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Results 351 - 400 of 937
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Scapigliati G - - 2006
It appears evident that teleost fish are at present the vertebrate group in which, excluding mammals, most information on the immune system is available. However, despite the great impetus on the discovery of genes homologous to mammalian immunomodulatory molecules, the knowledge on biological activities exerted by cytokines is meager. This ...
Wallace Daniel J - - 2006
Cytokines are glycoproteins that serve as chemical messengers between cells. They assist in the regulation of cell growth and repair and also have immune modulating properties. Cytokines play a role in diverse clinical processes and phenomena such as fatigue, fever, sleep, pain, stress and aching. A review of the fibromyalgia ...
Frankenstein Ziv - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Three networks of intercellular communication can be associated with cytokine secretion; one limited to cells of the immune system (immune cells), one limited to parenchymal cells of organs and tissues (body cells), and one involving interactions between immune and body cells (immune-body interface). These cytokine connections determine the inflammatory ...
Numerof Robert P - - 2006
Since the discovery of cytokines as key mediators in inflammation, targeting the cytokine network has represented a promising therapeutic approach. Psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, as T cell-mediated diseases with a strong cytokine component and a high unmet medical need, have moved into the focus of experimental therapies. Whereas pro-inflammatory cytokines ...
Craddock Darren - - 2006
Cytokines are peripherally and centrally produced proteins that regulate immune and immunological responses. They also have neurochemical, neuroendocrine and behavioural effects similar to those seen in patients with depression. A review of the literature reveals several cytokines, including IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-6 and IFN, have been shown to be elevated in ...
Beadling Carol - - 2006
The functional characterization and subsequent purification of T cell growth factor/interleukin (IL)-2 in the early 1980s established this secreted protein as a key mediator of immune cell activation and provided the prototype that enabled the discovery of numerous cytokines over the ensuing two decades. While soluble immunoregulatory factors were initially ...
Lamoreaux Laurie - - 2006
We describe here a method for optimizing the use of polychromatic flow cytometry (with up to 17 fluorochromes simultaneously) in surface and intracellular staining of human T lymphocytes. We will highlight and discuss how to procedurally optimize key steps in the experimental process before an intracellular cytokine staining assay protocol ...
Gaffen Sarah L - - 2006
IL-17A and its receptor are the founding members of a recently described cytokine family, with unique sequences and functions in the immune system and elsewhere. Consisting of six ligands (IL-17A-F) and five receptors (IL-17RA-IL-17RE) in mammals, these molecules have distinct primary amino acid structures with only minimal homology to other ...
Giansanti F - - 2006
In recent years the knowledge of avian cytokines has advanced and new data are continuously added. Nevertheless, some discontinuities persist and the correlations between molecular and functional levels are not completely clear. Most of the studies are focused on chicken, and comparative aspects with other avian groups are limited. The ...
Morán José M - - 2006
This report describes a laboratory exercise that was incorporated into a Cell Biology and Molecular Biology advanced course. The exercise was made for a class size with eight students and was designed to reinforce the understanding of basic molecular biology techniques. Students used the techniques of reverse transcription and arginase ...
Meier J J - - 2006
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Beta cell destruction in type 1 diabetes is apparently mediated by the release of cytokines. We questioned whether cytokine-induced apoptosis preferentially kills replicating beta cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the first experiment, rat insulinoma (RIN) cells were studied for 36 h by time-lapse video microscopy. Cells were exposed to ...
Gallowitsch-Puerta Margot - - 2005
Cytokines are small protein molecules that facilitate communication between cells of the immune system and other tissues. Their messenger function elicits responses in other cells, ranging from DNA binding and tissue remodeling to coordinating the local cellular response to inflammation. The magnitude of the cytokine response is regulated closely, because ...
Cutler Antony - - 2005
Cytokines are a unique class of intercellular regulatory proteins that play a crucial role in initiating, maintaining, and regulating immunologic homeostatic and inflammatory processes. Indeed, measurement of cytokine profiles in patients provides a useful indication of disease status. Due to their multiple functions, including regulatory and effector cellular function in ...
Scheerlinck Jean-Pierre Y - - 2005
In the recent past a large variety of cytokines have been cloned for most important veterinary species and more is planned with development of a coordinated approach to cytokine reagents production. Application of these cytokines in veterinary species can be found in the development of effective diagnostics, with the IFN-gamma-based ...
Tracey Kevin J - - 2005
The cholinergic antiinflammatory pathway is a neural mechanism that is controlled by the vagus nerve and inhibits local cytokine release, thereby preventing the damaging effects of cytokine overproduction. A new study now shows that dietary fat can activate this pathway, a finding that may help explain the immune system's failure ...
Calder Virginia L - - 2005
Identifying the cells and cytokines present at the ocular surface in different clinical subgroups of patients with conjunctival allergy and inflammation has led to an improved understanding of the immune-mediated mechanisms that occur. Together with the recent advances in immunotherapeutic interventions for various immune-mediated diseases, it is hoped that some ...
Savan Ram - - 2006
Cytokines are important regulators of immune system and finding these genes in fish have potential applications for the development of vaccines and or immunostimulants for aquaculture. Major hurdle in discovering cytokines from fish is the low identities of these molecules when compared to its mammalian counterparts. In fish, prior to ...
Debnath M - - 2006
Schizophrenia is perhaps the most enigmatic and tragic psychotic disorder with remarkable mortality and morbidity. Schizophrenia is complex and clinically a heterogeneous disorder. The etiological basis of schizophrenia ranges from autoimmune to neurodevelopmental hypothesis in one hand and involvement of different major gene segment with susceptibility loci on the other. ...
Pawlik A - - 2006
Immunosuppressive drugs are widely used in the therapy of autoimmune disorders to suppress autoreactive T cells. The immune system is regulated by the release of cytokines. Cytokine are potent immunomodulatory molecules that act as mediators of inflammation and the immune response. Primarily secreted by T cell and macrophages, they influence ...
Dayer Jean-Michel - - 2005
An imbalance in cytokine homeostasis is considered to play a major part in the pathogenesis of immuno-inflammatory diseases. Since the identification and cloning of cytokines and their receptors, therapeutic approaches have been developed with the purpose of impeding the interaction between the ligand (cytokine) and its specific receptor, or interactions ...
Petrovsky Nikolai - - 2005
Under the model of spatial or tissue-specific immune compartmentalization, the site of immunogen exposure (oral, mucosal and dermal) shapes the consequent immune response. Thus, spatial compartmentalization provides a mechanism whereby different immune responses may evolve in different tissue compartments. Many immune cytokines are subject to circadian variation, for example, interleukin-1, ...
Gahring Lorise C - - 2005
We have examined the impact of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) on assembly of nAChRs from subunit mixtures of nAChRalpha4, beta2 and beta4 transiently transfected into 293 cells. In control transfections approximately 55% of alpha4 associated preferentially with beta4, but less than 15% ...
Kushiya Koji - - 2005
Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), produces superantigenictoxins, such as toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1). TSST-1 abnormally activates T cells to overproduce inflammatory cytokines (such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-2, and interferon-gamma) leading to shock. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of antimicrobial agents and anisodamine (a ...
dupont Nefertiti C - - 2005
PROBLEM: Analyses of the expression pattern of multiple cytokines are frequently required for characterization of the status of the immune system as it pertains to Th type bias and intrinsic levels of inflammation. Classically, analysis of cytokine expression patterns has been performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for each separate ...
Mehra Vishal C - - 2005
The role of cytokines in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease is increasingly evident since the identification of immune/inflammatory mechanisms in atherosclerosis and heart failure. In this review, we describe how innate and adaptive immune cascades trigger the release of cytokines and chemokines, resulting in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. ...
Osuchowski Marcin F - - 2005
Due to the low cost and relative effectiveness the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is widely used to measure the concentration of inflammatory cytokines in plasma and other sources. Blood volume represents a limiting factor in those mouse models requiring repeated sample collection at multiple time intervals to monitor the trajectory ...
Huang Ni - - 2005
Cell proliferation, differentiation and death are controlled by a multitude of cell-cell signals and loss of this control has devastating consequences. Prominent among these regulatory signals is the cytokine superfamily, which has crucial functions in the development, differentiation and regulation of immune cells. In this study, a support vector machine ...
Torre-Amione Guillermo - - 2005
In chronic heart failure (CHF), activation of the immune system occurs, which results in the production and release of proinflammatory cytokines, activation of the complement system, and production of autoantibodies. Thus, it is important to consider CHF as a systemic illness, not just a disease of the "pump." Immune activation ...
Gullestad Lars - - 2005
Accumulating evidence indicates that inflammatory mediators are important in the pathogenesis of chronic heart failure (CHF), contributing to cardiac remodeling and peripheral vascular disturbances. Several studies have shown increased levels of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin (IL)-1beta, and IL-6 in patients with CHF in both plasma ...
Vassiliadis S - - 2005
Endometriosis is tightly linked to infertility which is manifested at very early or more advanced stages of the gestational cycle. Alteration on the production of a great number of cytokines/growth factors can be accused for problems on ovum maturation, fertilization or implantation. Yet, macroscopically these stages are characterized by the ...
Numerof Robert P - - 2005
A network of pro-inflammatory cytokines is a central feature in the pathophysiology of cutaneous inflammatory diseases. Thus, the delineation of precise roles for particular cytokines and the development of cytokine-directed therapeutics have become areas of intense investigation. While anti-TNF therapeutics have proven to be effective for the treatment of psoriasis, ...
Simmons Donn A - - 2005
By influencing the central nervous system, cytokines, which regulate immune function innately and adaptively, may play a key role in mediating depression-like neuro-behavioral changes. However, the similarity between cytokine and stressor-effects in animal models raises a question about the degree to which behavioral and neurochemical outcomes of cytokine challenge represent ...
Thurm Cary W - - 2005
Whole blood (WB) ex vivo stimulation assays are useful for measuring cytokine responses due to the easy access of samples from healthy donors and patients and the minimal processing of the sample required. Because the assay mimics the natural environment, WB culture may be the best milieu in which to ...
Miller Diane B - - 2005
It has been known for some time that cytokines made and released during systemic illness can result in a constellation of symptoms strikingly similar to those observed in depression. The overlap of the symptoms of depression and systemic illness raises the intriguing possibility that cytokines may be involved in the ...
Gullestad Lars - - 2005
Evidence from both experimental and clinical trials indicates that inflammatory mediators are important in the pathogenesis of chronic heart failure (HF), contributing to cardiac remodelling and peripheral vascular disturbances. Several studies have shown raised levels of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and -6 in HF patients in plasma, circulating ...
Wagner Bettina - - 2005
Recombinant cytokines are valuable tools for functional studies and candidates for vaccine additives or therapeutic use in various diseases. They can also be used to generate specific antibodies to analyze the roles of different cytokines during immune responses. We generated a mammalian expression system for recombinant cytokines using the equine ...
Stenvinkel Peter - - 2005
It has been increasingly apparent that wasting and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is associated with a persistent systemic inflammatory response in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. The reasons for the increased risk of inflammation in ESRD patients appear to be complex, including non-dialysis as well as dialysis-related factors. The combination of ...
Um J-Y - - 2005
During the last decade, a growing corpus of evidence has indicated an important role of inflammatory cytokines in the pathogenesis of cerebral lesion following stroke. Recent data suggest that genetics may in turn contribute to modulating the effects of inflammatory cytokines on cerebral infarction (CI). This paper reviews the physiologic ...
Watanabe Mineo - - 2005
This study was undertaken to evaluate the changes in cytokine levels in response to orofacial deep tissue inflammation. Inflammation was induced by injecting complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA, 0.05 ml 1:1 oil/saline suspension) into the masseter of the male Sprague-Dawley rat under brief halothane anesthesia. At 30 min, 5 h and ...
Schooltink Heidi - - 2005
Cytokines are important mediators of many cellular functions including coordination of the immune system and regulation of regenerative processes. Therefore, cytokines can be exploited for therapeutic strategies. Cytokines can be altered in a way that their biologic activity is enhanced or antagonized. This can be accomplished by changing the interaction ...
Hajnická V - - 2005
Ticks are obligatory blood-feeding arthropods that secrete various immunomodulatory molecules to antagonize host inflammatory and immune responses. Cytokines play an important role in regulating these responses. We investigated the extent to which ticks interact with the sophisticated cytokine network by comparing the effect of salivary gland extracts (SGE) of 3 ...
von Haehling Stephan - - 2005
Several lines of evidence suggest that chronic heart failure is a state of chronic inflammation. Indeed, various pro-inflammatory markers, including the cytokines TNF-alpha, and interleukin 6 and 1, are activated in the course of the disease. In chronic heart failure, these substances are frequently induced even before the classical neurohormones ...
Chen Xuyan - - 2005
Cytokines and IgM levels are important parameters in the acquired immunity of fish. In the present study, the effect of pentachlorophenol (PCP) on the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, TNF-alpha (tumor necrosis factor-alpha) and IL-1beta (interleukin 1) mRNA levels of crucian carp, were determined by semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) ...
Watson Ronald Ross - - 2005
Immunosenescence via increased inflammatory cytokines may play key regulatory roles in facilitating cardiac infections and heart failure. Based upon recent evidence, we hypothesize that cytokine polarization due to aging directly dysregulates fibroblasts, leading to altered cardiac structure and dysfunction. Some dietary fatty acids should ameliorate heightened inflammatory cytokines thereby retarding ...
O'Bryan Moira K - - 2005
Evidence indicates that the testis possesses a reduced capacity to mount inflammatory and rejection responses, which undoubtedly contributes to the ongoing survival of the highly immunogenic germ cells. The contribution of local cytokine expression to this condition was investigated in adult male rats treated with lipopolysaccharide to induce inflammation. Cytokine ...
Singh Vijay K - - 2005
Cytokines and growth factors are growing groups of proteins that are responsible for the communication between cells of the immune system, hematopoietic cells, and other cell types. The cloning and large-scale production in a recombinant form of these agents in pharmacological quantities permitted investigations aimed at assessing the benefit they ...
De La Garza Richard R - - 2005
In humans, exposure to endotoxins or pro-inflammatory cytokines induces a number of neuropsychological symptoms collectively referred to as 'flu-like syndrome'. The degree of overlap between flu-like syndrome and major depressive disorder is considerable and a close linkage between these has been predicted to arise due to hypersecretion of endogenous pro-inflammatory ...
Prabhakar Uma - - 2005
Flow cytometric, microsphere-based immunoassays have been developed for the simultaneous detection of soluble analytes in a variety of sample types. The ability to discriminate between individual microspheres on the basis of size, fluorescent intensity, and/or wavelength has allowed the simultaneous analysis of multiple analytes from the same sample. Cytokines are ...
ten Hagen Timo L M - - 2005
Despite of the demonstrated activity of cytokines in vitro, their use in the clinical setting is often disappointing. Cytokine-related toxicity seriously limits optimal use in vivo. In addition, rapid degradation and excretion, neutralization and binding to receptors, or metabolization of the molecule results in a short half-life in serum when ...
Aukrust Pål - - 2005
Persistent inflammation, involving increased levels of inflammatory cytokines, seems to play a pathogenic role in chronic heart failure (HF) by influencing heart contractility, inducing hypertrophy and promoting apoptosis, contributing to myocardial remodeling. While several stimuli may be operating such as heat shock proteins, microbial antigens and oxidative stress, it seems ...
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