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Wu Jianfeng J Department of Medicine and Liver Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, - - 2013
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients display elevated levels of intraluminal nitric oxide (NO). NO can react with other molecules to form toxic compounds, which has led to the idea that NO may be an important mediator of IBD. However, the cellular source of NO and how its production is regulated ...
Catalfamo Dana L DL Department of Periodontology, College of Dentistry, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610, - - 2013
Bone abnormalities are frequent co-morbidities of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and are principally mediated by osteoblasts and osteoclasts which in turn are regulated by immunologic mediators. While decreased skeletal health in T1D involves alterations in osteoblast maturation and function, the effect of altered immune function on osteoclasts in T1D-associated bone ...
Breen Ellen C EC Division of Physiology, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0623, USA. - - 2013
Repeated bacterial and viral infections are known to contribute to worsening lung function in several respiratory diseases, including asthma, cystic fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Previous studies have reported alveolar wall cell apoptosis and parenchymal damage in adult pulmonary VEGF gene ablated mice. We hypothesized that VEGF expressed ...
Yan Dongyao D Department of Biochemistry, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois 60612, - - 2013
Bovine lactoferricin (LfcinB) is a multi-functional peptide derived from proteolytic cleavage of bovine lactoferrin. LfcinB was found to antagonize the biological effects mediated by angiogenic growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) in endothelial cells. However, the effect of LfcinB on human ...
Arazna Magdalena - - 2013
NETosis is a unique death pathway that differs from apoptosis and necrosis and depends on the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by NADPH oxidase. During this process, neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are created. NETs are extracellular structures composed of chromatin and variety of proteins from cells granules that bind ...
Halasova E - - 2013
Apoptosis is the fundamental process necessary for eliminating damaged or mutated cells. Alterations in the apoptotic pathway appear to be key events in cancer development and progression. Bcl-2 is the key member of the Bcl-2 family of apoptosis regulator proteins with anti-apoptotic effects. Survivin acts as an inhibitor of apoptosis ...
Ayer Robert E - - 2013
Introduction: Statins influence immune system activities through mechanisms independent of their lipid-lowering properties. T cells can be subdivided based on cytokine secretion patterns into two subsets: T-helper cells type 1 (Th1) and type 2 (Th2). Independent laboratory studies have shown statins to be potent inducers of a Th2 switch in ...
Seidler Norbert W - - 2013
Pathogens, such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa and fungi, generate molecules that provide them with a selective advantage, often at the expense of the host. These molecules, or virulence factors, enable pathogens to colonize the host through several mechanisms. Some molecules offer the pathogen an advantage through better adhesion to host ...
Wang Xuefu - - 2013
Acetaminophen overdose causes acute liver inflammation with neutrophil infiltration; however, the mechanism of damage-associated inflammation has not been elucidated. In this study we found that the HMGB1-TLR4-IL-23-IL-17A axis played a crucial role in acetaminophen-induced infiltration of neutrophils and liver injury. Notably, interleukin (IL)-17A and IL-23 significantly increased after acetaminophen challenge. ...
Lin Heng - - 2013
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a complication at the endstage of chronic inflammatory liver diseases with dismal prognosis. Targeting of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 attenuates tumor metastases; we hypothesized that blocking TLR2 might also play a crucial role in reducing hepatocarcinogenesis. Surprisingly, we found that the genetic deletion of TLR2 increased ...
Qin Danping D Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Showa University Fujigaoka Hospital, Yokohama, - - 2013
The renoprotection of the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA) is considered to be mainly via its antifibrotic activity, and the possibility that it may also have antiinflammatory effects has not been studied. We tested the hypothesis that MRA might influence the inflammatory changes that accompany experimental glomerular injury. Administration of vehicle ...
Brandelius Angelica A Department of Experimental Medical Science, Lund University, Lund, - - 2013
Statin treatment may ameliorate viral infection-induced exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which exhibit Th2-type bronchial inflammation. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), a hub cytokine switching on Th2 inflammation, is overproduced in viral and dsRNA-stimulated bronchial epithelial cells from COPD donors. Hence, TSLP may be causally involved in exacerbations. This ...
Zuo Daming D Department of Human and Molecular Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, VA 23298, - - 2013
Negative feedback immune mechanisms are essential for maintenance of hepatic homeostasis and prevention of immune-mediated liver injury. We show here that scavenger receptor A (SRA/CD204), a pattern recognition molecule, is highly up-regulated in the livers of patients with autoimmune or viral hepatitis, and of mice during concanavalin A (Con A)-induced ...
Cahenzli Julia J Department of Clinical Research, Universitätsklinik für Viszerale Chirurgie und Medizin Inselspital, University of Bern, Bern, - - 2013
We are all born germ-free. Following birth we enter into a lifelong relationship with microbes residing on our body's surfaces. The lower intestine is home to the highest microbial density in our body, which is also the highest microbial density known on Earth (up to 10(12) /g of luminal contents). ...
Antvorskov Julie C JC The Bartholin Institute, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark. - - 2013
Several studies have documented that dietary modifications influence the development of type 1 diabetes. However, little is known about the interplay of dietary components and the penetration of diabetes incidence. In this study we tested if wheat gluten is able to induce differences in the cytokine pattern of Foxp3(+) regulatory ...
Bailly Aymeric A Centre de Recherche de Biochimie Macromoleculaire, Montpellier Cedex 5, - - 2013
In the past 12 years, since the first description of C. elegans germ cell apoptosis, this area of research rapidly expanded. It became evident that multiple genetic pathways lead to the apoptotic demise of germ cells. We are only beginning to understand how these pathways that all require the CED-9/Bcl-2, ...
Liaskou Evaggelia E Centre for Liver Research and NIHR Biomedical Research Unit in Liver Disease, Institute of Biomedical Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United - - 2013
Liver fibrosis is a wound healing response to chronic liver injury and inflammation in which macrophages and infiltrating monocytes participate in both the development and resolution phase. In humans, three monocyte subsets have been identified: the classical CD14++CD16-, intermediate CD14++CD16+, and nonclassical CD14+CD16++ monocytes. We studied the phenotype and function ...
O'Donnell Marie Anne - - 2012
The mechanisms regulating cell survival and thus its corollary, cell death, have been intensively studied over the last two decades. Recent studies have shed new light into how non-degradative ubiquitination of the kinase RIPK1 is critical in determining this cell fate. In this review, we summarize recent findings on how ...
Chorny Alejo - - 2012
Mature B cells generate protective immunity by undergoing immunoglobulin (Ig) class switching and somatic hypermutation, two Ig gene-diversifying processes that usually require cognate interactions with T cells that express CD40 ligand. This T-cell-dependent pathway provides immunological memory but is relatively slow to occur. Thus, it must be integrated with a ...
Aul Raminder R University of Manchester, Medicines Evaluation Unit, University Hospital of South Manchester, Manchester, - - 2012
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a TLR4 agonist which activates NFκB dependent cytokine production. We investigated LPS inhalation in healthy smokers as a model of COPD bacterial exacerbations. We studied safety, reproducibility, the translocation of the NFκB subunit p65 in sputum cells and changes in systemic biomarkers of inflammation. Twelve smokers inhaled ...
Jasny Edith E Center for Biomedical Research, HIV/AIDS Program, Population Council, New York, NY 10065, - - 2012
The goal of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is to suppress virus replication to limit immune system damage. Some have proposed combining ART with immune therapies to boost antiviral immunity. For this to be successful, ART must not impair physiological immune function. We studied the impact of ART (tenofovir and emtricitabine) on ...
Yuan Fang F University of Nebraska Medical Center, NE 68198, - - 2012
To evaluate the potentially improved therapeutic efficacy and safety of nephrotropic macromolecular prodrugs of glucocorticoids (GCs) for the treatment of lupus nephritis. Lupus-prone female (NZB × NZW)F1 mice received monthly injections of N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide copolymer-based dexamethasone prodrug (P-Dex) or daily injections of dexamethasone phosphate sodium (Dex; overall dose equivalent to ...
Ramos Paula S PS Division of Rheumatology and Immunology, Department of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, 96 Jonathan Lucas Street, Suite 912, Charleston, SC 29425, USA. - - 2012
The proposed pathogenesis of the cardiac manifestations of neonatal lupus (cardiac-NL) involves maternal autoantibodies to the RNPs SSA/Ro and SSB/La, enhanced by as-yet-unknown factors that likely involve dysregulation of both inflammatory and fibrotic fetal responses. This study was designed to improve the power to detect specific associations in genes with ...
Rabinowitz Keren K Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Immunology Institute, 1425 Madison Avenue, Box 1089, New York, NY 10029, - - 2012
The mucosal immune system is distinct from its systemic counterpart by virtue of its enormous antigenic exposure (commensal flora, food antigen, pathogens). Despite this, the mucosal immune system maintains a response defined as controlled or physiologic inflammation. This is regulated by many different mechanisms, among which there are physical, cellular ...
Sanz J M JM Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, - - 2012
There is growing evidence that inflammation plays a major role in the pathogenesis of neural damage caused by deposition of amyloid β (Aβ) in the brain. Nimodipine has received attention as a drug that might improve learning and reduce cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease, but the mechanism of action is ...
Ochando Jordi C JC Department of Nephrology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA. - - 2012
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are myeloid cells that suppress the immune response, a definition that reflects both their origin and their function. As negative regulators of the immune response, MDSC represent a novel therapeutic approach for manipulating the immune system toward tolerance or immunity. MDSC are present in cancer patients ...
Kwan Wing-hong WH Department of Medicine, Recanati Miller Transplant Institute and Immunology Institute, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Box 1243, One Gustave L. Levy Plaza, New York, NY 10029, - - 2012
Results of studies published since 2002 reveal that T cells and antigen-presenting cells (APCs) produce complement proteins. The immune cell-derived, alternative pathway complement components activate spontaneously, yielding local, but not systemic, production of C3a and C5a. These anaphylatoxins bind to their respective G-protein-coupled receptors, C3aR and C5aR, expressed on both ...
Lira Sergio A SA Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Immunology Institute, 1425 Madison Ave, Box 1630, New York, NY 10029-6574, USA. - - 2012
This article summarizes the work done by our laboratory and by our collaborators on the biological role of chemokines and their receptors. Using both gain-of-function and loss of function genetic approaches, we have demonstrated that chemokines are important for the homeostatic distribution of leukocytes in tissues and for their mobilization ...
Ohkouchi Yumiko - - 2012
The endotoxic activities of lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) in water samples are usually determined using a Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) assay, but it is known that the determined activities do not always represent their inflammatory potency in humans. In this investigation, the inflammatory responses in three different human cells stimulated with Escherichia ...
Jung Keunok - - 2012
V-set and Ig domain-containing 4 (VSIG4, CRIg, or Z39Ig), a newly identified B7-related cosignaling molecule, is a complement receptor and a coinhibitory ligand that negatively regulates T-cell immunity. Despite its exclusive expression on liver Kupffer cells (KCs) that play key roles in liver tolerance, the physiological role of VSIG4 in ...
Chow Shu-Er - - 2012
Autophagy as well as apoptosis is an emerging target for cancer therapy. Wogonin, a flavonoid compound derived from the traditional Chinese medicine of Huang-Qin, has anticancer activity in many cancer cells including human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, the involvement of autophagy in the wogonin-induced apoptosis of NPC cells was still ...
Gao Ge - - 2012
Proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC) is an important contributor to the progress of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Anti-inflammatory therapies may have therapeutic applicability for PAH. Resveratrol (RES) has prominent anti-inflammatory effects in vitro, but in vivo its beneficial effects are limited by short systemic half life and ...
Payne Kimberly J - - 2012
Remodeling of the cervix is a critical early component of parturition and resembles an inflammatory process. Infiltration and activation of myeloid immune cells along with production of proinflammatory mediators and proteolytic enzymes are hypothesized to regulate cervical remodeling as pregnancy nears term. The present study standardized an approach to assess ...
Huang Qi-Quan - - 2012
The mechanisms that contribute to the persistent activation of macrophages in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of endogenous gp96 in Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated macrophage activation in RA. RA synovial fluid was used to activate macrophages and HEK-TLR-2 and HEK-TLR-4 ...
Rieder Sadiye Amcaoglu - - 2012
Inhalation of the superantigen,staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), leads to the activation of the host T and invariant natural killer (iNK) T cells, thereby resulting in acute lung inflammation and respiratory failure but the underlying mechanism(s) of disease remain elusive, with limited treatment options. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic ...
Ortiz-Stern Alejandro A Centre for Respiratory Research, University College London, United - - 2012
Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) are crucial in orchestrating cellular responses to coagulation proteinases, such as thrombin and FXa. Four PARs have been characterized and have been shown to be differentially expressed in mice and humans and between tissues. We have previously shown that in murine lung fibroblasts, PAR-1 is solely responsible ...
Goldstein David S DS Clinical Neurocardiology Section, CNP/DIR/NINDS/NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892-1620, USA. - - 2012
Parkinson's disease entails profound loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic terminals, decreased vesicular uptake of intraneuronal catecholamines, and relatively increased putamen tissue concentrations of the toxic dopamine metabolite, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL). The objective of this study was to test whether vesicular uptake blockade augments endogenous DOPAL production. We also examined whether intracellular DOPAL ...
Huang Nien-Tsu NT Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, - - 2012
Rapid, quantitative detection of cell-secreted biomarker proteins with a low sample volume holds great promise to advance cellular immunophenotyping techniques for personalized diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases. Here we achieved such an assay with the THP-1 human acute moncytic leukemia cell line (a model for human monocyte) using a ...
Girolomoni G - - 2012
The exact pathogenesis of plaque psoriasis remains to be fully determined, but it is thought to depend on environmental and genetic factors that stimulate dysregulated innate and adaptive immune responses in the skin. The cytokine interleukin (IL)-17A plays a key role in host defence against extracellular bacteria and fungi. An ...
Pineda Miguel A - - 2012
Among many survival strategies, parasitic worms secrete molecules that modulate host immune responses. One such product, ES-62, is protective against collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), a model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Since interleukin-17 (IL-17) has been reported to play a pathogenic role in the development of RA, this study was undertaken to ...
Bedi B - - 2012
Cryptosporidium parvum is an opportunistic intracellular parasite that causes mild to severe diarrhoea, which can be life-threatening in an immunocompromised host. To increase our understanding of the mechanisms that play a role in host immune responses, we investigated the effects of C. parvum antigens on the phenotype of mouse and human ...
Lotz Matthew T - - 2012
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) most often causes severe respiratory disease in the very young and the elderly. Acute disease can also cause exacerbations of asthma in any age group. Recent findings provide insight into how the innate and adaptive immune systems respond to RSV infection and provide preliminary evidence that ...
Almeida T F - - 2012
CBA mouse macrophages effectively control Leishmania major infection, yet are permissive to Leishmania amazonensis. It has been established that some Leishmania species are destroyed by reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, other species of Leishmania exhibit resistance to ROS or even down-modulate ROS production. We hypothesized that L. amazonensis-infected macrophages reduce ...
Riva Matteo - - 2012
Interactions between danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMP) and pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP) and pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are critical for the regulation of the inflammatory process via activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and cytokine secretion. In this report, we investigated the capacity of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -free S100A9 ...
Bollyky Paul L - - 2012
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a disease that in most individuals results from autoimmune attack of a single tissue type, the pancreatic islet. A fundamental, unanswered question in T1D pathogenesis is how the islet tissue environment influences immune regulation. This crosstalk is likely to be communicated through the extracellular matrix ...
Hilgendorf Ingo - - 2012
Monocytes are frequently described as bone marrow-derived precursors of macrophages. Although many studies support this view, we now appreciate that monocytes neither develop exclusively in the bone marrow nor give rise to all macrophages and dendritic cells. In addition to differentiating to specific leukocyte populations, monocytes, as monocytes, are functionally ...
Bethunaickan Ramalingam - - 2012
To analyze the mechanism for the therapeutic effects of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) inhibition in a murine model of systemic lupus erythematosus. We used the (NZB × NZW)F(1) (NZB/NZW) mouse model of interferon-α-induced lupus nephritis and treated mice with TNF receptor type II (TNFRII) Ig after TNFα expression was ...
Vas Jaya - - 2012
Naturally arising IgM antibodies (NAb) to apoptotic cell (AC) determinants are present from birth and can be further induced by AC challenge. In systemic lupus erythematosus, lower anti-AC NAb levels have been associated with higher disease activity. We have recently shown that a prototypical AC-specific IgM NAb can suppress proinflammatory ...
Sowa Gwendolyn A - - 2012
Mechanical forces and inflammatory signaling influence intervertebral disc matrix homeostasis. We hypothesized that annulus fibrosus cells from degenerative discs would have altered responses to mechanical and inflammatory stimuli compared with cells isolated from normal discs. Annulus fibrosus cells were isolated from New Zealand White rabbits with normal and magnetic resonance ...
Donovan M J MJ Department of Biological Sciences, Eck Institute for Global Health, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46656, - - 2012
Dendritic cells (DC) play a pivotal role in regulating immunity, establishing immunologically privileged tissue microenvironments and maintaining homoeostasis. It is becoming increasingly clear that one key mechanism that mediates many DC functions is production of the immunomodulatory enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). For pathogens that cause chronic infection, exploitation of host ...
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