Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 936
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Spencer Lisa A - - 2005
A distinguishing feature of eosinophils is their ability to rapidly release preformed cytokines from intracellular pools. Cytokines are delivered to the cell surface from granule stores by transport vesicles and are released in small packets at discrete locations along the cell surface through a process termed "piecemeal" degranulation. The study ...
Kawaguchi Mio - - 2004
A new family of cytokines, IL-17, has recently been defined that reveals a distinct ligand-receptor signaling system. Functional studies have provided evidence for its importance in the regulation of immune responses. Notably, 3 members, IL-17A, IL-17E (IL-25), and IL-17F, have been best characterized both in vitro and in vivo , ...
Barata Joao T - - 2004
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The identification of signals critical for the pathophysiology of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) should contribute to the development of novel, more effective therapeutic strategies. Common gamma-chain signaling cytokines (gammac-cytokines) - interleukins 2, 4, 7, 9 and 15 - differentially regulate T-cell development, survival, proliferation and differentiation. ...
Alluwaimi Ahmed M - - 2004
The lack of efficacy of conventional strategies for the maintenance of healthy udders in domestic cattle has prompted studies on the use of cytokines for this purpose. The adjuvant use of recombinant bovine cytokines, such as IL-2, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha, in normal mammary gland, mobilizes innate and acquired immunity. However, ...
Haase Oliver - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Cytokines are important for signalling between cells and tissues and constitute a humoral component of the response of cells and tissues to radiotherapy. Although several cytokines have been implicated in mediating radiation-induced reactions of normal tissues to both conventional photon and heavy ion irradiation, the mechanisms are only beginning ...
Lim, Wah-Seng
Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) causes rapid development of acute disease followed by recurring episodes of fever, thrombocytopenia and viremia, termed chronic EIA. Most infected horses control the virus by immune mechanisms and become inapparent carriers. To further our understanding of the equine immune response to EIAV, a multi-probe ribonuclease ...
Naldini Antonella - - 2004
The thrombin peptide, TP508, accelerates tissue repair and initiates a cascade of cellular events. We have previously shown that alpha-thrombin induces cytokine expression in human mononuclear cells. We, therefore, investigated the possibility that TP508 might activate cytokine production and intracellular signaling pathways associated with cytokine activation. Our results show that ...
Chiyo Masako - - 2004
Interleukin (IL)-23 and IL-27 have been recently identified as members of the IL-12 heterodimeric cytokine family. The cytokines are released from activated dentritic cells and play a crucial role in cell-mediated immunity. Expression profiles of the cytokines' receptors suggest that target cells of the cytokines are distinct depending on T ...
Dantzer Robert - - 2004
Sickness refers to a coordinated set of subjective, behavioural and physiological changes that develop in sick individuals during the course of an infection. These changes are due to the effects of interleukin-1 (IL-1) and other proinflammatory cytokines on brain cellular targets. Sickness behaviour is mediated by proinflammatory cytokines that are ...
Reddy Manjula - - 2004
Activation of lymphocytes is a complex, yet finely regulated cascade of events that results in the expression of cytokine receptors, production and secretion of cytokines and expression of several cell surface molecules that eventually lead to divergent immune responses. Assessing the qualitative and quantitative nature of lymphocyte function following immunotherapy ...
Dela Cruz J S - - 2004
Cancer patients who are administered therapeutic doses of cytokines (e.g., interleukin-2, granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor, interleukin-12, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) frequently develop devastating toxic side effects that can lead to discontinuation of therapy. This problem has compelled numerous investigators to design innovative strategies that will reduce prolonged systemic cytokine ...
Faber W R - - 2004
Serum levels of cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha), cytokine receptors (TNFR I and II) and one monokine (neopterin) were estimated in seven leprosy patients to establish disease associated markers for reversal reactions (RR). Sera were collected at diagnosis of leprosy, at the onset of reversal reaction and at different time ...
Tohmi Manavu - - 2004
Maternal stress, viral infection, and obstetric complications, which trigger cytokine signaling, are hypothesized to be involved in schizophrenia and its related disorders. The etiologic contribution of individual cytokines to such psychiatric disorders, however, remains to be evaluated. To estimate the impact of peripheral cytokine challenge on neurobehavioral development, we examined ...
Sekiguchi Kenichi - - 2004
One of the major conceptual advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of heart failure has been the insight that heart failure may progress as the result of the sustained overexpression of biologically active "neurohormones", such as norepinephrine and angiotensin II, which by virtue of their deleterious effects are sufficient ...
Capini C J - - 2004
New lines of treatment targeting cytokines have been successfully developed recently and are now widely used in therapy. They are based on passive administration of cytokine inhibitors either soluble receptors or mAbs and the major example is TNFalpha in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Since a few years, our group has developed ...
O'Brien Sinead M - - 2004
The role of cytokines in depression was first considered when the cytokine interferon resulted in "sickness behaviour", the symptoms of which are similar to those of major depression. The latter is associated with an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). ...
Hodge G - - 2004
Early diagnosis of neonatal infection has proved problematic due to the inadequacy of currently available laboratory tests. Neonatal sepsis is associated with an increase in plasma-derived cytokine levels, but an increase of a single cytokine cannot identify neonatal sepsis specifically and multiple cytokine levels are required. The time constraints and ...
Duncan David D - - 2004
We describe methods to identify high and low responders in a whole-blood assay of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated cytokine responses. Two multivariate measures of the cytokine responses both captured high and low responses for each of the four individual cytokines that were assayed.
Souza K L A - - 2004
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Cytokines are important humoral mediators of beta cell destruction in autoimmune diabetes. The aim of this study was to identify novel cytokine-induced genes in insulin-producing RINm5F cells, which may contribute to beta cell death or survival. METHODS: A global gene expression profile in cytokine-exposed insulin-producing RINm5F cells was achieved ...
Kita Masakazu - - 2004
Dysregulation of the immune system has been a well-documented effect of human exposure to a microgravity environment during space flight. These effects have included altered cytokine production, reduced proliferative responses, altered signal transduction pathways and altered distribution of peripheral immune cells. Recent reports have documented immunologic studies performed in-flight. When ...
Nissim Ahuva - - 2004
Cytokines are mediators of cell communication. Their therapeutic use requires frequent high doses to achieve effective local biological levels. However, the clinical use of some cytokines is limited because of their pleiotropism, which can result in unwanted side effects. Here, we review novel protein engineering technologies that overcome these limitations ...
Sivakumar Pallavur V - - 2004
Cytokines and their receptors represent key targets for therapeutic intervention. Ligands are being used to supplement cell numbers that become depleted as a result of disease (organ failure, infection) or subsequent disease treatments (i.e. chemotherapy). Conversely, the inhibition of target cell binding by cytokines is an established strategy for abrogating ...
Sommer Claudia - - 2004
Numerous experimental studies provide evidence that proinflammatory cytokines induce or facilitate inflammatory as well as neuropathic pain and hyperalgesia. Direct receptor-mediated actions of cytokines on afferent nerve fibers have been reported as well as cytokine effects involving further mediators. The final outcome of cytokine action greatly depends on whether they ...
DeLong William G WG - - 2004
Patients with multiple injuries have alterations in hemodynamic, metabolic, and immune responses that largely are orchestrated by endogenous mediators referred to as cytokines. At the molecular level cytokines act as architects constructing a blueprint which ultimately will become the clinical "Big Picture"; however, the exact role and extent each cytokine ...
Conti Bruno - - 2004
Cytokines are highly inducible, secreted proteins mediating intercellular communication in the nervous and immune system. Fever is the multiphasic response of elevation and decline of the body core temperature regulated by central thermoregulatory mechanisms localized in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus. The discovery that several proinflammatory cytokines act as ...
Vilcek Jan - - 2004
Cytokine research has spawned the introduction of new therapies that have revolutionized the treatment of many important diseases. These therapeutic advances have resulted from two very different strategies. The first therapeutic strategy embodies the administration of purified, recombinant cytokines. The second relies on the administration of therapeutics that inhibit the ...
Wong Stephen - - 2004
Immune activation occurs in response to noxious stimuli such tissue injury, infection, inflammation and malignant neoplasia with the production of cytokines both in the circulation and the central nervous system (CNS). In addition to their fundamental immune functions, cytokines such as the interleukins (ILs), interferons (IFNs) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha ...
Kang Joonsoo - - 2004
Five core cytokines that control lymphocyte differentiation and maintenance have been identified and studied in depth. IL-7 sits at the apex of this cytokine hierarchy in terms of functional significance during lymphocyte development. The IL-7-dominant phase of lymphopoiesis is preceded by the actions of c-Kit ligand (also called stem cell ...
Yamasaki Chisato - - 2004
Shiga toxin (Stx) has an A1-B5 subunit structure, and the A subunit is an RNA N-glycosidase that inhibits cellular protein synthesis. We previously reported that in Caco-2 cells Stx induced cytokines and that the RNA N-glycosidase activity was essential for the cytokine induction. It is known that the binding of ...
Duddy Martin E - - 2004
There is growing interest in the fundamental roles that B cells may play in regulating immune responses. Emerging animal studies point to an important contribution of B cell effector cytokines to immune modulation, yet little is known about the factors regulating such cytokine production. We report that the profile of ...
Arend William P - - 2004
Extensive data has accumulated over the last 10 to 15 years to implicate various cytokines in pathways of pathophysiology in rheumatic diseases. Abnormalities in cytokine production are not the cause of these diseases, but reflect continual production by immune and inflammatory cells. Cytokines are heterogeneous and function in an overlapping ...
Chernajovsky Yuti - - 2004
Extract: The holy grail of drug development is to design a magic bullet that will deliver a therapeutic agent only to the site of disease with minimal side effects. This is of great importance in particular when it refers to biological agents such as cytokines that have pleiotropic actions in ...
Walsh Patrick T PT University of Pennsylvania, 700 Clinical Research Building, 415 Curie Boulevard, Philadelphia, PA 19104, - - 2004
The alloimmune response can be divided into specific junctures where critical decisions between tolerance and immunity are made which define the outcome of the transplant. At these "decision nodes" various cytokines direct alloresponsive T cells to develop either a proinflammatory response aimed at graft destruction or an immunoregulatory response facilitating ...
Zagury Daniel - - 2004
Allergy, autoimmunity and the pathogenesis of some chronic diseases are dependent on host innate and adaptative immune responses. Both responses are associated with abnormal cytokine production within pathologic tissues. Over the past two decades, the availability of purified cytokines and cytokine antibodies (Abs) has prompted a therapeutic approach that aims ...
Ansari Aftab A - - 2004
Outbreaks of infectious diseases such as HIV and the much televised and attention-getting outbreaks of diseases such as Ebola, Hantaviruses, and the most recent outbreak of SARS have induced a significant new interest in the formulations and more importantly the science of vaccinology, which has previously to a large extent ...
Aukrust Pal - - 2004
Accumulating evidence indicates that inflammatory cytokines play a pathogenic role in congestive heart failure (CHF) by influencing heart contractility, inducing hypertrophy, and promoting apoptosis or fibrosis, contributing to the continuous myocardial remodeling process. While several stimuli may be operating such as heat-shock protein, microbial antigen, bacterial lipopolysaccharide, shear and oxidative ...
Knight Paul R - - 2004
Cytokine and cytokine inhibitors represent important components of the inflammatory response in patients with trauma, shock, and sepsis. Many investigators wish to quantify cytokines and it would be advantageous to measure multiple cytokines in a multiplex manner to obtain an inflammatory profile rather than a single value. Using the well-accepted ...
Stoycheva Mariana V - - 2004
Cytokines are intercellular signal molecules involved in the immune pathogenesis of infectious diseases. Cytokine mediated pathological alterations are mainly attributable to an imbalance in cytokine production. Experimental and clinical studies have documented the fact that Salmonella infections induce a Th1 dependent immune response and interferon-gamma and interleukin-12 are central to ...
Carp H - - 2004
Cytokines act at all stages of pregnancy from implantation to parturition. This review examines their relevance in recurrent miscarriage. However, recurrent miscarriage may be due to an inherently abnormal embryo (e.g., chromosomal abberations) or maternal factors (e.g., uterine anomalies or antiphospholipid antibodies). In the former, cytokines are not causative, but ...
Dickerson Sally S - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To determine if inducing self-blame would lead to increases in shame and guilt as well as increases in proinflammatory cytokine activity and cortisol. Based on previous research and theory, it was hypothesized that induced shame would be specifically associated with elevations in proinflammatory cytokine activity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Healthy ...
Huang Ruo-Pan - - 2003
Cytokines play important roles in normal cell functions and changes in cytokines have been implicated in many diseases. Recent efforts have focused on developing cytokine antibody arrays. These arrays allow investigators to simultaneously detect multiple cytokines in qualitative and quantitative ways. Cytokine antibody array systems feature high sensitivity, specificity and ...
Gazagne Agnès - - 2003
Various subpopulations of T lymphocytes-i.e. Type 1, Type 2, Tr1 T cells-play a major role in the homeostasis of the immune system and in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory and auto-immune diseases. At present, in the absence of specific surface markers, these T cells can only be reliably distinguished on ...
Aihara Masayuki - - 2003
Y-27632 selectively inhibits Rho-associated protein kinases (ROCKs), an effector for RhoA. The RhoA system is involved in T cell activation. Y-27632 mimicked effects of beta agonists on human cells. We examined the effects of both Y-27632 and Isoproterenol (Iso) on the release of T helper type 1 (Th-1) cytokines (interleukin ...
Nori M - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Cytokine imbalance and cellular migration to inflammatory sites are critical components of allergic diseases. Redirecting cytokine imbalance and inhibiting cell migration therefore represent important therapeutic strategies for the treatment of these disorders. OBJECTIVES: To study the in vitro effect of ebastine, a novel non-sedating H1 receptor antagonist, on cytokine ...
Becker Stephen M - - 2003
Gallium arsenide (GaAs), a technologically and economically important semiconductor, is widely utilized in both military and commercial applications. This chemical is a potential health hazard as a carcinogen and immunotoxicant. We previously reported that macrophages at the exposure site exhibit characteristics of activation. In vitro culture of macrophages with GaAs ...
Campbell John D M - - 2003
The Cytokine Secretion Assay is an innovative method for analysing and enriching live cytokine-secreting cells. In this assay, a cytokine affinity matrix is built on the cell plasma membrane, which traps cytokines produced by the cell in response to specific stimuli. The specifically bound cytokine is then detected, and the ...
Glickstein Lisa - - 2003
In a study of cytokine production ex vivo by Borrelia burgdorferi-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 27 patients with culture-positive erythema migrans, production of inflammatory cytokines predominated, particularly gamma interferon and, to a lesser degree, tumor necrosis factor alpha. In contrast, with the exception of interleukin-13, anti-inflammatory cytokine production was ...
Meijer H H ORTHOGEN Lab Services, Graf-Adolf-Strasse 43, 40210 Düsseldorf, Germany. - - 2003
Cytokines such as interleukin-1 (IL-1) play an important role in degenerative musculo-skeletal diseases, including osteoarthritis, and a multitude of inflammatory disorders. Agents that inhibit the action of such cytokines have a high therapeutic potential in such diseases. Here we describe a new method for enhancing the production of the interleukin-l ...
Schoppet Michael - - 2003
Sarcoidosis is a chronic systemic disease of unknown etiology, which is characterized by noncaseating epitheloid granulomas usually in multiple organs. Here we describe changes in cytokine mRNA expression by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and changes of cytokine protein levels in plasma over a time course of 12 months in ...
Kellar Kathryn L - - 2003
Cytokines play a pivotal role in the regulation of immunologic, hematologic and wound-healing processes. They function to stimulate as well as inhibit the proliferation, differentiation and maturation of a variety of cell types. Thus, their functions are pleiotropic as well as interdependent to the extent that any cytokine may have ...
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