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Prud'homme Gérald J - - 2013
We recently found that γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) protects mouse islet β cells. It prevented autoimmune type 1 diabetes in mice, induced islet β-cell regeneration, and exerted immunoinhibitory effects. However, it is not known whether GABA would be equally active on human islet and immune cells. In vitro culture of human ...
Korkmaz Brice - - 2013
Proteinase 3 (PR3) is one of the four elastase-related serine proteinases stored in the azurophilic granules of neutrophils. Although it participates in the pro- and anti-inflammatory responses to infection and inflammation it also retains specific functions that make it different from neutrophil elastase in spite of their close structural resemblance. ...
Barua Soumitra S Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, - - 2013
Here, we describe the capacity of Bacillus anthracis peptidoglycan (BaPGN) to trigger an antimicrobial response in human white blood cells (WBCs). Analysis of freshly isolated human blood cells found that monocytes and neutrophils, but not B and T cells, were highly responsive to BaPGN and produced a variety of cytokines ...
Reeves Aaron A - - 2013
Abstract Objective: This study compared cytokines (in particular transforming growth factor [TGF]-β2) and lactoferrin in maternal human milk (MHM), human-derived milk fortifier (HDMF), and donor human milk (DHM). Materials and Methods: MHM was randomly collected from breastfeeding mothers who had no infectious illness at the time of milk expression. HDMF ...
Moyano-Mendez Josè Ramon - - 2013
Abstract Trans-resveratrol, a polyphenol extracted from Vitis vinifera, has different beneficial effects following its administration on the skin. Here the potential use of binary systems to enhance in vitro and in vivo activity of trans-resveratrol was investigated. Thus the aqueous solubility of trans-resveratrol was investigated in the presence of growing ...
Smith Amy M - - 2013
Microglia are the primary immune cells of the brain whose phenotype largely depends on their surrounding micro-environment. Microglia respond to a multitude of soluble molecules produced by a variety of brain cells. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) is a cytokine found in the brain whose receptor is expressed by microglia. Previous ...
Ng Tessie M TM Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford School of Medicine, Stanford University, 299 Campus Drive, Stanford, - - 2013
Proinflammatory caspases play important roles in innate immunity. Much attention has focused on caspase-1, which acts to eliminate pathogens by obliterating their replicative niches as well as alerting the host to their presence. Now, emerging data have shed light on the lesser-studied proinflammatory caspase-11 in the combat between host and ...
Lou Xiaoli - - 2013
Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) plays a significant role in hepatocellular carcinoma development. To investigate the effect of hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) on inflammatory cytokines of human T cell, a eukaryotic expression vector, HBx-pEGFP-C1, was constructed and transfected into the Jurkat human T-cell line. Jurkat cells ...
Yu Emma E Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Centre for Clinical Investigation, P.O. Box 110, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, CB2 2QQ, - - 2013
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage occurs in both circulating cells and the vessel wall in human atherosclerosis. However, it is unclear whether mtDNA damage directly promotes atherogenesis or is a consequence of tissue damage, which cell types are involved, and whether its effects are mediated only through reactive oxygen species. mtDNA ...
Freedman Mark S MS University of Ottawa, Multiple Sclerosis Research Clinic, the Ottawa Hospital-General Campus, Ottawa, Ontario K1H 8L6, - - 2013
The pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) is thought to involve peripheral activation of immune cells against central nervous system (CNS) antigens and their migration across the blood-brain barrier, leading to CNS inflammation and neurodegeneration. Alemtuzumab, a humanized anti-CD52 monoclonal antibody that rapidly depletes CD52-expressing cells from the circulation, is being ...
Woodhams Katelynn L KL Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, - - 2013
Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcus) is a symbiont of the human nasopharynx. On occasion, meningococci disseminate from the nasopharynx to cause invasive disease. Previous work showed that purified meningococcal peptidoglycan (PG) stimulates human Nod1, which leads to activation of NF-κB and production of inflammatory cytokines. No studies have determined if meningococci release ...
Gyöngyösi Adrienn A Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Research Center for Molecular Medicine, University of Debrecen, Medical and Health Science Center, Debrecen, - - 2013
All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has a key role in dendritic cells (DCs) and affects T cell subtype specification and gut homing. However, the identity of the permissive cell types and the required steps of conversion of vitamin A to biologically active ATRA bringing about retinoic acid receptor-regulated signaling remains elusive. ...
Billerbeck Eva E Laboratory of Virology and Infectious Disease, Center for the Study of Hepatitis C, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, - - 2013
Humanized mice have emerged as a promising model to study human immunity in vivo. Although they are susceptible to many pathogens exhibiting an almost exclusive human tropism, human immune responses to infection remain functionally impaired. It has recently been demonstrated that the expression of HLA molecules improves human immunity to ...
Onorati Francesco - - 2013
Despite the exponential growth in medical knowledge, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) contribute to more than one-third of worldwide morbidity and mortality. A range of therapies already exist for established CVDs, although there is significant interest in further understanding their pathogenesis. The urocortins (Ucns) are peptide members of the corticotrophin-releasing factor family, ...
Segura Elodie - - 2013
Dendritic cells (DCs) are a heterogeneous population of professional antigen-presenting cells. Several murine DC subsets have been identified that differ in their phenotype and functional properties. In the steady state, DC precursors originating from the bone marrow give rise to lymphoid-organ-resident DCs and to migratory tissue DCs. During inflammation, an ...
Miquel S - - 2013
Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is the most abundant bacterium in the human intestinal microbiota of healthy adults, representing more than 5% of the total bacterial population. Over the past five years, an increasing number of studies have clearly described the importance of this highly metabolically active commensal bacterium as a component of ...
Li Long-Fei - - 2013
Rubinoboletus ballouii is an edible mushroom wildly grown in Yunnan province, China. Up till now, little was known about the chemical and biological properties of this mushroom. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of the ethanolic extract of Rubinoboletus ballouii and its fractions on human ...
Jeurink Prescilla V - - 2013
The WHO refers to human milk as the nutritional gold standard for term infants. Human milk contains many immunomodulatory compounds, including oligosaccharides. Human-milk oligosaccharides can serve as prebiotics because the nondigestible oligosaccharides present in human milk show a clear bifidogenic effect on the gut microbiota. Dietary oligosaccharide structures that have ...
Qu Kai K Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Medical College, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710061, - - 2013
To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the immunosuppressive effects of emodin isolated from Rheum palmatum L. Human T cells were isolated from the peripheral venous blood of 10 healthy adult donors. Cell viability was analyzed with MTT assay. AO/EB and Annexin V/PI staining and DNA damage assay were used to ...
Wieland Brown Laura C LC Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences and the California Institute for Quantitative Biosciences, University of California, San Francisco, California, United States of - - 2013
While the human gut microbiota are suspected to produce diffusible small molecules that modulate host signaling pathways, few of these molecules have been identified. Species of Bacteroides and their relatives, which often comprise >50% of the gut community, are unusual among bacteria in that their membrane is rich in sphingolipids, ...
Brown Eric M EM Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, - - 2013
The mammalian intestinal tract harbors a diverse community of trillions of microorganisms, which have co-evolved with the host immune system for millions of years. Many of these microorganisms perform functions critical for host physiology, but the host must remain vigilant to control the microbial community so that the symbiotic nature ...
Tsabouri S - - 2013
In humans, microbial colonisation of the intestine begins just after birth. However, development of the normal flora is a gradual process, which is initially determined by factors such as genetic aspects, the maternal-foetal interaction, place and mode of delivery, early feedings strategies, and the use of antibiotics. Current knowledge on ...
Pelka Karin - - 2013
Interferon (IFN) regulatory factors (IRFs) are transcription factors with versatile functions in the regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses. In the current issue of the European Journal of Immunology, Steinhagen et al. [Eur. J. Immunol. 2013. 43: 1896-1906] investigate the regulation of IFN-β and IL-6 induction in human plasmacytoid DCs ...
Liu Xia - - 2013
Abstract TNFSF13 is one of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily members that plays important roles in immune homeostasis and proliferation or apoptosis of certain tumor cell lines. This report describes the development of Xenopus laevis TNFSF13 as a model to study its important role in relation to immunological diseases. ...
de Araújo Lopes Amanda - - 2013
Isoflavones are phytoestrogens known by their anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties. Presently, there is no information on whether afrormosin, an isoflavone from Amburana cearensis A.C. Smith (Fabaceae), has any effect on the inflammatory response from stimulated human neutrophils. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory ...
Bangert Mathieu M Respiratory Infection Group, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United - - 2013
New treatment strategies are urgently needed to overcome early mortality in acute bacterial infections. Previous studies have shown that administration of a novel immunoactivating peptide (P4) alongside passive immunotherapy prevents the onset of septicemia and rescues mice from lethal invasive disease models of pneumococcal pneumonia and sepsis. In this study, ...
Doran Kelly S KS Department of Biology and Center for Microbial Sciences, San Diego State University, San Diego, California 92182, USA. - - 2013
The human body is bordered by the skin and mucosa, which are the cellular barriers that define the frontier between the internal milieu and the external nonsterile environment. Additional cellular barriers, such as the placental and the blood-brain barriers, define protected niches within the host. In addition to their physiological ...
Johswich Kay O - - 2013
Neisseria meningitidis (Nme) asymptomatically colonizes the human nasopharynx, yet can initiate rapidly-progressing sepsis and meningitis in rare instances. Understanding the meningococcal lifestyle within the nasopharyngeal mucosa, a phase of infection that is prerequisite for disease, has been hampered by the lack of animal models. Herein, we compare mice expressing the ...
Klein-Wieringa Inge R - - 2013
Previous studies have shown accumulation and an enhanced proinflammatory profile of macrophages in adipose tissue of obese mice, indicating the presence of an interaction between adipocytes and macrophages in this tissue. However, the consequences of this interaction in humans are yet incompletely understood. In this study, we explored the modulating ...
Zipfel Peter F - - 2013
Complement is a central homeotic system of mammals and represents the first defense line of innate immunity. The human complement system is aimed to maintain homeostasis by recognizing and removing damaged or modified self material, as well as infectious foreign microbes. However, pathogenic microbes also control and escape the host ...
Mensikova Marketa - - 2013
Interleukin 17 (IL-17) as one of the pro-inflammatory cytokines is a very important player in the immune response to many pathogens and seems to play a role also in certain chronic and autoimmune diseases. Many studies showing the importance of this cytokine were conducted on murine models and human patients. ...
Tarantino Giovanni G Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University Medical School of Naples, 80131 Naples, Italy. - - 2013
Spleen has been considered a neglected organ so far, even though is strictly linked to liver. The spleen plays an important role in the modulation of the immune system and in the maintenance of peripheral tolerance via the clearance of circulating apoptotic cells, the differentiation and activation of T and ...
Kamp Vera M - - 2013
Inflammation in response to infection or trauma can lead to CARS, which is characterized by leukocyte dysfunction. In this study, we used a human model system for CARS to study the effect of GM-CSF and IFN-γ treatment on this immunoparalyzed state. Healthy human volunteers were treated with GM-CSF (4 μg/kg), ...
Wisnewski Adam V AV Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA. - - 2013
Methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) is among the leading chemical causes of occupational asthma world-wide, however, the mechanisms of disease pathogenesis remain unclear. This study tests the hypothesis that glutathione (GSH) reacts with MDI to form quasi-stable conjugates, capable of mediating the formation of MDI-conjugated "self" protein antigens, which may participate ...
Hesse Christina - - 2013
Vaccination is one of the oldest yet still most effective methods to prevent infectious diseases. Yet, eradication of intracellular pathogens and treatment of certain diseases like cancer requiring efficient cytotoxic immune responses remain a medical challenge. In mice, a successful approach to induce strong CTL reactions is to target antigens ...
Wang Hongsheng - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Leprosy is a contagious and chronic systemic granulomatous disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. In the pathogenesis of leprosy, granulomas play a key role, however, the mechanisms of the formation and maintenance of M. leprae granulomas are still not clearly understood. METHODS: To better understand the molecular physiology of M. ...
Maymó-Masip Elsa - - 2013
Context:Soluble TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (sTWEAK) is generated by the intracellular proteolytic cleavage of full-length membrane-bound TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (mTWEAK). sTWEAK levels are reduced in diseases with an inflammatory component. Additionally, sTWEAK hampers TNFα activity in human cells.Objectives:The objectives of the study were as follows: 1) to ...
Nochi Tomonori - - 2013
Abnormal gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) in humans is associated with infectious and autoimmune diseases, which cause dysfunction of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract immune system. To aid in investigating GALT pathologies in vivo, we bioengineered a human-mouse chimeric model characterized by the development of human GALT structures originating in mouse cryptopatches. This observation ...
Lenk Christine - - 2013
PURPOSE: Human factor VIIa (FVIIa) is commonly used as bypassing therapy to treat bleeding episodes in hemophilia patients with neutralizing antibodies to factors VIII (FVIII) or IX (FIX). There is a need for a suitable animal model to assess the immunogenicity of new FVIIa products during preclinical development. The aim ...
Geelhaar-Karsch Anika - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Macrophage heterogeneity reflects their plasticity in response to environmental stimuli. Usually human macrophages are characterized by analysis of surface molecules or cytokine expression while functional assays are established in the mouse system but lacking for various human specimens. METHODS: To evaluate the value of analysis of arginine metabolism for ...
Duerkop Breck A - - 2013
The human body is colonized with a diverse resident microflora that includes viruses. Recent studies of metagenomes have begun to characterize the composition of the human 'virobiota' and its associated genes (the 'virome'), and have fostered the emerging field of host-virobiota interactions. In this Perspective, we explore how resident viruses ...
Persson Kristina E M KE Karolinska Institutet, Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, 17177 Stockholm, Sweden. - - 2013
Abs that inhibit Plasmodium falciparum invasion of erythrocytes form an important component of human immunity against malaria, but key target Ags are largely unknown. Phenotypic variation by P. falciparum mediates the evasion of inhibitory Abs, contributing to the capacity of P. falciparum to cause repeat and chronic infections. However, Ags ...
Jung Joo-Yong JY Department of Pathology, University of South Carolina, School of Medicine, Columbia, South Carolina, - - 2013
Nitric oxide (NO) is a diffusible radical gas produced from the activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). NOS activity in murine macrophages has a protective role against mycobacteria through generation of reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNIs). However, the production of NO by human macrophages has remained unclear due to the lack ...
Krętowski Rafał - - 2013
Glucose deprivation is a factor evoking endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and induction of expression of an oxygen-regulated protein of 150 kDa (ORP150). We studied the effect of inducible overexpression of ORP150 on senescence and apoptosis of human breast carcinoma cells (MCF7) and human skin fibroblasts. We found an inhibitory effect ...
DuMont Ashley L AL Department of Microbiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, - - 2013
Staphylococcus aureus causes diseases ranging from superficial wound infections to more invasive manifestations like osteomyelitis and endocarditis. The evasion of host phagocytes recruited to the site of infection is essential to the success of S. aureus as a pathogen. A single S. aureus strain can produce up to five different ...
Carla Piazzon María - - 2013
Some species of scuticociliates (Ciliophora) behave as facultative parasites and produce severe mortalities in cultured fish. Pathogenic scuticociliates can cause surface lesions and can also penetrate inside the body, where they feed on tissue and proliferate in the blood and most internal organs, killing the host in a few days. ...
Wilsmann-Theis D - - 2013
BACKGROUND: A unique type of CD11c(pos) dendritic cells (DC) is abundant in inflamed tissue, for example, in chronic inflammatory skin diseases. Due to their remarkable production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and inducible NO synthase (iNOS), these cells have been referred to as TNF and iNOS-producing DC (Tip-DC). While Tip-DC ...
Segers Filip M E - - 2013
In search of molecular imaging modalities for specific detection of inflammatory atherosclerotic plaques, we explored the potential of targeting scavenger receptor-AI (SR-AI), which is highly expressed by lesional macrophages and linked to effective internalization machinery. Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide particles were conjugated to a peptidic SR-AI ligand (0.371 mol Fe/L ...
Cho K - - 2013
Streptococcus gordonii is a commensal gram-positive bacterium that resides in the human oral cavity, and is one of the most common causes of infective endocarditis (IE). Bacterial surface molecules play an important role in establishing IE, and several S. gordonii proteins have been implicated in binding to host cells during the ...
Stohs Sidney J - - 2013
Shilajit (mumie; moomiyo, mummiyo) has been used for a wide variety of illnesses and conditions for many years. However, relatively few well-controlled human studies have been conducted on the effects of shiliajit, although a growing number of studies have been published in recent years involving animal and in vitro systems. ...
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