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Chen Sarah S SS Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, 11370 Anderson St., Suite 3950, Loma Linda, CA, 92354, - - 2014
Human papillomaviruses (HPV) have been associated with placental inflammation resulting in high-risk preterm birth. The premise for this study was that treatment with anti-inflammatory pentoxifylline would inhibit HPV-mediated placental cell death. The objectives were: (1) to study the effects of HPV-16 exposure on trophoblast cells and (2) to evaluate pentoxifylline ...
Can Murat M Bulent Ecevit University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biochemistry, Zonguldak, - - 2014
We aimed to determine the oxidative stress and antioxidant status in preeclamptic placenta. Also, we investigated the apoptotic index of villous trophoblast and proliferation index of cytotrophoblasts. The study included 32 pregnant with preeclampsia and 31 normotensive healthy pregnant women. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant status (TAS) levels were measured ...
Kao Tseng-Ting TT The Institute of Basic Medical Science, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, - - 2014
Folate is a nutrient essential for the development, function and regeneration of nervous systems. Folate deficiency has been linked to many neurological disorders including neural tube defects in fetus and Alzheimer's diseases in the elderly. However, the etiology underlying these folate deficiency-associated diseases is not completely understood. In this study, ...
Okumura Etsuko E Kyoto University, - - 2014
Host orientation is the most important step in host-searching nematodes; however, information on direct cues from hosts to evoke this behavior is limited. Caenorhabditis japonica establishes a species-specific phoresy with Parastrachia japonensis. Dauer larvae (DL), the non-feeding and phoretic stage of C. japonica, are predominantly found on female phoretic hosts, ...
Li Chaozheng - - 2013
The toll-like receptor (TLR)/NF-κB signaling pathways play critical roles in the innate immune system. The intracellular signal transduction of most TLR pathways in invertebrate cells is triggered by formation of a heterotrimeric complex composed of MyD88, Tube and Pelle. In this study, we identified a Litopenaeus vannamei Pelle (LvPelle) and ...
Yang Peixin P Department of Obstetrics, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA. - - 2013
Neural tube defects result from failure to completely close neural tubes during development. Maternal diabetes is a substantial risk factor for neural tube defects, and available evidence suggests that the mechanism that links hyperglycemia to neural tube defects involves oxidative stress and apoptosis. We demonstrated that maternal hyperglycemia correlated with ...
Illanes Sebastian E - - 2013
OBJECTIVE: To establish whether human fallopian tube (FT) epithelium can induce apoptosis in T lymphocytes and endometrial cells. DESIGN: Laboratory-based study. SETTING: Hospital. PATIENT(S): Women undergoing abdominal hysterectomy for FT samples, and women volunteers with and without endometriosis for endometrial biopsies. INTERVENTION(S): FT samples obtained at time of surgery performed ...
Growe Roger G - - 2013
Quinacrine has been widely used in treatment of parasitic diseases such as malaria and giardiasis, and in the treatment of autoimmune diseases. Quinacrine has also been used as an effective substitute for surgical contraception by causing occlusion of the fallopian tube. This minimally invasive treatment protocol involves intrauterine insertion of ...
Kokcu Arif - - 2013
PURPOSE: To examine possible effects of endometriosis-related immune events on reproductive function. METHODS: The synthesis and review of the relevant current literature in English language. RESULTS: The endometriosis-related immune events may have a negative impact on almost all components of the reproductive function including fallopian tube function, oocyte quality, sperm ...
Leles S M - - 2013
Apoptosis and necrosis are among several types of cell death. We stained the nuclei of Aspergillus nidulans grown in micro-colonies with ethidium bromide and acridine orange to detect in situ apoptosis. Suspensions of conidia from 5-day-old colonies of the A. nidulans strains biA1methG1, G422, CLC100, and CLB3 were each put ...
Barutcuoglu Mustafa M Celal Bayar University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Manisa, - - 2013
Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) and Smads control intracellular signaling pathways in neurulation. Although previously reported similar experimental animal studies, the aim of this human study is to investigate the expression of TGF-β (1,2,3) and Smads (1,2,3,6,7) in aborted human fetuses with myeloschisis. Twelve human fetuses with neural tube defect ...
Haridas R P - - 2012
The Phillips airway was developed by George Ramsay Phillips. There is no known original description of the airway and the earliest known reference to it is from 1919. The airway and its modifications are described.
Prasad Kameshwar - - 2012
Acute bacterial meningitis is associated with high morbidity and mortality despite the availability of effective antibiotics. The inflammatory response induced by bacterial products in the subarachnoid space is responsible for neuronal injury. The use of adjuvant therapy in acute bacterial meningitis draws its rationale from the notion of arresting the ...
Meštrović Jakov - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: The differential diagnosis of an acute scrotum is of great importance in clinical practice and may be difficult in some cases. The aim of this study was to differentiate inflammatory from non-inflammatory causes of acute scrotum using relatively simple laboratory tests which can be performed quickly and easily outside ...
Quinton Lee J LJ The Pulmonary Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. - - 2012
The acute phase response is an evolutionarily conserved reaction in which physiological stress triggers the liver to remodel the blood proteome. Although thought to be involved in immune defense, the net biological effect of the acute phase response remains unknown. As the acute phase response is stimulated by diverse cytokines ...
Agarwal Shivani - - 2012
This investigation illustrates an important property of eukaryote-type serine/threonine phosphatase (SP-STP) of group A Streptococcus (GAS) in causing programmed cell death of human pharyngeal cells. The secretory nature of SP-STP, its elevated expression in the intracellular GAS, and the ability of wild-type GAS but not the GAS mutant devoid of ...
Weerdenburg Eveline M - - 2012
ESX-5 is a mycobacterial type VII protein secretion system responsible for transport of numerous PE and PPE proteins. It is involved in the induction of host cell death and modulation of the cytokine response in vitro. In this work, we studied the effects of ESX-5 in embryonic and adult zebrafish ...
Spinola Stanley M - - 2012
Sialylated glycoconjugates on the surfaces of mammalian cells play important roles in intercellular communication and self-recognition. The sialic acid preferentially expressed in human tissues is N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac). In a process called molecular mimicry, many bacterial pathogens decorate their cell surface glycolipids with Neu5Ac. Incorporation of Neu5Ac into bacterial glycolipids ...
Maluquer de Motes Carlos C Department of Virology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, United - - 2011
Vaccinia virus (VACV) protein N1 is an intracellular virulence factor and belongs to a family of VACV B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2-like proteins whose members inhibit apoptosis or activation of pro-inflammatory transcription factors, such as interferon (IFN) regulatory factor-3 (IRF-3) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). Unusually, N1 inhibits both apoptosis and NF-κB activation. ...
Willmann Roland - - 2011
Recognition of microbial patterns by host pattern recognition receptors is a key step in immune activation in multicellular eukaryotes. Peptidoglycans (PGNs) are major components of bacterial cell walls that possess immunity-stimulating activities in metazoans and plants. Here we show that PGN sensing and immunity to bacterial infection in Arabidopsis thaliana ...
Jin Huali - - 2012
The γ(1)34.5 protein of herpes simplex viruses (HSV) is essential for virulence. Accordingly, an HSV mutant lacking γ(1)34.5 is attenuated in vivo. Despite its vaccine potential, the mechanism by which the γ(1)34.5 null mutant triggers protective immunity is unknown. In this report we show that vaccination with the γ(1)34.5 null ...
Iantomasi Raffaella - - 2011
The role and function of PE_PGRS proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) remains elusive. In this study for the first time, Mtb isogenic mutants missing selected PE_PGRSs were used to investigate their role in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis (TB). We demonstrate that the MtbΔPE_PGRS30 mutant was impaired in its ability to ...
Aarag Fredheim Elizabeth G - - 2011
Staphylococcus epidermidis is a frequent cause of nosocomial infections. The central virulence factor of S. epidermidis is biofilm formation. Polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) constitutes the major biofilm matrix-component. PIA and biofilm have been implicated in S. epidermidis evasion of host immune defence. We examined the effects of S. epidermidis PIA on the inflammatory ...
Sen Manimala - - 2011
Candida albicans, a human fungal pathogen, undergoes morphogenetic changes that are associated with virulence. We report here that GAL102 in C. albicans encodes a homolog of dTDP-glucose 4,6-dehydratase, an enzyme that affects cell wall properties as well as virulence of many pathogenic bacteria. We found that GAL102 deletion leads to ...
Naderer Thomas - - 2011
Parasitic protozoa belonging to the genus Leishmania are the cause of a spectrum of diseases in humans, as well as chronic long-term infections. These parasites exhibit a remarkable capacity to survive and proliferate within the phagolysosome compartment of host macrophages. Studies with defined Leishmania mutants in mouse models of infection ...
Mukouhara Tadashi - - 2011
Streptococcus mutans is associated with the initiation and progression of human dental caries and is occasionally isolated from the blood of patients with bacteremia and infective endocarditis. For the pathogen to survive in the infected host, surface lipoproteins of S. mutans are likely to play important roles in interactions with ...
Carnec Xavier - - 2011
Lassa virus (LASV; Arenaviridae) is responsible for severe hemorrhagic fevers in Africa. LASV nucleoprotein (NP) plays important roles in regulating viral transcription and replication and in inhibiting type I interferon (IFN) production. The NP C-terminal domain contains a 3'-to-5' exonuclease activity involved in suppressing IFN induction. We have established a ...
Hara Toshiro - - 2011
MT1-MMP/MMP-14 is a major invasion-promoting membrane protease expressed in macrophages. In addition to its proteolytic activity that degrades the extracellular matrix, MT1-MMP also boosts ATP production in cells in a manner independent of its proteolytic activity. It remains unclear to what extent the proteolytic and energy-boosting activities of MT1-MMP contribute ...
Rose Anna - - 2011
Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, mainly caused by handling and consumption of contaminated poultry. However, the immune response to infection is poorly understood. Here, the impact of the C. jejuni capsule, flagella and the N-linked glycosylation system on cytokine production by dendritic cells was ...
Vascotto Carlo - - 2011
Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox factor-1 (APE1) protects cells from oxidative stress via the base excision repair pathway and as a redox transcriptional coactivator. It is required for tumor progression/metastasis, and its up-regulation is associated with cancer resistance. Loss of APE1 expression causes cell growth arrest, mitochondrial impairment, apoptosis, and alterations of ...
Peng Kaitian K Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, - - 2011
Intracellular bacterial pathogens Francisella novicida and the Live Vaccine Strain (LVS) are recognized in the macrophage cytosol by the AIM2 inflammasome, which leads to the activation of caspase-1 and the processing and secretion of active IL-1β, IL-18 and pyroptosis. Previous studies have reported that F. novicida and LVS mutants in ...
Pesaresi Maria Grazia MG Laboratory of Neurochemistry, Fondazione S. Lucia IRCCS, Rome, - - 2011
Increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage are among the mechanisms whereby mutant SOD1 (mutSOD1) associated with familial forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) induces motoneuronal death. The 66 kDa isoform of the growth factor adapter Shc (p66Shc) is known to be central in the control of mitochondria-dependent oxidative balance. Here ...
Ariza Maria-Eugenia - - 2011
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory immune disease of the skin characterized by a complex interplay between multiple risk genes and their interactions with environmental factors. Recent haplotype analyses have suggested that deoxyuridine triphosphate nucleotidohydrolase (dUTPase) encoded by a human endogenous retrovirus K (HERV-K) may be a candidate gene for the ...
Nelson Shakira M - - 2011
Selenium (Se), in the form of selenoproteins, imparts many health benefits with antiinflammatory properties. Previous studies have shown that Se supplementation of macrophages negatively regulates the LPS-dependent production of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), a proinflammatory gene. Therefore, we hypothesized that l-arginine, a substrate for iNOS, is acted upon by arginase-I ...
Vázquez Nancy - - 2011
IFNα, a cytokine with multiple functions in innate and adaptive immunity and a potent inhibitor of HIV, exerts antiviral activity, in part, by enhancing apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme-catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3) family members. Although IFNα therapy is associated with reduced viral burden, this cytokine also mediates immune dysfunction and toxicities. ...
Bröms Jeanette E - - 2011
The Gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis is the causative agent of tularemia, a disease intimately associated with the multiplication of the bacterium within host macrophages. This in turn requires the expression of Francisella pathogenicity island (FPI) genes, believed to encode a type VI secretion system. While the exact functions of many ...
Russo Brian C BC Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 200 Lothrop St., Pittsburgh, PA 15261, - - 2011
Tularemia is a debilitating febrile illness caused by the category A biodefense agent Francisella tularensis. This pathogen infects over 250 different hosts, has a low infectious dose, and causes high morbidity and mortality. Our understanding of the mechanisms by which F. tularensis senses and adapts to host environments is incomplete. ...
Edwards Jessica A JA Department of Microbiology, The Center for Microbial Interface Biology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, - - 2011
The application of forward genetics can reveal new factors required for the virulence of intracellular pathogens. To facilitate such virulence screens, we developed macrophage cell lines with which the number of intact host cells following infection with intracellular pathogens can be rapidly and easily ascertained through the expression of a ...
White Gemma E GE Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 - - 2011
Chemokines of the CC class are key mediators of monocyte recruitment and macrophage differentiation and have a well documented role in many inflammatory diseases. Blockade of chemokine activity is therefore an attractive target for anti-inflammatory therapy. 35K (vCCI) is a high-affinity chemokine binding protein expressed by poxviruses, which binds all ...
Fullaondo Ane - - 2011
The Drosophila genome encodes 29 serpins, most of unknown function. We show here that Spn1 is an active protease inhibitor of the serpin superfamily. Spn1 inhibits trypsin in vitro and regulates the Toll-mediated immune response in vivo. Expression of the Toll-dependent transcripts Drosomycin and IM1 is increased in Spn1 null ...
Xu Wei - - 2011
Leishmania parasites alternate between flagellated promastigotes in sand flies and nonflagellated amastigotes in mammals, causing a spectrum of serious diseases. To survive, they must resist the harsh conditions in phagocytes (including acidic pH, elevated temperature, and increased oxidative/nitrosative stress) and evade the immune response. Recent studies have highlighted the importance ...
Sharma Deepika - - 2011
Citation Sharma D, Singh A, Trivedi SS, Bhattacharjee J. Role of endothelin and inflammatory cytokines in pre-eclampsia - a pilot north Indian study. Am J Reprod Immunol 2011; 65: 428-432 Problem  Pre-eclampsia is new onset hypertension during pregnancy with proteinuria. The initiating event in pre-eclampsia is postulated to involve reduced ...
Asano Takeshi - - 2011
Background:  The mumps virus is frequently the causative agent in aseptic meningitis and mumps has still prevailed in Japan. We compared data obtained from patients with mumps meningitis and patients with aseptic meningitis caused by other viruses in order to identify mumps meningitis-specific cytokine/chemokine alterations in cerebrospinal fluide (CSF). Methods:  ...
Zheng Han - - 2011
The murine astrocyte response to virulent Streptocuccus suis, a swine and an emerging human meningitis-causing pathogen, is reported. Albeit astrocytes do not internalize S. suis, all S. suis strains studied enhanced Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 expression and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Cell wall components and ...
Sancesario Giuseppe - - 2011
A 64-year-old man with idiopathic CD4(+) lymphocytopenia developed cognitive impairment and gait ataxia with isolated obstructive hydrocephalus, which was fatal. Cerebrospinal fluid showed mild pleocytosis, but the etiology was not revealed by extensive analysis. At autopsy, inflammatory cells, CD8(+) lymphocytes and abundant macrophages but not CD4(+) lymphocytes were infiltrating the ...
Nussbaum Gabriel - - 2011
Nussbaum G, Shapira L: How has neutrophil research improved our understanding of periodontal pathogenesis? J Clin Periodontol 2011; 38 (Suppl. 11): 49-59. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-051X.2010.01678.x. ABSTRACT: Background: Neutrophils are the predominant cells responsible for host defence against bacterial infection. Loss of neutrophil defence, due either to deficient number or function, strongly ...
Pinto Junior Vitor Laerte Laerte - - 2011
Cytokines are molecules that act as mediators of immune response; cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) IL-6 is found in all meningeal inflammatory diseases, but IL-8 is associated with acute bacterial meningitis (ABM). A case control study was done to ascertain the discriminatory power of these cytokines in differentiating ABM from aseptic ...
Franzen-Röhl Elisabeth - - 2011
The clinical picture of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection includes genital blisters and less frequently meningitis, and some individuals suffer from recurrent episodes of these manifestations. We hypothesized that adaptive and/or innate immune functional deficiencies may be a major contributing factor in susceptibility to recurrent HSV-2 meningitis. Ten ...
Rothman Sarah M - - 2011
STUDY DESIGN.: Inflammatory proteins were quantified in bilateral dorsal root ganglions (DRGs) at 1 hour and 1 day using a multiplexed assay after 2 different unilateral nerve root compression injuries. OBJECTIVE.: To quantify cytokines and a chemokine in the DRG after nerve root compression with and without a chemical injury ...
Doernberg Sarah S Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, The Anlyan Center, S525, P.O. Box 208031, 300 Cedar Street, New Haven, CT 06520-8031, USA. - - 2011
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an upstream proinflammatory cytokine encoded by a functionally polymorphic locus. This study of 119 patients explored the potential relationship between MIF genotype and invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae infections. We observed an association between a high-expression MIF allele and occurrence of pneumococcal meningitis.
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