Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 2004
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Paul Souren - - 2012
This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of ginsenoside-Re (Gin-Re) isolated from roots of Panax ginseng on carrageenan-induced paw and TPA-induced skin inflammations in experimental mice. Moreover, to confirm further the anti-inflammatory activities of Gin-Re, LPS-induced macrophage activation model was also used. Exposure of TPA on the ear of ...
Telleria Erich L - - 2012
Female phlebotomine sand flies Lutzomyia longipalpis naturally harbor populations of the medically important Leishmania infantum (syn. Leishmania chagasi) parasite in the gut, but the extent to which the parasite interacts with the immune system of the insect vector is unknown. To investigate the sand fly immune response and its interaction ...
Zhang Jun-Jun - - 2012
Membranous nephropathy (MN) is a leading cause of nephrotic syndrome in adults and a significant cause of end-stage renal disease, yet current therapies are nonspecific, toxic, and often ineffective. The development of novel targeted therapies requires a detailed understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms, but progress is hampered by the lack ...
Lu Linlin L Laboratory for Evolution and Development, Institute of Evolution and Marine Biodiversity, Ocean University of China, Room 205, Ke Xue Guan, 5 Yushan Road, Qingdao, 266003, - - 2013
It is well known that immune response decreases with aging. Salidroside (SDS), an antioxidant component isolated from the traditional Chinese medicine roseroot Rhodiola rosea, has been demonstrated to possess potent anti-aging and health-promoting activities. However, the mechanism underlying these activities is poorly understood. In this study, we clearly demonstrated that ...
Seong Ki Moon - - 2012
Numerous studies report that exposing certain organisms to low-dose radiation induces beneficial effects on lifespan, tumorigenesis, and immunity. By analyzing survival after bacterial infection and antimicrobial peptide gene expression in irradiated flies, we demonstrate that low-dose irradiation of Drosophila enhances innate immunity. Low-dose irradiation of flies significantly increased resistance against ...
Tsujimoto Tatsuhiro - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Over-proliferation and bacterial translocation of Gram-negative bacilli within the intestinal flora, and increased portal venous levels of endotoxins, are involved in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). AIM: To evaluate the innate immune response in the small intestine and liver using the rat NASH model. METHODS: We produced the NASH model by ...
Ottaviani Diego - - 2012
Activation of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) by interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is a fundamental step in the adaptive immune response to pathogens. Here, we show that reorganization of chromatin loop domains in the MHC is evident within the first 30 min of IFN-γ treatment of fibroblasts, and that further dynamic alterations ...
Park Sun Hong - - 2012
Myeloid differentiation protein 2 (MD-2) is a co-receptor of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) for innate immunity. Here, we delineated a new mechanism of 1-dehydro-10-gingerdione (1D10G), one of pungent isolates from ginger (Zingiber officinale), in the suppression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced gene expression of inflammatory cytokines. 1D10G inhibited LPS binding to MD-2 ...
Huynh Linda - - 2012
ITAM-coupled receptors play an essential role in regulating macrophage activation and function by cross-regulating signaling from heterologous receptors. We investigated mechanisms by which ITAM-associated receptors inhibit type I IFN (IFN-α/β) signaling in primary human macrophages and tested the effects of simultaneous ligation of ITAM-associated receptors and TLR4 on TLR4-induced Jak-STAT ...
Silver Adam C - - 2012
Circadian rhythms refer to biologic processes that oscillate with a period of ~24 hr. These rhythms are sustained by a molecular clock and provide a temporal matrix that ensures the coordination of homeostatic processes with the periodicity of environmental challenges. We demonstrate the circadian molecular clock controls the expression and ...
Wu Chenglin - - 2012
An important characteristic of the innate immune systems of crayfish and other arthropods is the activation of a serine proteinase cascade in the hemolymph, which results in the activation of prophenoloxidase and subsequently leading to the formation of toxic quinones and melanin. Although no true complement homologues have been detected ...
Omori Hiroki - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Renal interstitial fibrosis is the common pathway in progressive renal diseases, where oxidative stress promotes inflammation and macrophage infiltration. Febuxostat is a novel nonpurine xanthine oxidase (XO)-specific inhibitor for treating hyperuricemia. While some reports suggest a relationship between hyperuricemia and chronic kidney disease (CKD), the renoprotective mechanism of an ...
WilczyƄski Jacek R - - 2012
Recurrent spontaneous miscarriage (RSM) and idiopathic infertility (IIF) are partially caused by immunologic disturbances. Paternal lymphocyte immunization (PLI) is proposed for restoration of the proper Th1/Th2 balance in these patients, but still there are controversies on PLI mechanism, its efficacy and identification of patients who may benefit from this therapy. ...
Abraham Jayne - - 2012
Innate immunity mediated by microglia appears to play a crucial role in initiating and propagating seizure-induced inflammatory responses. To address the role of activated microglia in the pathogenesis of childhood epilepsy, we first examined the time course of microglia activation following kainic acid-induced status epilepticus (KA-SE) in Cx3cr1(GFP/+) transgenic mice ...
Sokolov A - - 2012
The implantation of synthetic medical devices is known to generate an immediate and complex material-related inflammatory response. Consequently, 15 candidate materials for a new microfabricated sensor were investigated. A human whole blood model that permits the interaction of all the putative inflammatory systems was used. The experiments were performed by ...
Dowling O - - 2012
OBJECTIVES: Maternal magnesium sulfate (MgSO(4)) administration exerts anti-inflammatory and fetal neuroprotective effects. Based on the link between placental inflammation and fetal immune responses, we examined the effect of MgSO(4) on LPS-induced inflammation at the maternal-fetal interface. STUDY DESIGN: In vivo model: Pregnant rats (GD19) were injected intraperitoneally with saline, LPS, or ...
Kankova Zuzana - - 2012
The effects of maternal androgens on fitness-related traits of offspring are generally assumed to be epigenetic adaptations to the environment that may be encountered by the next generation. Possible constraints of high yolk androgen transfer are still not understood, although a suppressed immune response in offspring is frequently considered. The ...
Shimizu-Hirota Ryoko - - 2012
Macrophages play critical roles in events ranging from host defense to obesity and cancer, where they infiltrate affected tissues and orchestrate immune responses in tandem with the remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Despite the dual roles played by macrophages in inflammation, the functions of macrophage-derived proteinases are typically relegated ...
Sugiyama Yuki - - 2012
Although transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 is a well-known immunosuppressive cytokine, little is known about the role of its downstream transcription factors, Smad2 and Smad3, in the suppression of macrophage activation. Previous studies have demonstrated that Smad3 is critical for the suppression of LPS-mediated inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) induction, ...
Lundeland Bård - - 2012
Background. Alterations in body temperature may influence immune system function and consequently affect the risk of infection and inflammatory diseases. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from gram-negative bacteria induces production of inflammatory cytokines after ligand binding to Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) on immune cells (especially monocytes/ macrophages). Our aim was to explore how ...
Zhang Wei - - 2012
Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) contribute significantly to the pathogenesis of Rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Through introducing apoptosis inducer FasL to suppress the proliferation of arthritic FLSs may provide an efficient approach for treatment of RA. CTLA4-FasL, a fusion product integrating two inhibitory elements of CTLA4 (which can induce T cell anergy through ...
Zhu Wei - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: To explore the protective effect of sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate (STS) on small: intestine injury in rats with sepsis and its possible mechanism. METHODS: According to a random number table, 24 Tats were randomly divided into 3 groups: sham operation group (sham group), sepsis model group (model group) and ...
Hayashi Shigeo - - 2012
Cyclooxygenase (COX) is a key rate-limiting enzyme for prostaglandin (PG) production cascades in the human body. The mechanisms of both the anti-inflammation effects and the side-effects of traditional COX inhibitors are associated with the existence of two COX isoforms. Thus while COX-1 is predominantly expressed ubiquitously and constitutively, and it ...
Bode Johannes G - - 2012
In macrophages detection of gram-negative bacteria particularly involves binding of the outer-wall component lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to its cognate receptor complex, comprising Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4), CD14 and MD2. LPS-induced formation of the LPS receptor complex elicits a signaling network, including intra-cellular signal-transduction directly activated by the TLR4 receptor complex ...
Jang Ha-Young - - 2012
Skullcapflavone II is a flavonoid derived from Scutellaria baicalensis, a widely used herbal medicine in anti-inflammatory and anticancer therapy in Korea. Skullcapflavone II antagonized the bradykinin receptor more potently than any of the other flavonoids derived from this plant. Here, we were investigated its therapeutic effects in a mouse model ...
Cui Xia - - 2012
Immune mapped protein1 (IMP1) is a new protective protein in apicomplexan parasites, and exists in Toxoplasma gondii. In the present study, a DNA vaccine expressing IMP1 of T. gondii was constructed and the immune response induced in BALB/c mice was evaluated. The coding sequence of IMP1 was inserted into the ...
Clockaerts Stefan - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Infrapatellar fat pad (IPFP) might be involved in osteoarthritis (OA) by production of cytokines. It was hypothesised that production of cytokines is sensitive to environmental conditions.OBJECTIVES: To evaluate cytokine production by IPFP in response to interleukin (IL)1β and investigate the ability to modulate this response with an agonist for ...
Fonken Laura K - - 2012
In most parts of the world, environmental conditions vary in a predictable seasonal manner. Thus, seasonal variation in reproductive timing and immune function has emerged in some species to cope with disparate seasonal demands. During the long days of spring and summer when food availability is high and thermoregulatory demands ...
Shin Ji-Sun - - 2012
We previously reported that 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-(4-thiomethoxyphenyl)-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione (1, HMP) has a strong inhibitory effect on prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) production. In this study, the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effects of HMP were evaluated on LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages and rats with carrageenan-induced paw edema and adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA). The attenuation of PGE(2) production by ...
Fliss Patricia M - - 2012
The early host response to viral infections involves transient activation of pattern recognition receptors leading to an induction of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα). Subsequent activation of cytokine receptors in an autocrine and paracrine manner results in an inflammatory cascade. The precise mechanisms ...
Tonk Elisa C M - - 2012
The developing immune system displays a relatively high sensitivity as compared to both general toxicity parameters and to the adult immune system. In this study we have performed such comparisons using di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) as a model compound. DEHP is the most abundant phthalate in the environment and perinatal exposure ...
Schmitt Paulina - - 2012
Diverse families of antimicrobial peptides and proteins have been described in oysters. We investigated here how antimicrobials are involved in the immune response against a pathogenic strain of Vibriosplendidus. Oyster antimicrobials were shown to display a wide variety of expression profiles in hemocyte populations and tissues. Oyster defensins are constitutively ...
Ma Deying - - 2012
In the current study, four novel avian β-defensins (AvBDs) (AvBD2, 5, 9, and 10) were identified in tissues from the Chinese goose (Anser cygnoides). The antibacterial activity of the AvBDs showed that all of these AvBDs exhibited antibacterial activity against most of the bacteria investigated (P<0.01). In addition, antibacterial activity ...
Yang Yeong-In - - 2012
Ecklonia cava is an edible brown alga that contains high levels of phlorotannins, which are unique marine polyphenolic compounds. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects and the underlying molecular mechanism of phlorotannin 6,6'-bieckol, which is an active component isolated from E. cava, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated primary macrophages ...
Pang Tao - - 2012
Minocycline exhibits anti-inflammatory properties independent of its antibiotic activity, ameliorating inflammatory responses in monocytes and macrophages. However, the mechanisms of minocycline anti-inflammatory effects are only partially understood. Human circulating monocytes were cultured in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), 50 ng/ml, and minocycline (10-40 μM). Gene expression was determined by RT-PCR, ...
Gao Yu-Yun - - 2012
The present study investigated the effects of xanthophylls (containing 40 % of lutein and 60 % of zeaxanthin) on proinflammatory cytokine (IL-1β, IL-6, interferon (IFN)-γ and lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α factor (LITAF)) and anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-4 and IL-10) expression of breeding hens and chicks. In Expt 1, a total of 432 hens were fed ...
Xu Leyuan - - 2012
The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are important in regulating lipid metabolism and inflammatory responses in macrophages. Activation of PPARγ represses key inflammatory response gene expressions. Recently, we identified a new cholesterol metabolite, 25-hydroxycholesterol-3-sulfate (25HC3S), as a potent regulatory molecule of lipid metabolism. In this paper, we report the ...
Ghosh Shobha - - 2012
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Several controversies exist related to the molecular identity and subcellular localization of the enzyme catalyzing macrophage cholesteryl ester hydrolysis. Some of these issues have been reviewed earlier and this review summarizes new developments that describe effects of overexpression or gene ablation. The main objective is to highlight ...
Descamps Delphyne - - 2012
A deficit in early clearance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is crucial in nosocomial pneumonia and in chronic lung infections. Few studies have addressed the role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which are early pathogen associated molecular pattern receptors, in pathogen uptake and clearance by alveolar macrophages (AMs). Here, we report ...
Bi Wan-Rong - - 2012
The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) are crucial for the regulation of cellular plasticity during liver fibrosis. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 is an important cytokine for the induction of the EMT in liver fibrosis. TGF-β1 signaling induces the EMT through various signaling mechanisms and is the predominant agent ...
Pavlovic V - - 2012
Diazepam, a peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor ligand, is widely used as a therapeutic agent. On the other hand, peripheral-type benzodiazepines have been shown to induce apoptosis in different immune cell types. In this study, we examined the possible protective role of vitamin C in diazepam-induced apoptosis and evaluated the cellular content ...
Sikiric P - - 2012
Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (GEPPPGKPADDAGLV, M.W. 1419) may be the new drug stable in human gastric juice, effective both in the upper and lower GI tract, and free of side effects. BPC 157, in addition to an antiulcer effect efficient in therapy of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (PL 14736) ...
Murakami Yukio - - 2012
Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) fimbriae, in addition to lipopolysaccharide, are involved in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. At the same time, bioactive compounds such as fibronectin (FN) and melatonin in saliva and gingival crevicular fluid have been reported to exert a preventive effect against periodontitis. Here, we review current knowledge regarding ...
Pollack Brian P - - 2012
A recent study from our laboratory demonstrated that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors (EGFRIs) augment the expression of class I and class II MHC molecules. This finding provides an additional mechanism through which EGFRIs may exert anti-tumor effects and supports the notion that EGFRIs may influence adaptive immune responses ...
Song Zhan-Chun - - 2012
Myocarditis is an inflammatory disease of the heart and a major cause of dilated cardiomyopathy that can lead to heart failure and sudden death in young adults. Giant cell myocarditis is a severe heart disease of unknown causes and is defined histopathologically as diffuse myocardial necrosis with multinucleated giant cells ...
Senthamilselvi Musiri Maruthai - - 2012
Natural products isolated from plant sources have been demonstrated as potential candidates against several ailments. The scientific investigations on the underlying principles of phytotherapy can pave way for the convergence of traditional medicines and modern science and technologies. Quercetin 3-O-(2''-acetyl)-glucoside obtained from ethyl acetate fraction of Cleome viscosa is ...
Yang Shuo - - 2012
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signal activation of macrophages can lead to endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU). Previously, our research group has demonstrated a higher expression of TLR4 in vivo during EIU than normal. In this study, we analyzed levels of peritoneal macrophage cytokines from C3H/HeN mice with LPS stimulation in vitro to ...
VAN DER Meeren Anne - - 2012
The physico-chemical form in which plutonium enters the body influences the lung distribution and the transfer rate from lungs to blood. In the present study, we evaluated the early lung damage and macrophage activation after pulmonary contamination of plutonium of various preparation modes which produce different solubility and distribution patterns. ...
Sajja Venkata Siva Sai S - - 2012
Blast induced neurotrauma (BINT) has been a challenge clinically due to the associated diagnostic issues, overlapping symptoms with other forms of trauma, and delayed onset of the symptoms. Little is understood about the pathophysiology of BINT and there are no validated biomarkers available for diagnosis. Animal studies have shown elevated ...
Hulme Scott D - - 2012
Background. There are no reported data to explain how Salmonella suppress nitrite ion production in macrophages or whether this phenomenon is unique to typhoidal or non-typhoidal serovars. The aims of this study were, therefore, to investigate these phenomena. Methods. We measured survival of S. typhimurium 14028 and its phoP mutant ...
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