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Results 301 - 350 of 940
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Svitek Nicholas N INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, University of Quebec, 531, boul. des Prairies, Laval, Quebec, Canada H7V - - 2007
Severe immunosuppression is a hallmark of Morbillivirus infections. To study the underlying mechanisms, we have developed a ferret model of canine distemper virus infection. The model reproduces all clinical signs of measles, but the lack of ferret-specific reagents has limited the characterization of the cellular immune response. Towards this, we ...
Panicker Gitika - - 2007
Cytokines have progressively come to serve as indicators for the presence or severity of a disease. But accurate measurement of cytokine levels can be deterred by lack of proper handling and storage of the samples. In this study, we attempted to measure the effect of snap-freezing and refrigeration at the ...
Chabalgoity Jose A - - 2007
Cytokines are key regulators of the immune system that shape innate and adaptive immune responses. An adequate balance of the cytokine environment is critical to achieve protective immunity and to avoid immunopathology. Present knowledge allows a deeper understanding of the cytokine network and their sometimes conflicting roles in the development ...
Breslin Sheila - - 2007
Cytokine-release syndrome is a symptom complex associated with the use of many monoclonal antibodies. Commonly referred to as an infusion reaction, it results from the release of cytokines from cells targeted by the antibody as well as immune effector cells recruited to the area. When cytokines are released into the ...
Gabel Christopher A - - 2007
Cytokines serve important functions in controlling host immunity. Cells involved in the synthesis of these polypeptide mediators have evolved highly regulated processes to ensure that production is carefully balanced. In inflammatory and immune disorders, however, mis-regulation of the production and/or activity of cytokines is recognized as a major contributor to ...
Strand Vibeke - - 2007
During the past decade biologic therapies such as monoclonal antibodies and fusion proteins have revolutionized the management of rheumatic disease. By targeting key cytokines and immune cells biologics have provided more specific therapeutic interventions with less immunosuppression. Clinical use, however, has revealed that their theoretical simplicity hides a more complex ...
Wang Cheng C - - 2007
We have demonstrated a microarray format immunoassay using HydroGel-coated slides. HydroGel is a porous substrate based on a polymer matrix that provides a three-dimensional hydrophilic environment similar to free solution suitable for biomolecular interactions. This substrate has been used to develop fluorescence-based multiplexed cytokine immunoassays. Forty-three monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) of ...
Mak Robert H - - 2007
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review will update clinicians and basic scientists who are interested in the clinical relevance and molecular mechanism of uremic cachexia. Recent studies that examine the role of cytokines and hypothalamic neuropeptides are emphasized. RECENT FINDINGS: A current hypothesis of the cause of cachexia in chronic illness ...
Keelan Jeffrey A - - 2007
Preeclampsia is a serious and life-threatening pregnancy complication. Reduced uteroplacental perfusion and oxygen tension, impaired trophoblast differentiation and invasion, and altered placental production of immunomodulators and growth factors are all considered to be important aspects in the aetiology of the condition. The placenta expresses a variety of pro and anti-inflammatory ...
Sachdeva Naresh - - 2007
Assessment of cytokines in body fluids, cells or tissues provides important information in understanding of disease process and designing treatment strategies. Today, wide range of cytokine assays are available, including; measurement of levels of cytokines (direct) or cytokine soluble receptor levels (indirect) in body fluids or cellular supernatants (immunoassays and ...
Zemková M - - 2007
In recent years, a growing number of biological agents such as cytokines, monoclonal antibodies and fusion proteins have become available for the treatment of various autoimmune, neoplastic, cardiovascular, infectious, allergic, and other conditions. Their introduction has resulted in marked clinical improvements for many patients. Nevertheless, a variety of adverse side ...
Chae Younbyoung - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of acupuncture on acute paw edema induced by carrageenan (CR) injection and to detect differential cytokine responses in response to acupuncture stimulation using protein array technology. METHODS: Control group was injected with CR (1%, 50 mul) into the ...
Zhou Xichun - - 2007
The development and characterization of protein microarrays fabricated on nanoengineered three-dimensional polyelectrolyte thin films (PET) deposited on glass slide by consecutive adsorption of polyelectrolytes in solutions through self-assembly process were described. Protein antibodies or antigens were immobilized in the PET-coated glass slides by electrostatic adsorption and entrapment of the porous ...
Maria Isabela Guimarães Campos
Cytokines are important polypeptides mediators of acute and chronic inflammation. These molecules act as a complex immunological network, in which there are pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a), and anti-inflammatory mediators like IL-10 and transforming growth factor-b. In spite of some controversial findings, in ...
Müller Werner - - 2006
Understanding the cytokine network is a very complex task. One way is the dissection of the network by the generation and analysis of mutant mice. As the technology advances more sophisticated approaches toward this goal become available and proof to disclose an even more complex picture of the cytokine network ...
Phillips Donald J - - 2006
The present study describes positive and negative interference of human cytokine measurement in multiplexed bead-based immunoassays. Significant differences in measured IL-6 and TNF-alpha values in 30 normal human plasma samples were apparent depending on whether measurements were with a 2-plex assay or embedded in a multiplex of 8-or more cytokine ...
Lee Michael R - - 2006
This paper reviews the new biologic agents that selectively block the immunologic steps implicated in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Four strategies have been targeted: reduction of the number of pathogenic T cells; inhibition of T-cell activation and migration; modulation of the immune system; and blockage of the activity of inflammatory ...
Petersen John W - - 2006
Multiple lines of evidence support the "cytokine hypothesis," which suggests that inflammation plays an important role in the development and progression of heart failure. Circulating markers of inflammation, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 6, and C-reactive protein, may be useful in establishing the diagnosis, gauging prognosis, and evaluating ...
Sakai Tohru - - 2006
Genistein is a phytoestrogen contained at high levels in soy products and has been shown to regulate immunoresponse. In this study, we evaluated the effects of genistein on the production of cytokines from antigen (Ag)-specific T cells using DO11.10 transgenic mice because the direct effect of genistein on Ag-specific cytokine ...
Nikolajczyk Barbara - - 2006
Understanding the transcriptional regulation of an important class of innate and adaptive immune system effector molecules, the cytokines, is increasingly important given the promise cytokine regulation holds for treating various autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Studies defining the mechanisms regulating cytokine transcription initially focused on identifying the cis-acting elements and trans-acting ...
Dinarello Charles A - - 2006
Cytokines such as IL-1 and TNF are primarily pro-inflammatory. The inflammation induced by these cytokines is reflected in the type of genes they induce. In the pathogenesis of carcinogenesis as well as tumor growth and spread, cytokines such as IL-1 and TNF induce chemokines that attract neutrophils. Neutrophils are key ...
Budhu Anuradha - - 2006
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a frequent malignancy worldwide with a high rate of metastasis. The hepatitis B and C viruses are considered major etiological factors associated with the development of HCC, particularly as a result of their induction of chronic inflammation. There is increasing evidence that the inflammatory process is ...
Malvitte L - - 2007
To investigate the ocular surface inflammatory response to chronic topical treatments in patients with glaucoma by measuring the cytokine level in tears using multiplex bead analysis. Tear samples were collected from 21 patients with glaucoma and 12 healthy volunteers. Tears were analysed for the presence of 17 cytokines: interleukin (IL)1beta, ...
Szodoray P - - 2007
Serum cytokines play an important role in the pathogenesis of psoriatic arthritis (PsA) by initiating and perpetuating various cellular and humoral autoimmune processes. The aim of this study was to describe a broad spectrum of T- and B-cell cytokines, growth factors and chemokines in patients with PsA and healthy individuals. ...
Thipphawong John - - 2006
Cytokine and cytokine antagonist have provided novel and effective therapies for many human diseases. A number of approved cytokines including the interferons (alpha, beta and gamma), interleukin-2 (IL-2), granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) as well as novel cytokine antagonists have been administered by the pulmonary route for both local ...
Pichler W J - - 2006
Biological agents-like cytokines, monoclonal antibodies and fusion proteins are widely used in anti-inflammatory and tumour therapy. They are highly efficient in certain diseases, but can cause a great variety of adverse side-effects. Based on the peculiar features of biological agents a new classification of these adverse side-effects of biological agents ...
Barnes Theresa - - 2006
Over recent years, with many advances in understanding the pathological processes that underlie many inflammatory conditions, it has become clear that targeting cytokines has proven to be highly effective therapeutically. The second International Cytokine symposium, held recently in Manchester UK, has provided an important forum for bringing basic and clinical ...
McKinney Brett A BA Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, - - 2006
Vaccinia virus is reactogenic in a significant number of vaccinees, with the most common adverse events being fever, lymphadenopathy, and rash. Although the inoculation is given in the skin, these adverse events suggest a robust systemic inflammatory response. To elucidate the cytokine response signature of systemic adverse events, we used ...
Yoo Jae Wook - - 2006
Specific knock-down of cellular gene expression using short, interfering RNAs (siRNAs) has become a powerful tool for functional genomics studies and a promising future therapeutic approach. However, recent studies have revealed that siRNAs can trigger an innate immune response upon intravenous administration in mice and transfection into purified immune cells ...
Finnerty Celeste C - - 2006
A severe burn leads to hypermetabolism and catabolism resulting in compromised function and structure of essential organs. The massive release of cytokines is implicated in this hypermetabolic response. The aim of the present study was to compare cytokine expression profiles from severely burned children without signs of infections or inhalation ...
Laird S M - - 2006
One potential cause of reproductive failure such as infertility and recurrent miscarriage may be an endometrial defect. Numerous studies in mice have suggested the importance of various different cytokines in successful pregnancy outcome. This article reviews the literature available on the role of T helper cytokines and IL-1, IL-11, LIF, ...
Masihi K Noel - - 2006
Access to an array of cytokines and synthetic immunomodulators represents a significant milestone in the development of effective therapies for infectious diseases. Several recombinant human cytokines, including interferons and colony-stimulating factors, are licensed and being widely used in clinical practice in patients. The identification of the essential role of coreceptors ...
Spelman Kevin - - 2006
Modulation of cytokine secretion may offer novel approaches in the treatment of a variety of diseases. One strategy in the modulation of cytokine expression may be through the use of herbal medicines. A class of herbal medicines, known as immunomodulators, alters the activity of immune function through the dynamic regulation ...
Salomonsson Stina - - 2006
Recent findings suggest cytokines as important key molecules in the pathogenic mechanisms of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, myositis. In this review, we focus on cytokines with a potential role in disease mechanisms in myositis and present some general information on individual cytokines and an updated summary from the literature concerning cytokines ...
Shapira Michael Y - - 2006
Cytokines produced by immune and non-immune cells serve as potent mediators with the properties of signal cells that coordinate the immune response. They are delivered by cells either to the systemic circulation or to the local environment. They are being used at present in the field of stem cell transplantation ...
Drzyzga Lukasz - - 2006
Growing evidence suggests that the immune, endocrine, and nervous systems interact with each other through cytokines, hormones, and neurotransmitters. The activation of the cytokine systems may be involved in the neuropathological changes occurring in the central nervous system (CNS) of schizophrenic patients. Numerous studies report that treatment with antipsychotic drugs ...
Meager Anthony - - 2006
A large number of cytokines have been characterized, of which several have proved successful in the clinic as biotherapeutic agents for malignant, infectious or autoimmune diseases. As biologically active proteins, they cannot be fully characterized by physicochemical methods alone. Thus, biological assays (bioassays) have become increasingly important for their biological ...
Cox Josephine H - - 2006
The enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay took its design concept from traditional ELISA techniques and evolved over the years from a method for detecting antibodies secreted from B cells to a method for detecting cytokines or other soluble mediators secreted from a variety of different cell types. The ELISPOT assay allows ...
Hill Harry R - - 2006
Cytokines, which are small peptides that act as hormones of the immune system, affect cells throughout the body in a variety of different ways. These cellular signaling molecules often have synergistic or opposing effects on various cell types and often different cytokines have overlapping activities. There is great advantage, therefore, ...
Boyle Michael D P - - 2006
Cytokines are pivotal to a balanced innate or cell-mediated immune response, and can be indicative of disease progression and/or resolution. Methods to measure key cytokines rapidly with accuracy, precision, and sensitivity are consequently important. The current assay technologies, which are based on RT-PCR, immunoassays, or bioassays, are limited in their ...
Chin-Chance Catherine V T - - 2006
Following islet transplant, inflammatory cells in the vicinity of the transplant graft elaborate cytokines that contribute to islet graft dysfunction. To better understand the mechanism for this effect of cytokines on graft function, we examined the impact of cytokines on intracellular signaling and insulin promoter activity in pancreatic beta cells. ...
Conraads Viviane - - 2006
The pathophysiological insights into the chronic heart failure (CHF) syndrome and, consequently, the management of patients with CHF have dramatically changed over the past few decades. Antagonists of the activated neurohormonal pathways are now a mainstay in the therapeutic arsenal. It seems, however, that a neurohormonal ceiling might have been ...
de Jager Wilco - - 2006
Cytokines and chemoattractive cytokines (chemokines) are present in a wide variety of body fluids such as plasma, cerebrospinal fluid, bronchoaveolar fluid, amniotic fluid, synovial fluid, middle ear effusion fluid, and urine. Cytokines can be detected using classical solid-phase sandwich immunoassays such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or with a bead ...
Maxwell J R - - 2006
Genetic variation plays a significant role in the normal functioning of the immune system, and also in the interaction between many common drugs and cellular pathways. With a growing number of cytokine-based therapies now in mainstream clinical use, the prospect of targeting these agents to the individuals likely to benefit ...
Barten Markus J - - 2006
Recently, it has been realized that TH1/TH2 cytokine production offer the unique possibility to predict drug efficacy. However, there is still an incessant need to explore assay conditions and techniques of analyzing cytokines, which are specific and reliable for monitoring drug efficacy. In this study we used the multiplex bead ...
Steinke John W - - 2006
Cytokines and chemokines are secreted proteins with growth, differentiation, and activation functions that regulate the nature of immune responses. Cytokines are involved in nearly every facet of immunity and inflammation, from induction of the innate immune response to the generation of cytotoxic T cells and the development of antibodies by ...
Wu Grace - - 2006
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a biologically heterogeneous disease for which the current approach to treatment is only successful for 50% of patients. The prognostic value of various clinical and biological factors in predicting treatment outcome is discussed in this paper. A review of the English literature was performed ...
Daneshian, Mardas
Human whole blood is an accessible source of primary immune cells and plasma components involved in host defense against infection. It can be used both to study the human inflammatory reaction to microbes and their pyrogenic components and to detect their presence in samples by measuring the production of a ...
Sládková T - - 2006
Influenza A virus is one of the most important causes of respiratory tract diseases. It replicates in epithelial cells and leukocytes resulting in the production of immune mediators--cytokines, substances with various biological effects. Cytokines, as a part of innate immunity, favor the development of antiviral and TH 1-type immune responses. ...
Ma Averil - - 2006
IL-2, IL-15, and IL-7 are cytokines that are critical for regulating lymphoid homeostasis. These cytokines stimulate similar responses from lymphocytes in vitro, but play markedly divergent roles in lymphoid biology in vivo. Their distinct physiological functions can be ascribed to distinct signaling pathways initiated by proprietary cytokine receptor chains, differential ...
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