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Eskandari Nahid N Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. - - 2014
Human basophils play a key role in allergic diseases such as asthma and in a variety of immunological disorders. The generation of IL-4 and IL-13 can be induced from basophil by IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated mechanisms. Time and stimulus-dependent differences in the regulation of these cytokines could have relevance to their ...
Babu Sunil G SG Department of Biotechnology, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow, 226 025, India, - - 2014
The studies into the pathophysiology of viral miRNAs are still in infancy; the interspecies regulation at the miRNA level fuels the spark of the investigation into the repertoire of virus-host interactions. Reports pertaining to the viral miRNAs role in modulating/evading the host immune response are surging up; we initiated this ...
Wan Min M *Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Division of Physiological Chemistry 2, †Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, and ‡Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Division of Molecular Neurobiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, - - 2014
In humans, LL-37 and eicosanoids are important mediators of inflammation and immune responses. Here we report that LL-37 promotes leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and thromboxane A2 (TXA2) generation by human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDMs). LL-37 evokes calcium mobilization apparently via the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R), activation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPKs, as well ...
Mohapatra Alok Das AD Infectious disease biology group, Institute of Life Sciences, Bhubaneswar, - - 2014
Background. Apoptosis of several host cells induced by parasites/parasite products has been investigated in human filariasis to understand immune hypo-responsiveness. However, apoptosis of monocytes- one of the major antigen presenting cells (APCs) in peripheral circulation, which are chronically exposed to filarial antigens in infected subjects is yet to be understood and ...
Takeda Yuji Y Department of Immunology, Yamagata University Faculty of Medicine, 2-2-2 Iida-Nishi, Yamagata, 990-9585, - - 2014
Neutrophils play key roles in the inflammatory response. The IL-21 cytokine and receptor system is known to be involved in various inflammatory diseases. However, the direct action of IL-21 on neutrophils has not been reported. Here, we show that human neutrophils in peripheral blood express functional IL-21 receptors (IL-21Rs). Expression ...
Jiang Shaoning S Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL - - 2014
Although resistin was recently found to modulate insulin resistance in preclinical models of type II diabetes and obesity, recent studies also suggested that resistin has proinflammatory properties. We examined whether the human-specific variant of resistin affects neutrophil activation and the severity of LPS-induced acute lung injury. Because human and mouse ...
Dantas Arthur Estanislau AE Departmento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, 31270-901, Minas Gerais, - - 2014
Spiders of the Loxosceles genus represent a risk to human health due to the systemic and necrotic effects of their bites. The main symptoms of these bites vary from dermonecrosis, observed in the majority of cases, to occasional systemic hemolysis and coagulopathy. Although the systemic effects are well characterized, the ...
Tabas Ira I Columbia University Medical - - 2014
Mitochondrial-derived reactive oxygen species (mtROS) is one of the major sources of cellular ROS, and excessive mtROS is associated with atherosclerosis progression in both human and mouse models. This review aims to summarize the most recent studies showing the existence, the causes and pathological consequences of excessive mtROS in atherosclerosis. ...
Hiemstra Thomas F TF Department of - - 2014
Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles, approximately 50 nm in diameter, derived from the endocytic pathway and released by a variety of cell types. Recent data indicate a spectrum of exosomal functions, including RNA transfer, antigen presentation, modulation of apoptosis, and shedding of obsolete protein. Exosomes derived from all nephron segments ...
Rojko Jennifer L JL 1Charles River Pathology Associates, Frederick, Maryland, - - 2014
Vascular inflammation, infusion reactions, glomerulopathies, and other potentially adverse effects may be observed in laboratory animals, including monkeys, on toxicity studies of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies and recombinant human protein drugs. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical (IHC) evaluation suggests these effects may be mediated by deposition of immune complexes (ICs) containing the drug, ...
He Y Y Program in Glycobiology, Department of Biology, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts, - - 2014
The immature neonatal intestinal immune system hyperreacts to newly colonizing unfamiliar bacteria. The hypothesis that human milk oligosaccharides from colostrum (cHMOSs) can directly modulate the signaling pathways of the immature mucosa was tested. Modulation of cytokine immune signaling by HMOSs was measured ex vivo in intact immature (fetal) human intestinal ...
Wickremasinghe Rachitha R Institute of Biochemistry Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka. Electronic address: - - 2014
Ixora coccinea is widely used in Ayurveda and traditional medicinal practices in Sri Lanka and in Asia for acute bronchitis, reddened eyes and eruptions and dermatological disorders. The aim of this study was to determine the underling mechanism of anti-inflammatory activity of I. coccinea with respect to its inhibitory activity ...
Segref Alexandra A Institute for Genetics and Cologne Excellence Cluster on Cellular Stress Responses in Aging-Associated Diseases (CECAD), University of Cologne, Zülpicher Strasse 47a, 50674 Cologne, - - 2014
Mitochondria maintain cellular homeostasis by coordinating ATP synthesis with metabolic activity, redox signaling, and apoptosis. Excessive levels of mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) promote mitochondrial dysfunction, triggering numerous metabolic disorders. However, the molecular basis for the harmful effects of excessive ROS formation is largely unknown. Here, we identify a link between mitochondrial stress ...
Sarrabayrouse Guillaume G INSERM, U892, Nantes, France; Université de Nantes, Nantes, France; CNRS, UMR 6299, Nantes, - - 2014
How the microbiota affects health and disease is a crucial question. In mice, gut Clostridium bacteria are potent inducers of colonic interleukin (IL)-10-producing Foxp3 regulatory T cells (Treg), which play key roles in the prevention of colitis and in systemic immunity. In humans, although gut microbiota dysbiosis is associated with ...
Reales-Calderón Jose Antonio JA Departamento de Microbiología II, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain; Instituto Ramón y Cajal de Investigaciones Sanitarias (IRYCIS), Madrid, - - 2014
In response to different stimuli, macrophages can differentiate into either a pro-inflammatory subtype (M1, classically activated macrophages) or acquire an anti-inflammatory phenotype (M2, alternatively activated macrophages). Candida albicans is the most important opportunistic fungus in nosocomial infections, and it is contended by neutrophils and macrophages during the first steps of ...
Lux Anja A Institute of Genetics, Department of Biology, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erwin-Rommelstrasse 3, 91058 Erlangen, - - 2014
Genetic differences between humans and in vivo model systems, including mice and nonhuman primates, make it difficult to predict the efficacy of immunoglobulin G (IgG) activity in humans and understand the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying that activity. To bridge this gap, we established a small-animal model system that allowed us to ...
Love Andrea C AC Department of Microbiology and Immunology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY - - 2014
Borrelia burgdorferi elicits a potent cytokine response through activation of multiple signaling receptors on innate immune cells. Spirochetal lipoproteins initiate expression of NF-κB-dependent cytokines primarily via TLR2, whereas type I interferon (IFN) production is induced through the endosomal receptors TLR7 and TLR9, and TLR8, in human dendritic cells and monocytes, ...
Tarassishin Leonid L Department of Pathology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, - - 2014
Treatment of cultures with toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands or cytokines has become a popular approach to investigate astrocyte neuroinflammatory responses and to simulate the neural environment in various CNS disorders. However, despite much effort, the mechanism of astrocyte activation such as their responses to the TLR ligands and IL-1 remain ...
Mil-Homens Dalila D IBB-Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Instituto Superior Técnico, Lisbon 1049-001, - - 2014
Members of the trimeric autotransporter adhesin (TAA) family play a crucial role in adhesion of Gram-negative pathogens to host cells. Moreover, these proteins are multifunctional virulence factors involved in several other biological traits including invasion to host cells and evasion of host immune-system. In the cystic fibrosis epidemic strain Burkholderia ...
Sharifov Oleg F OF Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, BDB-101, 1808 7th Avenue South, Birmingham, AL, 35294-0012, - - 2014
Human apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) mimetic L-4F inhibits acute inflammation in endotoxemic animals. Since neutrophils play a crucial role in septic inflammation, we examined the effects of L-4F, compared to apoA-I, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated activation of human neutrophils. We performed bioassays in human blood, isolated human neutrophils (incubated in 50 % donor ...
Zhang Suzhen S TissueTech, Inc., United - - 2014
HC-HA, a complex formed by the covalent linkage between HC1 from inter-α-trypsin inhibitor (IαI) and hyaluronic acid (HA), purified from human amniotic membrane (AM) is responsible for AM anti-inflammatory, anti-scarring, and anti-angiogenic actions. This HC-HA complex is produced by constitutive expression of TNF-stimulated gene-6 and endogenous production of IαI by ...
Kortelainen Marja-Leena ML Institute of Diagnostics, Department of Forensic Medicine, P.O. Box 5000, 90014 University of Oulu, Finland. Electronic address: - - 2014
Atherosclerosis is considered a chronic inflammatory disease of the entire arterial wall, including the adventitia. Advanced coronary lesions with lipid cores are associated with adventitial inflammation, but the early inflammatory process in human coronary adventitia is largely unknown. We hypothesized that adventitial inflammatory cell infiltration accompanies the early stages of ...
Purohit Meena K MK Center for Molecular Design and Preformulations, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L7, Canada; Department of Pharmacy, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani, Rajasthan, - - 2014
Idiopathic or immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a serious clinical disorder involving the destruction of platelets by macrophages. Small molecule therapeutics are highly sought after to ease the burden on current therapies derived from human sources. Earlier, we discovered that dimers of five-membered heterocycles exhibited potential to inhibit phagocytosis of human ...
Hsieh Yao-Peng - - 2014
Iron is essential not only for erythropoisis but also for several bioenergetics' processes in myocardium. Hepcidin is a well-known regulator of iron homeostasis. Recently, researchers identified low hepcidin was independently associated with increased 3-year mortality among systolic heart failure patients. In addition, our previous in vivo study revealed that the ...
Winchell Caylin G CG Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR - - 2014
Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular Gram-negative bacterium that causes human Q fever, a flu-like disease that can progress to chronic, life-threatening endocarditis. In humans, C. burnetii infects alveolar macrophages and promotes phagosomal fusion with autophagosomes and lysosomes, establishing a unique parasitophorous vacuole (PV) in which to replicate. The pathogen uses ...
Gale Stephen C SC Department of Surgery, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New - - 2014
The genetic determinants of the human innate immune response are poorly understood. Apolipoprotein (Apo) E, a lipid-trafficking protein that affects inflammation, has well-described wild-type (ε3) and disease-associated (ε2 and ε4) alleles, but its connection to human innate immunity is undefined. We sought to define the relationship of APOε4 to the ...
Bongoni Anjan K AK Department of Clinical Research, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland; Graduate School for Cellular and Biomedical Sciences, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland; Clinic of Plastic and Hand Surgery, University Hospital, Bern, - - 2014
Besides α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene (GGTA1) knockout, several transgene combinations to prevent pig-to-human xenograft rejection are currently being investigated. In this study, the potential of combined overexpression of human CD46 and HLA-E to prevent complement- and NK-cell-mediated xenograft rejection was tested in an ex vivo pig-to-human xenoperfusion model. α1,3-Galactosyltransferase knockout heterozygous, hCD46/HLA-E ...
Pietsch Constanze C University Basel, Man - Society - Environment, Department of Environmental Sciences, Vesalgasse 1, CH-4051 Basel, Switzerland. Electronic address: - - 2014
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most important members of Fusarium toxins since it often can be found in relevant concentrations in animal feeds. The effects of this group of toxins on fish are mostly unknown. The present study shows results from a feeding trial with carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) ...
Sinha Sonali S Department of Botany, Centre of Advanced Study, Cell Biology and Genetic Toxicology laboratory, University of Calcutta, 35, Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata-700019, - - 2014
The present investigation was undertaken to study the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of the essential oils (palmarosa, citronella, lemongrass and vetiver) and monoterpenoids (citral and geraniol) in human lymphocytes. Trypan blue dye exclusion and MTT test was used to evaluate cytotoxicity. The genotoxicity studies were carried out by comet and ...
Rongvaux Anthony A 1] Department of Immunobiology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA. - - 2014
Mice repopulated with human hematopoietic cells are a powerful tool for the study of human hematopoiesis and immune function in vivo. However, existing humanized mouse models cannot support development of human innate immune cells, including myeloid cells and natural killer (NK) cells. Here we describe two mouse strains called MITRG ...
Hodge Alexander A Centre for Inflammatory Diseases, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia; Gastroenterology and Hepatology Unit, Monash Health, Melbourne, - - 2014
Intravenous infusion of human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs) has been shown to ameliorate hepatic fibrosis in murine models. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the principal collagen-secreting cells in the liver. The aim of this study was to investigate whether factors secreted by hAECs and present in hAEC-conditioned medium (CM) have ...
Bonne-Année Sandra S Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Thomas Jefferson University, 233 S. 10 Street, Philadelphia, PA - - 2014
Neutrophils are multifaceted cells that are often the immune system's first line of defense. Human and murine cells release extracellular DNA traps (ETs) in response to several pathogens and diseases. Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation is crucial to trapping and killing extracellular pathogens. Aside from neutrophils, macrophages and eosinophils also ...
Kiatsurayanon Chanisa C 1] Atopy (Allergy) Research Center, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan [2] Department of Dermatology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, - - 2014
Human β-defensins (hBDs) are host defense peptides that not only exhibit microbicidal properties but also stimulate various cellular activities, including keratinocyte proliferation, migration and wound healing. hBDs are overexpressed in the skin in cases of psoriasis but are down-regulated in AD skin, although both diseases are associated with stratum corneum ...
Søndergaard Jonas Nørskov JN Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark. Electronic address: - - 2014
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) play a vital role in activation of anti-HIV-1 immunity, and suppression of pDCs might mitigate immune responses against HIV-1. HIV-1 gp120 high-mannose has been attributed immunosuppressive roles in human myeloid DCs, but no receptors for high-mannose have so far been reported on human pDCs. Here we ...
Wise Andrea F AF 1Monash - - 2014
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) ameliorate injury and accelerate repair in many organs, including the kidney, although the reparative mechanisms and interaction with macrophages have not been elucidated. This study investigated the reparative potential of human bone marrow-derived MSCs and traced their homing patterns following administration to mice with ischemia/reperfusion (IR) ...
Winkler Carla - - 2014
The role of M2 polarized macrophages (MPhi) during the allergic airway inflammation has been discussed in various animal models. However, their presence and relevance during the chronic and acute phase of allergic airway inflammation in humans has not been fully elucidated so far. In the present study we phenotypically characterized ...
Sfacteria Alessandra A Department of Veterinary Science, Unit of Veterinary Pathology, University of Messina, Polo Universitario dell'Annunziata, 98168 Messina, Italy. Electronic address: - - 2014
The growing interest in fish models could raise an opportunity to better understand mast cell functions. The piscine mast cell, also known as eosinophilic granular cell, originates from haematopoietic organs, migrates to sites of maturation, and increases in injured tissues. Although there has been confusion arising from the different distribution ...
Salgado-Pabón Wilmara W Unité de Pathogénie Microbienne Moléculaire, Institut Pasteur, INSERM U786, 28 Rue du Dr Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, - - 2014
Subversion of host immune responses is the key infection strategy employed by most, if not all, human pathogens. Modulation of the host innate response by pathogens has been vastly documented. Yet, especially for bacterial infections, it was only recently that cells of the adaptive immune response were recognized as targets ...
Wu Yu-Ting - - 2014
Mitochondria are the organelles producing most of the energy and play important roles in a variety of biochemical functions in human cells. Mitochondrial defects can cause ATP deficiency and overproduction of reactive oxygen species, which are the major hallmarks of mitochondrial diseases. Abundant evidence has suggested that mitochondrial dysfunction-elicited oxidative ...
Lee Sahmin S Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 101 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-744, Korea; Department of Molecular Medicine & Biopharmaceutical Science, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology and College of Medicine, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742, - - 2014
Human resistin is a cytokine that induces low-grade inflammation by stimulating monocytes. Resistin-mediated chronic inflammation can lead to obesity, atherosclerosis, and other cardiometabolic diseases. Nevertheless, the receptor for human resistin has not been clarified. Here, we identified adenylyl cyclase-associated protein 1 (CAP1) as a functional receptor for human resistin and ...
Lougaris Vassilios V Pediatrics Clinic and Institute for Molecular Medicine A. Nocivelli, Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Brescia. Electronic address: - - 2014
Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) plays an essential role in various biologic functions of different cell types. Mutations in BTK lead to X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) in humans. BTK was recently linked to the innate immune system, in particular, the Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway; however, the TLR9 pathway has never been studied ...
Wood Chelsea L CL Hopkins Marine Station of Stanford University, 120 Oceanview Blvd., Pacific Grove, CA 93950, - - 2014
SUMMARY To understand how fisheries affect parasites, we conducted a meta-analysis of studies that contrasted parasite assemblages in fished and unfished areas. Parasite diversity was lower in hosts from fished areas. Larger hosts had a greater abundance of parasites, suggesting that fishing might reduce the abundance of parasites by selectively ...
Sturdevant Gail L GL Laboratory of Intracellular Parasites, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, MT, - - 2014
Chlamydia muridarum and C. trachomatis, mouse and human strains respectively, have been used to study immunity in a murine model of female genital tract infection. Despite evidence that unique genes of these otherwise genomically similar strains could play a role in innate immune evasion in their respective mouse and human ...
Pignata Claudio C Federico II University of Naples -via S. Pansini , Naples , - - 2014
In this issue of the journal, we host a topic focused on the roles of human Forkhead-box (FOX) gene family members, including FOXN1, FOXP genes, and FOXO1, in the immune system. In the first review of the issue, Palamaro et al. focused their attention on the pivotal role of FOXN1 in ...
Ohshima Jun J Department of Immunoparasitology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, - - 2014
IFN-γ mediates cellular innate immunity against an intracellular parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, by inducing immunity-related GTPases such as p47 IFN-γ-regulated GTPases (IRGs) and p65 guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs), which also participate in antibacterial responses via autophagy. An essential autophagy protein, Atg5, was previously shown to play a critical role in anti-T. gondii ...
Rennie George - - 2014
Nicotinamide, or vitamin B3, is a precursor of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) and is involved in a multitude of intra- and inter-cellular processes, which regulate some of the cell's metabolic, stress, and immune responses to physiological or pathological signals. As a precursor of NAD(+), which is a key coenzyme in ...
Todd John A JA JDRF/Wellcome Trust Diabetes and Inflammation Laboratory, Department of Medical Genetics, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, University of Cambridge, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0XY, UK. Electronic address: - - 2014
In this issue of Immunity, Funabiki et al. (2014) have identified in mice a mutation of the IFIH1 gene, encoding the viral receptor MDA5 that causes constitutive IFN production and fatal autoimmune disease. The authors show that the autoimmune disease-associated variant of human MDA5 is permanently switched on.
Morandi Fabio F Laboratorio di Oncologia, Istituto Giannina Gaslini, 16147 Genoa, - - 2014
Different cytokines play crucial roles in inflammation and in polarizing immune responses, including IL-27 that exerts pro- and anti-inflammatory functions. Although the activity of IL-27 is well characterized in murine immune cells, only limited information is available regarding the natural cellular sources of IL-27 in humans and its effects on ...
Paglino Justin C JC Department of Neurosurgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, - - 2014
Members of the genus Parvovirus are small, non-enveloped single-stranded DNA viruses that are non-pathogenic in humans but that have potential utility as cancer therapeutics. Because the innate immune response to parvoviruses has received relatively little attention, we compared parvoviruses to several other types of virus in human cells. In normal ...
van der Does Anne M AM *Departments of Physiology and Pharmacology and †Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, - - 2014
A promising strategy in the fight against multidrug-resistant pathogens is the induction of endogenous AMPs, with compounds such as VitD3 and PBA. These compounds display an array of immunomodulatory effects that remain to be investigated in further detail to establish their role in the clearance of infection and possible modulation ...
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