4 T cells. We ...
Yao Qingxia Q Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada; Li Ka Shing Institute of Virology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, - - 2014
Interferons (IFNs) are the first line of defense against viral infections in vertebrates. Type III interferon (IFN-λ) is recognized for its key role in innate immunity of tissues of epithelial origin. Here we describe the identification of the Pekin duck IFN-λ ortholog (duIFN-λ). The predicted duIFN-λ protein has an amino ...
Meng Yuanyuan Y Center for Reproductive Medicine, First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, People's Republic of - - 2014
To investigate the antiapoptosis effect of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) on human fetal ovarian tissue treated by cyclophosphamide (CTX). Experimental animal study. University center for reproductive medicine and IVF unit. Female immunodeficient BALB/c nude mice, 6 to 8 weeks old. Human fetal ovarian tissue slowly cryopreserved then subcutaneously transplanted in immunodeficient mice. Follicle ...
Forrester Megan A MA Immunity, Infection and Inflammation, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, - - 2014
Although it is widely believed that IL-27 is anti-inflammatory, its role in controlling human immune responses is not fully established. In particular, its interactions with Th17 cytokines are unclear. Our aims were to establish the relationships between IL-27 and pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-17A, in human sera and cultures of peripheral ...
Serra-Hassoun Malika M Unité de Biologie des Populations Lymphocytaires, Département d'Immunologie, Institut Pasteur, 75724 Paris, France; Centre National pour la Recherche Scientifique, Unité de Recherche Associée 1961, 75724 Paris, - - 2014
We generated a new humanized mouse model to study HLA-restricted immune responses. For this purpose, we created unique murine hosts by enforcing the expression of human SIRPα by murine phagocytes in murine MHC-deficient HLA-transgenic alymphoid hosts, an approach that allowed the immune reconstitution of nonpermissive mice following injection of human ...
Hansen Kathrine K Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark Aarhus Research Centre for Innate Immunology, Aarhus University, Aarhus, - - 2014
Listeria monocytogenes is a gram-positive facultative intracellular bacterium, which replicates in the cytoplasm of myeloid cells. Interferon β (IFNβ) has been reported to play an important role in the mechanisms underlying Listeria disease. Although studies in murine cells have proposed the bacteria-derived cyclic-di-AMP to be the key bacterial immunostimulatory molecule, ...
Piasecka Malgorzata M Department of Histology and Developmental Biology, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, - - 2014
Biological significance of increased number of leukocytes in ejaculate remains a subject of controversy. The aim of this research was to describe the morphological characteristics of the sperm elimination by leukocytes in in vivo and in vitro conditions using natural stimulator of the immune system-uropathogenic Escherichia coli, O75:HNT, isolated from ...
Tian Ye - - 2014
MicroRNAs (MiRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs (18-25nt) that regulate gene expression mainly through affecting post-transcriptional modification. Osteosarcoma is an aggressive sarcoma of the bone characterized by a high level of genetic instability and recurrent DNA deletions and amplifications. microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in cancer cell growth and migration, ...
Spanò Stefania S School of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Ashgrove Road West, Aberdeen, - - 2014
Salmonella enterica is a food-borne intracellular pathogen that can invade intestinal epithelial cells and survive in macrophages of susceptible hosts. Although belonging to the same species, individual Salmonella enterica serovars behave as very different pathogens. Indeed, they can cause very different diseases (from mild gastroenteritis to deadly systemic diseases) and ...
Namgaladze Dmitry D Goethe-University Frankfurt, Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Biochemistry I / ZAFES, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt, - - 2014
Macrophage polarization elicits various metabolic alterations which in turn influence the polarized phenotype. Activation of glycolytic metabolism accompanies and supports macrophage pro-inflammatory M1 polarization. In contrast, M2 polarization of murine macrophages in response to the Th2 cytokine interleukin-4 (IL-4) was linked to the up-regulation of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and fatty ...
Swidergall Marc M Department Biologie, Molekulare Mykologie, Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany - - 2014
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are key elements of innate immunity, which can directly kill multiple bacterial, viral and fungal pathogens. The medically important fungus Candida albicans colonizes different host niches as part of the normal human microbiota. Proliferation of C. albicans is regulated through a complex balance of host immune defense ...
Dorrestein Pieter C PC Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA; Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, - - 2014
The unexpected diversity of the human microbiome and metabolome far exceeds the complexity of the human genome. Although we now understand microbial taxonomic and genetic repertoires in some populations, we are just beginning to assemble the necessary computational and experimental tools to understand the metabolome in comparable detail. However, even ...
Wang Hui H German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), - - 2014
Within innate immune signaling pathways, Interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R&)-associated kinases (IRAKs) fulfill key roles downstream of multiple Toll-like receptors (TLR) and the IL-1R. Whereas human IRAK4-deficiency was shown to lead to severe immunodeficiency in response to pyogenic bacterial infection during childhood, little is known about the role of human IRAK2. We ...
Liptrott Neill J NJ Department of Molecular & Clinical Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, - - 2014
Aim: To investigate interactions of gold nanoparticles with primary human lymphocytes and determine if the addition of a self-assembled monolayer of 'mixed-matrix' ligands influenced these interactions. Materials & methods: The effect of gold nanoparticles was measured by exposure to peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy volunteers with subsequent examination of ...
Moon Ji-Hong JH Biosafety Research Institute, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756, Republic of - - 2014
The human prion protein (PrP) fragment PrP(106‑126) possesses the majority of the pathogenic properties associated with the infectious scrapie isoform of PrP, known as PrPSc. The accumulation of PrPSc in the brain of humans and animals affects the central nervous system. Recent epidemiological studies have suggested that caffeine, one of ...
Wahl Angela A Division of Infectious Diseases, UNC Center for AIDS Research, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Genetic Medicine Building , Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7042. Electronic address: - - 2014
The gastrointestinal (GI) track represents an important battlefield where pathogens first try to gain entry into a host. It is also a universe where highly diverse and ever changing inhabitants co-exist in an exceptional equilibrium without parallel in any other organ system of the body. The gut as an organ ...
Okumura Cheryl Y M CY Department of Biology, Occidental College, Los Angeles, CA 90041; email: - - 2014
The development of a severe invasive bacterial infection in an otherwise healthy individual is one of the most striking and fascinating aspects of human medicine. A small cadre of gram-positive pathogens of the genera Streptococcus and Staphylococcus stand out for their unique invasive disease potential and sophisticated ability to counteract ...
Hasebe Akira A Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; Department of Oral Pathobiological Science, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Sapporo, - - 2014
Mycoplasma hominis has been implicated in many inflammatory conditions of the human urogenital tract in particular amniotic infections that lead to fetal and neonatal disease and pre-term labor. The mechanisms responsible are poorly defined. Biochemical and immunological methods were used to extract, purify, and characterize an inflammatory component present in ...
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >