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Results 401 - 450 of 2279
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Liu Jinghua - - 2013
Marine macroalgae are rich in bioactive compounds that can, when consumed, impart beneficial effects on animal and human health. The red seaweed Chondrus crispus has been reported to have a wide range of health promoting activities such as anti-tumor and anti-viral activities. Using a Caenorhabditis elegans infection model, we showed ...
Al-Assaf Abdullah H - - 2013
Cadmium (Cd) is a major pollutant of environment. It can be fatal to human. In spite of bulk of research and literatures, the mechanism of a fatality against human is still not understood completely. Toxic and carcinogenic effects of Cd in rodents and humans are well known. However, effects of ...
Clark Gary F - - 2013
Emerging data suggest that mechanisms to evade the human immune defense system may be shared by the conceptus, tumour cells, persistent pathogens and viruses. It is therefore timely to revisit the human fetoembryonic defense system (Hu-FEDS) hypothesis that was proposed in two papersin the 1990 s. The initial paper suggested ...
Bories Gaël G From Université Lille 2, Lille, France (G.B., S.C., J.V., B.D., C.C., M.F., M.D., L.B., C.Z., B.J., B.S., G.C.-G.); Inserm U1011, Lille, France (G.B., S.C., J.V., B.D., C.C., M.F., M.D., L.B., B.S., G.C.-G.); Institut Pasteur de Lille, France (G.B., S.C., J.V., B.D., C.C., M.F., M.D., L.B., B.S., G.C.-G.); European Genomic Institute for Diabetes, Lille, France (G.B., S.C., J.V., B.D., C.C., M.F., M.D., L.B., B.S., G.C.-G.); and Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire de Lille, France (S.H., C.Z., - - 2013
In atherosclerotic plaques, iron preferentially accumulates in macrophages where it can exert pro-oxidant activities. The objective of this study was, first, to better characterize the iron distribution and metabolism in macrophage subpopulations in human atherosclerotic plaques and, second, to determine whether iron homeostasis is under the control of nuclear receptors, ...
Wang Ying - - 2013
The receptor for the globular head of human C1q (gC1qR) predominantly localizes to the mitochondrial matrix. gC1qR mediates many biological responses, including growth perturbations, morphological abnormalities and the initiation of apoptosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between gC1qR expression, mitochondrial dysfunction and the regulation of ...
He Li-Zhen - - 2013
The CD70/CD27 pathway plays a significant role in the control of immunity and tolerance, and previous studies demonstrated that targeting murine CD27 (mCD27) with agonist mAbs can mediate antitumor efficacy. We sought to exploit the potential of this pathway for immunotherapy by developing 1F5, a fully human IgG1 mAb to ...
Chapoval Andrei I - - 2013
The role of the B7 family molecules in the regulation of the immune response is well documented. A large body of experimental evidence indicates that costimulatory molecules such as B7-1, B7-2, B7-DC, B7-H1, B7-H2, B7-H3 and B7-H4 are critical for initiation, maintenance and down-regulation of the immune response. However the ...
Hareendran Sangeetha - - 2013
AAV-based gene transfer protocols have shown remarkable success when directed to immune-privileged sites such as for retinal disorders like Lebers congenital amaurosis. In contrast, AAV-mediated gene transfer into liver or muscle tissue for diseases such as hemophilia B, α1 anti-trypsin deficiency and muscular dystrophy has demonstrated a decline in gene ...
Melhorn Mark I MI From the Division of Allergy and - - 2013
Humans and other higher primates are unique among mammals in using complement receptor 1 (CR1, CD35) on red blood cells (RBC) to ligate complement-tagged inflammatory particles (immune complexes, apoptotic/necrotic debris, and microbes) in the circulation for quiet transport to the sinusoids of spleen and liver where resident macrophages remove the ...
Lavender Kerry J KJ Laboratory of Persistent Viral Diseases, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, - - 2013
The use of C57BL/6 Rag2(-/-)γc(-/-) mice as recipients for xenotransplantation with human immune systems (humanization) has been problematic because C57BL/6 SIRPα does not recognize human CD47, and such recognition is required to suppress macrophage-mediated phagocytosis of transplanted human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). We show that genetic inactivation of CD47 on ...
Qu Jing - - 2013
Poly(I:C), an agonist of TLR3 and RLRs, has been used as an immune adjuvant in clinical trials for many years. Although it has been found to trigger apoptosis in a variety of cancers, its mechanisms in human gastric adenocarcinoma is unclear. The purpose of this study was to assess the ...
MichaƂowicz Jaromir - - 2013
In this study, we have assessed apoptotic effect of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, hexachlorobenzene, lindane and dieldrin on human peripheral blood lymphocytes. We observed an increase in ROS formation and a decrease in mitochondrial transmembrane potential in the cells incubated with low concentrations of all compounds studied, in particular lindane and dieldrin. ROS ...
Selway Joanne Louise - - 2013
Acne is a common disorder of the human pilosebaceous unit, yet the mechanisms underlying hyperkeratinisation and subsequent inflammation (comedogenesis) remain to be determined, although cutaneous pathogens are implicated. Previously, it was reported that the release of the cytokine interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha) by keratinocytes of the sebaceous duct was pivotal in the ...
Harris David T - - 2013
Aging of the human immune system is characterized by a gradual loss of immune function and a skewing of hematopoiesis toward the myeloid lineage, a reduction in the lymphocytic lineage, and progressive increases in senescent memory T cells at the expense of naïve T cells. Both the innate and the ...
Spring Michele - - 2013
Immunization with genetically engineered, attenuated malaria parasites (GAP) that arrest during liver infection confers sterile protection in mouse malaria models. A first generation Plasmodium falciparum GAP (Pf p52(-)/p36(-) GAP) was previously generated by deletion of two pre-erythrocytic stage-expressed genes (P52 and P36) in the NF54 strain. A first-in-human, proof-of-concept, safety ...
Possemiers Sam - - 2013
EpiCor, derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been shown to have immunomodulating properties in human clinical trials and in vitro. However, the underlying mechanisms behind its immune-protection via the gut remain largely unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to use an integrated in vitro approach to evaluate the metabolism ...
Manzanillo Paolo S PS Department of Microbiology and Immunology Program in Microbial Pathogenesis and Host Defense, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94158, - - 2013
Ubiquitin-mediated targeting of intracellular bacteria to the autophagy pathway is a key innate defence mechanism against invading microbes, including the important human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, the ubiquitin ligases responsible for catalysing ubiquitin chains that surround intracellular bacteria are poorly understood. The parkin protein is a ubiquitin ligase with a ...
Dangleben Nygerma L - - 2013
Exposure to arsenic (As) is a global public health problem because of its association with various cancers and numerous other pathological effects, and millions of people worldwide are exposed to As on a regular basis. Increasing lines of evidence indicate that As may adversely affect the immune system, but its ...
Rockson Stanley G SG Stanford University School of Medicine , Stanford, - - 2013
In lymphedema, there is a profound predisposition to infection with bacterial pathogens. It therefore seems appropriate to reconsider our unique functional definition of the lymphatic structures within a circulatory construct. While the lymphatics unquestionably fulfill a vital circulatory function, it seems more appropriate to view this complex network, comprised both ...
Collin Matthew M Human Dendritic Cell Laboratory, Institute of Cellular Medicine, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. - - 2013
Dendritic cells are highly adapted to their role of presenting antigen and directing immune responses. Developmental studies indicate that DCs originate independently from monocytes and tissue macrophages. Emerging evidence also suggests that distinct subsets of DCs have intrinsic differences that lead to functional specialisation in the generation of immunity. Comparative ...
Clayton April M - - 2013
The multifaceted innate immune system of insects is capable of fighting infection by a variety of pathogens including those causing human malaria. Malaria transmission by the Anopheles mosquito depends on the Plasmodium parasite's successful completion of its lifecycle in the insect vector, a process that involves interactions with several tissues ...
Fiky Ashraf El - - 2013
Macrophages can be polarized into classically (CAM) or alternatively (AAM) activated macrophages with IFN-γ or IL-4, respectively. CAM are associated with type 1 immune responses and are implicated in autoimmunity; AAM are associated with type 2 responses and are implicated in allergic diseases. An impediment in investigating macrophage biology using ...
Dubaniewicz Anna - - 2013
In the light of the Matzinger's model of immune response, human heat shock proteins (HSPs) as main 'danger signals' (tissue damage-associated molecular patterns-DAMPs) or/and microbial HSPs as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) recognized by pattern recognition receptors (PRR), may induce sarcoid granuloma by both infectious and non-infectious factors in genetically different ...
Cantero Daniel - - 2013
The presence of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms on sinonasal mucosal surfaces is associated with recalcitrant chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), but little is known about the innate immune response they trigger. We aimed to study the human pattern recognition receptor (PRR) nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 2 (Nod2) receptor and downstream pathway in response ...
Yoo Euna - - 2013
Engagement of TLR7 in plasmacytoid dendritic cells leads to the induction of IFN-α/β which plays essential functions in the control of adaptive immunity. We had previously examined structure-activity relationships (SAR) in TLR7/8-agonistic imidazoquinolines with a focus on substituents at the N(1), C(2), N(3) and N(4) positions, and we now report ...
Del Rio Maria-Luisa - - 2013
Xenotransplantation is an innovative field of research with the potential to provide us with an alternative source of organs to face the severe shortage of human organ donors. For several reasons, pigs have been chosen as the most suitable source of organs and tissues for transplantation in humans. However, porcine ...
Khaiboullina Svetlana F - - 2013
The marked depletion of dendritic cells (DCs) in skin cancers, as well as preneoplastic and neoplastic cervical epithelium, suggests a central role for DCs in productive human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cancer promotion. It has been suggested that HPV may facilitate tumor development by reducing DC density, contributing to a ...
Sato Takayuki - - 2013
All-trans-retinoic acid (RA) plays a critical role in maintaining immune homeostasis. Mouse intestinal CD103(+) dendritic cells (DCs) produce a high level of RA by highly expressing retinal dehydrogenase (RALDH)2, an enzyme that converts retinal to RA, and induce gut-homing T cells. However, it has not been identified which subset of ...
Short Kirsty R - - 2013
It is well established that infection with influenza A virus (IAV) facilitates secondary bacterial disease. However, there is a growing body of evidence that the microbial context in which IAV infection occurs can affect both innate and adaptive responses to the virus. To date, these studies have been restricted to ...
Kelly Aoife - - 2013
Extensive populations of liver immune cells detect and respond to homeostatic perturbation caused by damage, infection or malignancy. Dendritic cells (DCs) are central to these activities, governing the balance between tolerance and immunity. Most of our knowledge about human liver DCs is derived from studies on peritumoral tissue. Little is ...
Schaake Julia J Department of Molecular Infection Biology, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, - - 2013
Yersinia enterocolitica is a human pathogen that is ubiquitous in livestock, especially pigs. The bacteria are able to colonize the intestinal tract of a variety of mammalian hosts, but the severity of induced gut-associated diseases (yersiniosis) differs significantly between hosts. To gain more information about the individual virulence determinants that ...
Hill David R DR From the Department of Molecular Medicine - - 2013
Breast-feeding is associated with enhanced protection from gastrointestinal disease in infants, mediated in part by an array of bioactive glycan components in milk that act through molecular mechanisms to inhibit enteric pathogen infection. Human milk contains hyaluronan (HA), a glycosaminoglycan polymer found in virtually all mammalian tissues. We have shown ...
Barr Laura C LC University of Edinburgh/Medical Research Council Centre for Inflammation Research, Queen's Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh, United - - 2013
Depletion of monocytes reduces LPS-induced lung inflammation in mice, suggesting monocytes as potential therapeutic targets in acute lung injury. To investigate whether depletion of circulating blood monocytes has beneficial effects on markers of systemic and pulmonary inflammation in a human model of acute lung inflammation. A total of 30 healthy ...
Fogli Stefano - - 2013
Microparticles (MPs) are membrane fragments that may play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic respiratory diseases. We aimed to investigate whether human monocytes/macrophage-derived MPs could induce a pro-inflammatory phenotype in human bronchial smooth muscle cells (BSMC) and the effect of montelukast in this setting. Experimental methods included isolation of ...
Robertson Emma J - - 2013
Background. The Cryptococcus neoformans polysaccharide capsule is a well-characterised virulence factor with immunomodulatory properties. The organism and/or shed capsule is postulated to raise intracranial pressure(ICP) in cryptococcal meningitis(CM) by mechanical obstruction of cerebrospinal fluid(CSF) outflow. Little is known regarding capsule phenotype in human cryptococcosis. We investigated the relationship of ex vivo ...
Kolanowski Sonja Thm - - 2013
TLR4 ligation can activate both the MyD88 and the Toll-IL-1 receptor domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-β (TRIF) signaling route. Whereas MyD88 is generally recognized as a universal adaptor for pro-inflammatory responses, TRIF is mainly thought to contribute to specific type I IFN responses. Here, we investigated the contribution of both MyD88 ...
Rondas Dieter - - 2013
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has been shown to protect pancreatic β-cells against cytokine-induced dysfunction and destruction. The mechanisms through which GLP-1 exerts its effects are complex and still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to analyze the protein expression profiles of human islets of Langerhans treated with cytokines (IL-1β ...
Li Yan - - 2013
Engraftment of human CD34(+) hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells into immunodeficient mice leads to robust reconstitution of human T and B cells but not monocytes and macrophages. To identify the cause underlying the poor monocyte and macrophage reconstitution, we analyzed human myeloid cell development in humanized mice and found that it was ...
Somamoto Tomonori - - 2013
Cytotoxic T-cells (CTLs) play a pivotal role in eliminating viruses in mammalian adaptive immune system. Many recent studies on T-cell immunity of fish have suggested that teleost CTLs are also important for antiviral immunity. Cellular functional studies using clonal ginbuan crucian carp and rainbow trout have provided in vivo and ...
Publicover Jean J Department of Medicine, UCSF, San Francisco, California, - - 2013
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major human pathogen that causes immune-mediated hepatitis. Successful immunity to HBV is age dependent: viral clearance occurs in most adults, whereas neonates and young children usually develop chronic infection. Using a mouse model of HBV infection, we sought mechanisms underpinning the age-dependent outcome of ...
Sheng Wen S WS Department of Medicine, The Center for Infectious Diseases & Microbiology Translational Research (CIDMTR), University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN, 55455, USA, - - 2013
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to be a contributor to aging and disease. ROS also serve as a trigger switch for signaling cascades leading to corresponding cellular and molecular events. In the central nervous system (CNS), microglial cells are likely the main source of ROS production. However, activated ...
Leung Carol Sze - - 2013
Despite many theoretical incompatibilities between mouse and human cells, mice with reconstituted human immune system components contain nearly all human leukocyte populations. Accordingly, several human-tropic pathogens have been investigated in these in vivo models of the human immune system, including viruses such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Epstein Barr ...
Brooke R C C - - 2013
Topical 5-aminolevulinic acid-photodynamic therapy (5-ALA-PDT) causes a clinical inflammatory response in human skin. While histamine mediates the immediate reaction, the mediators of the prolonged erythema are unknown OBJECTIVE: To examine for involvement of pro-inflammatory mediators prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) and nitric oxide (NO) in topical PDT-induced erythema in human skin. ...
Wong Jack Ho - - 2013
The family of peptides designated as cathelicidins was identified over a decade ago. Cathelicidins have since gained increasing recognition, both as endogenous antibiotics and as effector molecules of the innate immune system. The human cathelicidin LL-37 is widely expressed in human tissues and plays diverse biological roles. It contributes substantially ...
Scholz Jean L JL Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6082, United - - 2013
Immune system function declines with age. Here we review and compare age-associated changes in murine and human B cell pools and humoral immune responses. We summarize changes in B cell generation and homeostasis, as well as notable changes at the subcellular level; then discuss how these changes help to explain ...
Krause A A Department of Genetic Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10065, - - 2013
Replication-deficient adenoviral (Ad) vectors of non-human serotypes can serve as Ad vaccine platforms to circumvent pre-existing anti-human Ad immunity. We found previously that, in addition to that feature, a non-human primate-based AdC7 vector expressing outer membrane protein F of P. aeruginosa (AdC7OprF) was more potent in inducing lung mucosal and ...
Cervantes Jorge L JL 1.Connecticut Children's Medical Center, Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, 282 Washington St., Hartford, CT 06106. - - 2013
Phagocytosed Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb), the Lyme disease spirochete, induces a robust and complex innate immune response in human monocytes, in which TLR8 cooperates with TLR2 in the induction of NF-κB-mediated cytokine production, whereas TLR8 is solely responsible for transcription of IFN-β through IRF7. We now establish the role of Bb ...
Akbar A N AN Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London, London W1T 4JF, UK. - - 2013
In this paper we provide a detailed description of an experimental method for investigating the induction and resolution of recall immune response to antigen in humans in vivo. This involves the injection of tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) into the skin, followed by inducing suction blisters at the site of ...
Movert Elin - - 2013
The group B streptococcus (GBS) is a leading neonatal pathogen and a growing cause of invasive disease in the elderly, with clinical manifestations such as pneumonia and sepsis. Despite its clinical importance, little is known about innate immunity against GBS in humans. Here, we analyze the role of human group ...
Sohn Sue J - - 2013
TYK2 is a JAK family protein tyrosine kinase activated in response to multiple cytokines, including type I IFNs, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, and IL-23. Extensive studies of mice that lack TYK2 expression indicate that the IFN-α, IL-12, and IL-23 pathways, but not the IL-6 or IL-10 pathways, are compromised. In contrast, ...
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