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Kim Eugene Y EY Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, - - 2008
The pro-inflammatory cytokines play a critical role in the initiation and propagation of autoimmune arthritis and many other disorders resulting from a dysregulated self-directed immune response. These cytokines influence the interplay among the cellular, immunological and biochemical mediators of inflammation at multiple levels. Regulation of the pro-inflammatory activity of these ...
Neyestani Tirang R - - 2009
The effects of black tea extract (BTE) and some of its pure phenolics on human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cytokine secretion were examined in vitro. The main steps of the study included chromatographic analysis of BTE and commercial green tea extract, Polyphenon 60, determination of the total antioxidant capacity ...
Paranavitana Chrysanthi - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Francisella tularensis is an intracellular bacterium known to replicate in monocytes and macrophages and cause tularemia in humans. Because of its infectious nature, F. tularensis is considered a biowarfare agent. Early cytokine profiles of Francisella-infected human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were evaluated. METHODS: Populations of human peripheral ...
Dickinson A M - - 2008
In the last 10 years, non-HLA genotypes have been investigated for their potential roles in the occurrence and severity of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) as well as for their contribution to overall transplant-related mortality, infectious episodes, and overall survival. This chapter will review the latest results of cytokine gene polymorphisms between ...
Calbo Esther - - 2008
Bacterial alveolar invasion is followed by an inflammatory response. A systemic extension of the compartmentalized immune response has been described in patients with severe pneumonia. The data suggest that some antimicrobials may induce a differential release of cytokines. We conducted a prospective, randomized study in adult patients with severe pneumococcal ...
Ogawa Tsuneo - - 2008
The cardiac natriuretic peptides atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) are discoordinately regulated in myocardial inflammation associated with acute allograft rejection in humans and during in vitro exposure of cardiocyte cultures to some proinflammatory cytokines. We used experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) to determine whether the discoordinate regulation ...
Siebert Janet C - - 2008
Understanding cytokine profiles of disease states has provided researchers with great insight into immunologic signaling associated with disease onset and progression, affording opportunities for advancement in diagnostics and therapeutic intervention. Multiparameter flow cytometric assays support identification of specific cytokine secreting subpopulations. Bead-based assays provide simultaneous measurement for the production of ...
Uçeyler Nurcan - - 2008
Cytokines are soluble proteins secreted mainly by immune cells and are key players in the induction and maintenance of pain. Pro-inflammatory cytokines are mostly algesic, while anti-inflammatory cytokines have analgesic properties. After the role of cytokines was shown in diverse animal models of pain, interest arose in the systemic and ...
Lata Sneh - - 2008
Cytokines are messengers of immune system. They are small secreted proteins that mediate and regulate the immune system, inflammation and hematopoiesis. Recent studies have revealed important roles played by the cytokines in adjuvants as therapeutic targets and in cancer therapy. In this paper, an attempt has been made to predict ...
Pappu Bhanu P - - 2008
Interleukin 17 (IL-17) family consists of six cytokines in mammals. Among them, IL-17 and IL-17F are expressed by a novel subset of CD4+ helper T (Th) cells and play critical function in inflammation and autoimmunity. On the other hand, IL-17E, also called IL-25, has been associated with allergic responses. Here ...
Jazayeri Jalal A - - 2008
The application of Fc (fragment crystallizable)-based cytokines (the fusion of the constant region of IgG to a cytokine of interest) as biotherapeutic agents to modulate inflammatory and immune responses has become increasingly popular in recent years. This is because in their monomeric form, cytokines are relatively small molecules with short ...
Robertshaw Heidi J - - 2008
Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines are elevated after cardiac surgery. The control of the release of these major paracrine proteins is becoming clearer and they have been shown to be involved in the activation of the coagulation/fibrinolysis pathway, among other cascades. The association of a predominance of pro-inflammatory cytokines with morbidity ...
Sheu Bor-Ching - - 2008
During carcinoma formation, cancer cells release various cytokines and growth factors into their surroundings and recruit and reprogram many other types of cells in order to establish a tumor microenvironment. Consequently, the tumor tissues almost always contain a large number of endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and infiltrating inflammatory cells that in ...
Conti-Fine Bianca M - - 2008
Although human and experimental acquired myasthenia gravis (MG) are prototypic antibody (Ab)-mediated autoimmune diseases, synthesis of the pathogenic anti-acetylcholine receptor (AChR) Abs, which are high affinity IgG, requires intervention of CD4(+) T helper cells and their cytokines. Moreover, cytokine signaling is crucial for development, modulation, and downregulation of immune responses, ...
Chen David - - 2008
In patients with chronic heart failure, ongoing myocardial injury partially results from activation of the inflammatory system, with production and release of proinflammatory cytokines, activation of the complement system, production of autoantibodies, overexpression of major histocompatibility complex molecules, and expression of adhesion molecules that may perpetuate the inflammatory state. Acute ...
Nechansky Andreas - - 2008
Serum parameters as indicators for the efficacy of therapeutic drugs are currently in the focus of intensive research. The induction of certain cytokines (or cytokine patterns) is known to be related to the status of the immune response e.g. in regulating the T(H)1/T(H)2 balance. Regarding their potential value as surrogate ...
Liang DeYong - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The chronic use of opioids prior to surgery leads to lowered pain thresholds and exaggerated pain levels after these procedures. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain this heightened sensitivity commonly termed opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH). Most of these proposed mechanisms involve plastic events in the central or peripheral nervous ...
Kapczynski Darrell R - - 2008
Functional and molecular techniques have both been employed to measure the production of cytokines following influenza infection. Historically, the use of functional or antibody-based techniques was employed in mammalian immunology. In avian immunology, only a few commercial antibodies are available to measure avian cytokines. However, the determination of the genomic ...
Carrero Juan Jesus - - 2008
As the kidney is the major site for elimination of many cytokines, the delicate equilibrium of pro-inflammatory cytokines and their inhibitors is clearly dysregulated in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. The consequences of the altered immune response in uremia lead to a state of persistent inflammation which is highly prevalent ...
Meirovich Yael F - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Cardiac natriuretic peptides (NPs) atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) are polypeptide hormones secreted by the heart. Previously, we found that BNP, but not ANF, plasma levels may increase during an acute cellular cardiac allograft rejection episode. In vitro, the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and tumor ...
Stefura William P - - 2008
ELISAs offer excellent specificity and, once fully optimized, sensitivity that rivals that of bioassays. The major variables that need to be experimentally determined when developing an ELISA are the optimal number of fresh cells required per well, the optimal antigen concentrations for stimulation, period of culture, and the anticipated intensity ...
Costa Rosane Dias - - 2008
Leprosy is an infectious and contagious spectral disease accompanied by a series of immunological events triggered by the host's response to the etiologic agent, Mycobacterium leprae. Evidence suggests that the induction and maintenance of the immune/inflammatory response in leprosy are linked to multiple cell interactions and soluble factors, mainly through ...
Stumhofer J S - - 2007
The discovery of the Th17 lineage of T helper cells and the realization that this subset was implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of inflammatory conditions has lead to an intense effort devoted to identifying the cytokines and transcription factors that promote their development. In contrast, less attention has ...
Toedter Gary - - 2008
The accurate detection and quantitation of cytokines in serum are important in the study of disease mechanisms, pathogenesis, and treatment. Serum cytokines can reflect processes that are occurring at the cellular or tissue level and thus provide a means of indirectly monitoring these processes. Multiplex detection of cytokines allows the ...
Pappu Bhanu P - - 2007
Upon antigenic stimulation, naive CD4+ T cells undergo proliferation and differentiate into cytokine-producing T helper (T(H)) effector cells. T(H)1 cells secrete effector cytokine IFN-gamma and regulate cell-mediated immunity, whereas T(H)2 cells produce IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 cytokines, and mediate immunity against extracellular pathogens and allergic reactions. Recent studies have identified ...
Davies Andrew L - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To determine the serum cytokine profiles of patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) and varying clinical presentations relative to healthy, able-bodied, age-matched control subjects. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Clinical research unit. PARTICIPANTS: People with SCI (N=56) and different clinical presentations, and healthy, able-bodied, age-matched control subjects (N=35). INTERVENTIONS: Not ...
de Carvalho Daniel S - - 2007
A wide range of pathologies are affected by unbalanced cytokine production namely autoimmune, metabolic and infectious diseases. The intrinsic regulation of the pathways involved are very complex, as they include incomplete described intracellular signaling pathways and the pleiotropic cytokine balance within the inflammatory mediators network. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) is ...
Dinarello Charles A - - 2007
Cytokines affect nearly every biological process; these include embryonic development, disease pathogenesis, non-specific response to infection, specific response to antigen, changes in cognitive functions and progression of the degenerative processes of aging. In addition, cytokines are part of stem cell differentiation, vaccine efficacy and allograft rejection. This short insight focuses ...
Lieberman Jay A - - 2008
Cytokines in cervical mucus are likely to play important roles in controlling pathogens. The cervical mucosal environment is complex, however, with many endogenous and exogenous factors that may affect cytokine levels. We used a multiplex, suspension-array-based immunoassay method to measure 10 proinflammatory (interleukin-1beta [IL-1beta], IL-6, and IL-8) and immunoregulatory (gamma ...
Tayal Vandana - - 2008
Cytokines which comprise of a family of proteins--interleukins, lymphokines, monokines, interferons, and chemokines, are important components of the immune system. They act in concert with specific cytokine inhibitors and soluble cytokine receptors to regulate the human immune response. Their physiologic role in inflammation and pathologic role in systemic inflammatory states ...
Kim-Schulze Seunghee - - 2007
This review provides a review of the basic biology of the major cytokines under consideration for use in tumor immunotherapy. The authors also describe the clinical role of cytokine therapy for human tumors, with a focus on melanoma and renal cell carcinoma. Finally, they present details of new cytokines and ...
Yeh Steven - - 2007
The pathogenic mechanisms underlying uveitis syndromes continue to be evaluated using animal models and in the clinical setting. As the complex interactions between ocular immune cells, proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines and cellular adhesion molecules are uncovered, targeted therapies directed against these immune mediators will continue to be developed. Traditional immunosuppressive medications, ...
Simon N M - - 2008
Recent technological advances offer an opportunity to further elucidate the complex cytokine network in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Twenty cytokines were simultaneously assessed in 49 individuals with MDD and 49 age and gender matched controls. Multiple pro-inflammatory and two anti-inflammatory cytokines were significantly elevated in the MDD sample, including an ...
Tournadre Anne - - 2007
After background information about pathologic findings, this review focuses on the cytokine response in the pathogenesis of polymyositis and dermatomyositis. Cytokines are important mediators of the immune response and play a key role in these diseases by acting on inflammatory immune cells, muscle cells, and vessel cells. Various cytokines are ...
Khatri Aparajita - - 2007
Cell line-based bioassays are becoming increasingly popular for assessment of biological activities of cytokines primarily because these are easy to perform and are not subject to donor variation. A well characterised cell line with world wide availability would further minimise the inter-assay variations. C57BL/6 mice derived T cell line; CTLL-2 ...
Raghupathy Raj - - 2007
PROBLEM: To study the ability of dydrogesterone to modulate the production of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines by lymphocytes from women undergoing pre-term delivery (PTD). METHOD OF STUDY: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 18 subjects undergoing PTD were stimulated with the mitogen phytohemagglutinin in the presence and absence of progesterone ...
Bruno P P - - 2007
The pathogenesis of migraine is still unclear, but much evidence led us hypothesize that it can be associated with immune system modification, so that a role for cytokines has been suggested. Cytokines are important mediators of the immune and inflammatory pathways and their receptors are widely express in central nervous ...
Lui Wing-Yee - - 2007
Studies in the past decade in the field have demonstrated the significance of cytokines in regulating epithelial and endothelial cell junctions including tight and anchoring junctions in multiple organs including the testis. There are mounting evidences in recent years that cytokines play a crucial role in the restructuring of junctions ...
Duddy Martin - - 2007
Although recent animal studies have fuelled growing interest in Ab-independent functions of B cells, relatively little is known about how human B cells and their subsets may contribute to the regulation of immune responses in either health or disease. In this study, we first confirm that effector cytokine production by ...
Yndestad Arne - - 2007
Chronic heart failure (HF) is a disorder characterized in part by immune activation and inflammation. Thus, patients with HF have elevated levels of a number of inflammatory cytokines, both in the circulation and in the failing heart itself. Several mechanisms for this immune activation, which are not mutually exclusive, have ...
Strouse Thomas B - - 2007
Cytokines are small protein molecules secreted in response to immune stimuli. Recent research has outlined important roles for proinflammatory cytokines in the cascade of normal physiologic responses to environmental stresses, encompassing so-called sickness behavior that is thought to be an adaptive response to infection and other illnesses. Cytokines are involved ...
Kverka Miloslav - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Human colostrum and milk contain components that influence development. Our aim was to use a protein array to determine the cytokine profile of human lacteal secretions and changes that occur during the early postpartum period. METHODS: We collected 17 samples of colostrum during the first 2 days postpartum and ...
Młodzikowska-Albrecht Justyna - - 2007
In recent years, the functional disturbances of the immune system, both humoral and cell-mediated immunity, have been detected more often among persons with epilepsy than in general population. A number of irregularities in cytokine production have been found in epileptic patients. It shows that epileptic seizures stimulate, per se, synthesis ...
Middleton Rachel K RK Vascular Surgery Group, Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK. - - 2007
Cytokines are inflammatory mediators implicated in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) pathogenesis. The cytokine expression profile of the AAA is poorly defined and has focused on the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, at the expense of chemokines and growth factors. This study aims to investigate the cytokine expression profile of the established ...
Ho Ching-Liang - - 2007
Recently developed human cytokine array membranes combine the individual assets of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, enhanced chemiluminescence, and the high-throughput of microspot in order to detect multiple plasma cytokines simultaneously. We employed such a system to evaluate the presence and quantity of 79 different cytokines in the plasma of 20 patients ...
Svitek Nicholas - - 2007
Severe immunosuppression is a hallmark of Morbillivirus infections. To study the underlying mechanisms, we have developed a ferret model of canine distemper virus infection. The model reproduces all clinical signs of measles, but the lack of ferret-specific reagents has limited the characterization of the cellular immune response. Towards this, we ...
Panicker Gitika - - 2007
Cytokines have progressively come to serve as indicators for the presence or severity of a disease. But accurate measurement of cytokine levels can be deterred by lack of proper handling and storage of the samples. In this study, we attempted to measure the effect of snap-freezing and refrigeration at the ...
Chabalgoity Jose A - - 2007
Cytokines are key regulators of the immune system that shape innate and adaptive immune responses. An adequate balance of the cytokine environment is critical to achieve protective immunity and to avoid immunopathology. Present knowledge allows a deeper understanding of the cytokine network and their sometimes conflicting roles in the development ...
Breslin Sheila - - 2007
Cytokine-release syndrome is a symptom complex associated with the use of many monoclonal antibodies. Commonly referred to as an infusion reaction, it results from the release of cytokines from cells targeted by the antibody as well as immune effector cells recruited to the area. When cytokines are released into the ...
Gabel Christopher A - - 2007
Cytokines serve important functions in controlling host immunity. Cells involved in the synthesis of these polypeptide mediators have evolved highly regulated processes to ensure that production is carefully balanced. In inflammatory and immune disorders, however, mis-regulation of the production and/or activity of cytokines is recognized as a major contributor to ...
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