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Leyrat Cedric C Division of Structural Biology, Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Oxford, OX3 7BN, - - 2014
Human metapneumovirus is a major cause of respiratory tract infections worldwide. Previous reports have shown that the viral glycoprotein (G) modulates innate and adaptive immune responses, leading to incomplete immunity and promoting reinfection. Using bioinformatics analyses, static light scattering and small-angle x-ray scattering, we show that the extracellular region of ...
Fausther-Bovendo Hugues H National Microbiology Laboratory; Public health Agency of Canada; Winnipeg, MB Canada; University of Manitoba; Winnipeg, MB - - 2014
Pre-existing immunity against human adenovirus (HAd) serotype 5 derived vector in the human population is widespread, thus hampering its clinical use. Various components of the immune system, including neutralizing antibodies (nAbs), Ad specific T cells and type I IFN activated NK cells, contribute to dampening the efficacy of Ad vectors ...
Campbell Arezoo A Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Exposure to particulate matter (PM), a component of urban air pollution, may cause adverse effects in the brain. Although the exact mechanisms involved are unknown, both oxidative and inflammatory responses have been reported. Since the main route of exposure to particulate matter is through inhalation, there is a potential for ...
Yao Qingxia Q Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada; Li Ka Shing Institute of Virology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, - - 2014
Interferons (IFNs) are the first line of defense against viral infections in vertebrates. Type III interferon (IFN-λ) is recognized for its key role in innate immunity of tissues of epithelial origin. Here we describe the identification of the Pekin duck IFN-λ ortholog (duIFN-λ). The predicted duIFN-λ protein has an amino ...
Meng Yuanyuan Y Center for Reproductive Medicine, First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, People's Republic of - - 2014
To investigate the antiapoptosis effect of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) on human fetal ovarian tissue treated by cyclophosphamide (CTX). Experimental animal study. University center for reproductive medicine and IVF unit. Female immunodeficient BALB/c nude mice, 6 to 8 weeks old. Human fetal ovarian tissue slowly cryopreserved then subcutaneously transplanted in immunodeficient mice. Follicle ...
Forrester Megan A MA Immunity, Infection and Inflammation, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, - - 2014
Although it is widely believed that IL-27 is anti-inflammatory, its role in controlling human immune responses is not fully established. In particular, its interactions with Th17 cytokines are unclear. Our aims were to establish the relationships between IL-27 and pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-17A, in human sera and cultures of peripheral ...
Serra-Hassoun Malika M Unité de Biologie des Populations Lymphocytaires, Département d'Immunologie, Institut Pasteur, 75724 Paris, France; Centre National pour la Recherche Scientifique, Unité de Recherche Associée 1961, 75724 Paris, - - 2014
We generated a new humanized mouse model to study HLA-restricted immune responses. For this purpose, we created unique murine hosts by enforcing the expression of human SIRPα by murine phagocytes in murine MHC-deficient HLA-transgenic alymphoid hosts, an approach that allowed the immune reconstitution of nonpermissive mice following injection of human ...
Hansen Kathrine K Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark Aarhus Research Centre for Innate Immunology, Aarhus University, Aarhus, - - 2014
Listeria monocytogenes is a gram-positive facultative intracellular bacterium, which replicates in the cytoplasm of myeloid cells. Interferon β (IFNβ) has been reported to play an important role in the mechanisms underlying Listeria disease. Although studies in murine cells have proposed the bacteria-derived cyclic-di-AMP to be the key bacterial immunostimulatory molecule, ...
Piasecka Malgorzata M Department of Histology and Developmental Biology, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, - - 2014
Biological significance of increased number of leukocytes in ejaculate remains a subject of controversy. The aim of this research was to describe the morphological characteristics of the sperm elimination by leukocytes in in vivo and in vitro conditions using natural stimulator of the immune system-uropathogenic Escherichia coli, O75:HNT, isolated from ...
Tian Ye - - 2014
MicroRNAs (MiRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs (18-25nt) that regulate gene expression mainly through affecting post-transcriptional modification. Osteosarcoma is an aggressive sarcoma of the bone characterized by a high level of genetic instability and recurrent DNA deletions and amplifications. microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in cancer cell growth and migration, ...
Spanò Stefania S School of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Ashgrove Road West, Aberdeen, - - 2014
Salmonella enterica is a food-borne intracellular pathogen that can invade intestinal epithelial cells and survive in macrophages of susceptible hosts. Although belonging to the same species, individual Salmonella enterica serovars behave as very different pathogens. Indeed, they can cause very different diseases (from mild gastroenteritis to deadly systemic diseases) and ...
Namgaladze Dmitry D Goethe-University Frankfurt, Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Biochemistry I / ZAFES, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt, - - 2014
Macrophage polarization elicits various metabolic alterations which in turn influence the polarized phenotype. Activation of glycolytic metabolism accompanies and supports macrophage pro-inflammatory M1 polarization. In contrast, M2 polarization of murine macrophages in response to the Th2 cytokine interleukin-4 (IL-4) was linked to the up-regulation of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and fatty ...
Swidergall Marc M Department Biologie, Molekulare Mykologie, Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany - - 2014
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are key elements of innate immunity, which can directly kill multiple bacterial, viral and fungal pathogens. The medically important fungus Candida albicans colonizes different host niches as part of the normal human microbiota. Proliferation of C. albicans is regulated through a complex balance of host immune defense ...
Dorrestein Pieter C PC Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA; Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, - - 2014
The unexpected diversity of the human microbiome and metabolome far exceeds the complexity of the human genome. Although we now understand microbial taxonomic and genetic repertoires in some populations, we are just beginning to assemble the necessary computational and experimental tools to understand the metabolome in comparable detail. However, even ...
Wang Hui H German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), - - 2014
Within innate immune signaling pathways, Interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R&)-associated kinases (IRAKs) fulfill key roles downstream of multiple Toll-like receptors (TLR) and the IL-1R. Whereas human IRAK4-deficiency was shown to lead to severe immunodeficiency in response to pyogenic bacterial infection during childhood, little is known about the role of human IRAK2. We ...
Liptrott Neill J NJ Department of Molecular & Clinical Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, - - 2014
Aim: To investigate interactions of gold nanoparticles with primary human lymphocytes and determine if the addition of a self-assembled monolayer of 'mixed-matrix' ligands influenced these interactions. Materials & methods: The effect of gold nanoparticles was measured by exposure to peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy volunteers with subsequent examination of ...
Moon Ji-Hong JH Biosafety Research Institute, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756, Republic of - - 2014
The human prion protein (PrP) fragment PrP(106‑126) possesses the majority of the pathogenic properties associated with the infectious scrapie isoform of PrP, known as PrPSc. The accumulation of PrPSc in the brain of humans and animals affects the central nervous system. Recent epidemiological studies have suggested that caffeine, one of ...
Wahl Angela A Division of Infectious Diseases, UNC Center for AIDS Research, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Genetic Medicine Building , Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7042. Electronic address: - - 2014
The gastrointestinal (GI) track represents an important battlefield where pathogens first try to gain entry into a host. It is also a universe where highly diverse and ever changing inhabitants co-exist in an exceptional equilibrium without parallel in any other organ system of the body. The gut as an organ ...
Okumura Cheryl Y M CY Department of Biology, Occidental College, Los Angeles, CA 90041; email: - - 2014
The development of a severe invasive bacterial infection in an otherwise healthy individual is one of the most striking and fascinating aspects of human medicine. A small cadre of gram-positive pathogens of the genera Streptococcus and Staphylococcus stand out for their unique invasive disease potential and sophisticated ability to counteract ...
Hasebe Akira A Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; Department of Oral Pathobiological Science, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Sapporo, - - 2014
Mycoplasma hominis has been implicated in many inflammatory conditions of the human urogenital tract in particular amniotic infections that lead to fetal and neonatal disease and pre-term labor. The mechanisms responsible are poorly defined. Biochemical and immunological methods were used to extract, purify, and characterize an inflammatory component present in ...
Búfalo Michelle Cristiane MC Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Biosciences Institute, UNESP, Botucatu, SP, - - 2014
Propolis is a beehive product and its immunomodulatory action has been documented; however, little is known concerning its mechanisms of action on human cells. Propolis influence on the initial events of the immune response was assessed, evaluating cell markers, cytokine production and the fungicidal activity of human monocytes. Toll-like receptor ...
Murbach Teles Andrade Bruna Fernanda BF Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Biosciences Institute, UNESP, Botucatu, SP, - - 2014
In traditional medicine, plants have formed the basis of sophisticated systems that have been in existence for thousands of years and still provide mankind with new remedies. Cymbopogon martinii, known as palmarosa, has been used in aromatherapy as a skin tonic due to its antimicrobial properties. It has also used ...
Urbaczek Ana Carolina AC Departamento de Análises Clínicas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Rua Expedicionários do Brasil, 1621, Centro, Araraquara-SP, CEP 14801-360, - - 2014
Considering that human neutrophil FcγRIIa and FcγRIIIb receptors interact synergistically with CR3 in triggering neutrophil functional responses, allelic polymorphisms in these receptors might influence such interactions. We assessed whether FcγRIIIb polymorphisms affect FcγR/CR cooperation in mediating the neutrophil oxidative burst (OB), in particular the FcγRIIIb/CR3 cooperation that occurs via lectin-saccharide-like ...
Rothman Alan L AL Institute for Immunology and Informatics, College of the Environment and Life Sciences, University of Rhode Island, - - 2014
Evidence suggesting that immune responses to dengue virus (DENV) have the potential for both beneficial and detrimental effects on the outcome of infection is a concern for dengue vaccine development. There is thus a great need to define measures of DENV-specific immune responses that reliably indicate when immunity is protective. ...
Vaz Nelson M NM Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia and Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, 31270-901 MG, Brasil. Electronic address: - - 2014
Stranded between medicine and experimental biology, immunology is buried in its own problems and remains distant from important areas of current biology, such as evolutionary theory, developmental biology and cognitive sciences. Immunology has treated the living system merely as the place or dimension in which immune activity takes place, inserted ...
Wu Chieh-Shan CS 1 Department of Dermatology, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital , Kaohsiung, Taiwan - - 2014
Previous studies suggest that tazarotene, a new member of the acetylenic class of RARβ/γ selective retinoids which is approved to treat a variety of skin diseases, exhibits an anti-proliferative effect in human basal cell carcinoma (BCC) by triggering caspase-dependent apoptosis. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-tumor activity of ...
Jemima E Angel EA Department of Biotechnology, School of Bioengineering, SRM University, Kattankulathur 603203, Tamil Nadu, - - 2014
Among the four different types of histamine receptors (H1-H4), H4R is predominantly expressed in immune cells and involved in immunomodulatory response. Here, in this study we determined the expression of H4R in human mast cells (HMC-1, LAD-2 and primary cord blood derived CD34+ human mast cells) and characterized its functional ...
Omar Abdullah A From the Vascular Biology Center, Department of Medicine, Medical College of Georgia/Georgia Regents University, Augusta (A.O., T.K.C., Y.T., N.L.W.); and Department of Pathology, Institute for Metabolic Diseases, University of Cincinnati, OH - - 2014
Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) directly abuts the lamina adventitia of conduit arteries and actively communicates with the vessel wall to regulate vascular function and inflammation. Mounting evidence suggests that the biological activities of PVAT are governed by perivascular adipocytes, a unique class of adipocyte with distinct molecular and phenotypic characteristics. ...
Reva I V IV School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia, - - 2014
We analyzed local reactions of immune homeostasis in the human skin, in particular, effector immune cells CD68 responsible for antigen presentation, during human papillomavirus infection. Under conditions of long-term papillomavirus infection, CD68 markers were identifi ed only in the connective tissue of the skin (derma) and were completely absent in ...
Poniedziałek Barbara B Department of Biology and Environmental Protection, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznań, Poland. Electronic address: - - 2014
Cylindrospermopsin (CYN), a cyanobacterial toxin, presents a risk to human health due to its relatively high chemical stability, a global spread of its producers and its occurrence in drinking-water reservoirs. Despite a broad interest in its toxicity to eukaryotes, little is known about the potential effects of CYN on the ...
Zhu Jianzhong J Cancer Virology Program, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA; Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, - - 2014
Virus infection is sensed in the cytoplasm by retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I, also known as DDX58), which requires RNA and polyubiquitin binding to induce type I interferon (IFN) and activate cellular innate immunity. We show that the human IFN-inducible oligoadenylate synthetases-like (OASL) protein has antiviral activity and mediates RIG-I ...
Theodoratou Evropi E Centre for Population Health Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Teviot Place, EH8 9AG, Edinburgh, - - 2014
A number of genetic and immunological studies give impetus for investigating the role of glycosylation in IBD. Experimental mouse models have helped to delineate the role of glycosylation in intestinal mucins and to explore the putative pathogenic role of glycosylation in colitis. These experiments have been extended to human studies ...
Marcoccia D D Istituto Superiore di Sanità - ISS, Dpt. of Food Safety and Veterinary Public Health, Food and Veterinary Toxicology Unit, viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); University Roma Tre, Department of Biology, Viale Guglielmo Marconi 446, I-00146 Rome (Italy). Electronic address: - - 2014
Verbascum xanthophoeniceum is a mullein plant, typical of Balkan region and some parts of Turkey, traditionally used as phytotherapeutic agent due to its anti-inflammatory properties. It is rich in phenylethanoid and iridoid metabolites whose anti-inflammatory properties are under characterization. The role of Verbascum xanthophoeniceum crude methanolic extract and its isolated ...
Tamarozzi Francesca F Department of Parasitology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, - - 2014
The host inflammatory response to the Onchocerca volvulus endosymbiont, Wolbachia, is a major contributing factor in the development of chronic pathology in humans (onchocerciasis/river blindness). Recently, the toll-like pattern recognition receptor motif of the major inflammatory ligands of filarial Wolbachia, membrane-associated diacylated lipoproteins, were functionally defined in murine models of ...
van der Aa Evelyn E Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Erasmus MC-University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The - - 2014
Dendritic cells (DC) are the most potent antigen presenting cells (APC). They comprise a family of different subsets and play an essential role in the induction and regulation of immune responses. Recently, gene expression profiling identified BDCA3(+)CLEC9A(+) DC as a separate human DC subset. This subset was identified in blood, ...
Fahy N N Regenerative Medicine Institute, National University of Ireland Galway; Department of Orthopaedics, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address: - - 2014
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a promising cell type for the repair of damaged cartilage in osteoarthritis (OA). However, OA synovial fluid and factors secreted by synovium impede chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs, and the mechanism responsible for this effect remains unclear. In this study, we sought to investigate whether M1 ...
Streit Wolfgang J WJ Department of Neuroscience, University of Florida College of Medicine and McKnight Brain Institute, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Microglial cells comprising the brain's immune system are essential for ensuring neuroprotection in the normal and pathological CNS. On the basis of histopathological observations in human brain, we believe that the ability of microglia to provide neuroprotection deteriorates as our brains get older and that such CNS immune senescence is ...
Nguyen Hoang Anh Thu AT Center for Infectious Medicine, Department of Medicine, and Center for Biosciences, Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; - - 2014
This manuscript describes technical advances allowing manipulation and quantitative analyses of human DC migratory behavior in lung epithelial tissue. DCs are hematopoietic cells essential for the maintenance of tissue homeostasis and the induction of tissue-specific immune responses. Important functions include cytokine production and migration in response to infection for the ...
Eskandari Nahid N Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. - - 2014
Human basophils play a key role in allergic diseases such as asthma and in a variety of immunological disorders. The generation of IL-4 and IL-13 can be induced from basophil by IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated mechanisms. Time and stimulus-dependent differences in the regulation of these cytokines could have relevance to their ...
Jakaitis Brett M BM Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, 2015 Uppergate Drive, 3rd Floor, Atlanta, GA 30322, - - 2014
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a large potential portal for multiple infectious agents to enter the human body. The GI system performs multiple functions as part of the neonate's innate immune system, providing critical defense during a vulnerable period. Multiple mechanisms and actions are enhanced by the presence of human ...
Vinh Donald C DC Department of Medicine, Department of Medical Microbiology, Department of Human Genetics, Division of Infectious Diseases, Division of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, McGill University Health Centre - Montreal General Hospital, 1650 Cedar Ave, Rm A5-156, Montreal, Quebec, H3G 1A4, - - 2014
Traditionally, management of infectious diseases focuses on identification of the causative microbe and the use of pathogen-targeted therapy. With increasing antimicrobial resistance, novel approaches are required. One strategy is to modulate those natural host immune responses that critically mediate resistance to specific microbes. Clinically, this host-directed tactic could be used ...
Tsai Pei-Wen PW Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, 30013, - - 2014
Candida albicans is a major fungal pathogen in humans. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are critical components of the innate immune response in vertebrates and represent the first line of defense against microbial infection. LL-37 is the only member of the human family of cathelicidin AMPs and is commonly expressed by various ...
Kåhlin Jessica J Section for Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77, Stockholm, Sweden Department of Anesthesiology, Surgical Services and Intensive Care, Karolinska University Hospital, 171 76, Stockholm, Sweden - - 2014
Studies on experimental animals established that the carotid bodies are sensory organs for detecting arterial blood O2 levels and that the ensuing chemosensory reflex is a major regulator of cardio-respiratory functions under hypoxia. However, little information is available on the human carotid body responses to hypoxia. The present study was ...
Cénit M C MC Department of Genetics, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, PO Box 30.001, 9700 RB Groningen, the - - 2014
The human gut is colonized by a wide diversity of micro-organisms, which are now known to play a key role in the human host by regulating metabolic functions and immune homeostasis. Many studies have indicated that the genomes of our gut microbiota, known as the gut microbiome or our "other ...
Dowling David J DJ Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, - - 2014
The human immune system comprises cellular and molecular components designed to coordinately prevent infection while avoiding potentially harmful inflammation and autoimmunity. Immunity varies with age, reflecting unique age-dependent challenges including fetal gestation, the neonatal phase, and infancy. Here, we review novel mechanistic insights into early life immunity, with an emphasis ...
Nishio H H 1] Division of Cellular Signaling, Institute for Advanced Medical and Science Research, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan [2] Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, - - 2014
Background:Although T-cell immunity is thought to be involved in the prognosis of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients, immunosuppressive conditions hamper antitumour immune responses. Thus, their mechanisms and overcoming strategies need to be investigated.Methods:The role of NF-κB in human EOC cells and macrophages was evaluated by in vitro production of immunosuppressive ...
Engelbertsen Daniel D Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö University Hospital, CRC 60:13, Jan Waldenströms gata 35, 20502 Malmö, - - 2014
Immune responses against LDL antigens have been found to play an important modulatory role in atherosclerosis. Immunization with homologous oxidized LDL, as well as human apolipoprotein B100 (ApoB)-derived peptides, inhibit atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic animal models of atherosclerosis. However, the role of antigen-specific Th2 responses in atherosclerosis remains to be fully ...
Kai-Larsen Ylva Y Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, - - 2014
At birth, the fetus makes the transition from the uterus to a world full of microbes. The newborn baby needs protection against potential invading pathogens and needs to establish a normal microbiota. Antimicrobial peptides and proteins are key effector molecules of innate immunity and are also important immunomodulators. Their presence ...
Gao Yu Y Department of Ophthalmology, No. 411 Hospital of CPLA, Shanghai, 200081, People's Republic of China. - - 2014
Hypoxia, which activates the hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), is an essential feature of retinoblastoma (RB) and contributes to poor prognosis and resistance to conventional therapy. In this study, the effect of HIF-1α knockdown by small interfering RNA (siRNA) on cell proliferation, apoptosis, and apoptotic pathways of human Y-79 RB ...
Molina-Cruz Alvaro A Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland, - - 2014
Plasmodium falciparum originated in Africa, dispersed around the world as a result of human migration and had to adapt to several different indigenous anopheline mosquitoes. Anophelines from the New World are evolutionary distant form African ones and this probably resulted in a more stringent selection of Plasmodium as it adapted ...
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