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Results 201 - 250 of 939
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Strangman Wendy K WK Center for Marine Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0204, - - 2009
Cytokines produced through the antigen presenting cell (APC)-T-cell interaction play a key role in the activation of the allergic asthmatic response. Evaluating small molecules that inhibit the production of these pro-inflammatory proteins is therefore important for the discovery of novel chemical structures with potential antiasthma activity. We adapted a mouse ...
Foster Rebecca - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: To compare the differential effects of highly purified (HP) hMG or recombinant FSH (rFSH) on cytokine expression before and after ovulation in an in vitro mouse ovarian follicle model. DESIGN: A prospective laboratory in vitro study. SETTING: A university-based reproductive biology laboratory. MATERIAL(S): Mechanically isolated mouse preantral follicles from ...
Haraldsen Guttorm - - 2009
Cytokines are thought to exert biological effects through their specific cell surface membrane receptors but increasing evidence suggests that some also function within the nucleus. Here, we review current knowledge of such cytokines, including the novel interleukin (IL)-1 family member IL-33. Its extracellular function has attracted much recent attention as ...
Zídek Z - - 2009
The major concern of pharmacology about cytokines has originated from plentiful data showing association between gross changes in their production and pathophysiological processes. Despite the enigmatic role of cytokines in diseases, a number of them have become a subject of cytokine and anti-cytokine immunotherapies. Production of cytokines can be influenced ...
Kiefer Daniel G - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the relationship between the degree of cervical shortening and intraamniotic inflammation in patients presenting with a midtrimester short cervix. STUDY DESIGN: Amniocentesis was performed on singleton pregnancies between 16-24 weeks' gestation with a sonographic cervical length (CL) </= 25 mm. The fluid was assayed for ...
Shamji Mohammed F MF Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC 27710, - - 2009
The authors investigated gait abnormalities and mechanical hypersensitivity associated with invertebral disc herniation in a rat model of radiculopathy. Further evaluation involved assessing how nucleus pulposus (NP) injury affected systemic cytokine expression and molecular changes at the dorsal root ganglion (DRG). The objective of this work was to describe the ...
Landolfi Jennifer A - - 2009
Infectious disease is an important factor in Asian elephant health and long-term species survival. In studying disease pathogenesis, it is important to consider not only the pathogen, but also the effectiveness of the host immune response. Currently, there is a paucity of information available on elephant immune function. Measurement of ...
Fildes James E - - 2009
Despite current treatment options, the clinical course of patients with chronic heart failure is notoriously difficult to predict. Among those with similar etiologies, ejection fractions, and patient demographics, our understanding of why such variations in outcomes exist remains limited. Evidence that has been progressively gathered implicates an important role of ...
Park Eun-Jung - - 2009
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TNP) are nanomaterials which have various applications including photocatalysts, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals because of their high stability, anticorrosiveness, and photocatalytic properties. Induction of cytokines and potential chronic inflammation were investigated in mice treated with TNP (5 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg, and 50 mg/kg) by a single intratracheal instillation. ...
Uçeyler Nurcan N Department of Neurology, University of Würzburg, Josef-Schneider-Str. 11, 97080 Würzburg, - - 2009
Cytokines are pluripotent soluble proteins secreted by immune and glial cells and are key elements in the induction and maintenance of pain. They are categorized as pro-inflammatory cytokines, which are mostly algesic, and anti-inflammatory cytokines, which have analgesic properties. Progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms underlying the action ...
Stow Jennifer L - - 2009
Cytokines and other immune mediators are secreted by cells of the immune system during immune responses and as a means of communication. While the functions of these cytokines, chemokines and mediators are well known, the intracellular pathways that lead to their secretion by different cells are only now being fully ...
Millar N L - - 2009
The role of inflammatory cells and their products in tendinopathy is not completely understood. Pro-inflammatory cytokines are upregulated after oxidative and other forms of stress. Based on observations that increased cytokine expression has been demonstrated in cyclically-loaded tendon cells we hypothesised that because of their role in oxidative stress and ...
Spolski Rosanne - - 2009
Th17 cells were identified as an independent lineage of CD4(+) T cells that secrete a distinctive set of immunoregulatory cytokines, including IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-22, and IL-21. These cytokines collectively play roles in inflammation and autoimmunity and in response to extracellular pathogens. The expression of the lineage-specific transcription factor RORgammat leads ...
Elsawa Sherine F - - 2009
Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (WM) is a lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma characterized by the overproduction of a monoclonal IgM protein that accumulates in the serum. Although the pathologic findings in this disease entity are reasonably well defined, the mechanisms that regulate malignant B-cell growth and monoclonal protein synthesis are less well understood. Cytokines are ...
Zhang Zuobing - - 2009
The application of immunostimulants may be a cost-effective practice in production of delicate and fragile fish fry since it may confer disease resistance. Bath administration to fish fry is considered an ideal delivery route for mass manipulation since there is no need for individual handling. In the current study, rainbow ...
Chang Seon Hee SH Department of Immunology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA. - - 2009
The IL-17 cytokine family is composed of six members. IL-17F, discovered in 2001, recently has drawn increasing attention due to its greatest similarity to IL-17, a widely recognized inflammatory cytokine. The genes encoding IL-17 and IL-17F are localized in the same chromosomal region and are co-expressed by CD4+ and gammadelta ...
Saito Yasunori - - 2009
Intravenously injected plasmid DNA (pDNA) complexed with cationic liposome (lipoplexes) caused NF-kappaB-mediated cytokine production from macrophages, induced by CpG sequence in the pDNA. We have reported that cytokine production caused by linear polyethyleneimine (PEI)-pDNA complexes (PEI polyplexes) was much lower than that caused by lipoplexes (Kawakami, S., Ito, Y., Charoensit, ...
Chudziak D - - 2009
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Leucocyte-derived cytokines accumulate in stored whole blood. Pre-storage leucocyte depletion has reduced cytokine levels and, consequently, febrile non-haemolytic transfusion reactions. As leucocyte filtration and component separation can be performed until 24 h after donation, we hypothesized that within this time, inflammatory cytokines might accumulate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ...
Otsuka Kaoru - - 2009
S100A8/A9 is expressed in activated monocytes/macrophages and assumed to be heavily involved in the pathogenesis of acute inflammation. Although several studies have asserted that S100A8/A9 has a proinflammatory function, the exact biological function of S100A8/A9 is yet to be described. We examined the anti-inflammatory effects of S100A8/A9 on experimental autoimmune ...
Amara Rama Rao - - 2009
Ex vivo enumeration of the absolute frequencies of antigen-specific T cells is key for evaluating the immunogenicity of T cell-based vaccines. Currently there are three methods that are widely used to quantify cellular immune responses: Enzyme-Linked Immuno Spot assay (ELISpot), Intracellular Cytokine Staining assay (ICS) and Tetramer assay. These three ...
Chizzolini Carlo - - 2009
Biological systems have powerful inbuilt mechanisms of control intended to maintain homeostasis. Cytokines are no exception to this rule, and imbalance in cytokine activities may lead to inflammation with subsequent tissue and organ damage, altered function, and death. Balance is achieved through multiple, not mutually exclusive, mechanisms including the simultaneous ...
Mosmann Tim R - - 2009
Although T cell effector subsets, defined by cytokine patterns, have been recognized for more than 20 years, the functional cytokine expression patterns in vivo are still in considerable doubt, particularly for human T cells. At least three new subsets have been recently identified, but the committed cytokine pattern of a ...
de Jager Wilco - - 2009
Subsets of T cells can be distinguished on basis of their cytokine production and secretion profile.With the critical role of cytokines in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses, cytokines hold the promise to become the ideal biomarkers to monitor development and progression of immune-mediated diseases, study the development of ...
de Jager Wilco - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Growing knowledge about cellular interactions in the immune system, including the central role of cytokine networks, has lead to new treatments using monoclonal antibodies that block specific components of the immune system. Systemic cytokine concentrations can serve as surrogate outcome parameters of these interventions to study inflammatory pathways operative ...
Ahmed Raija K S - - 2009
Identification of epitopes defined by T-cell responses aids to (1) monitor antigen-specific cellular immune responses (2) guide rational vaccine design, and (3) understand the nature of protective or harmful T-cell responses in diseases with defined target antigens. The 6-h intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) assay preferentially identifies effector T cells that ...
Gibb Julie - - 2009
Activation of the inflammatory immune system has been associated with the development of psychological disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD). In this regard, the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines (signaling molecules of the immune system) provokes a constellation of neurochemical and behavioral alterations, reminiscent of the effects of traditional stressors, ...
Eklund Carita M - - 2009
Low-grade inflammation, a minor elevation in the baseline concentration of inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP), is nowadays recognized as an important underlying condition in many common diseases. Concentrations of CRP under 10 mg/1 are called low-grade inflammation and values above that are considered as clinically significant inflammatory states. ...
Costantini Susan - - 2009
Cytokines are subdivided in 12 sub-families and are described as multi-functional molecules that play an important biological activity in host defense system against pathogens, in homeostasis, tissue repair, cell growth and development. CytokineDB is an annotated database that collects biological information regarding the cytokines family in human and will be ...
Fletcher Mary Ann - - 2009
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) studies from our laboratory and others have described cytokine abnormalities. Other studies reported no difference between CFS and controls. However, methodologies varied widely and few studies measured more than 4 or 5 cytokines. Multiplex technology permits the determination of cytokines for a large panel of cytokines ...
Morceau F - - 2009
Anemia of cancer and chronic inflammatory diseases is a frequent complication affecting quality of life. For cancer patients it represents a particularly bad prognostic. Low level of erythropoietin is considered as one of the causes of anemia in these pathologies. The deficiency in erythropoietin production results from pro-inflammatory cytokines effect. ...
Gabay Cem - - 2009
A better understanding of cytokine biology over the last two decades has allowed the successful development of cytokine inhibitors against tumour necrosis factor and interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6. The introduction of these therapies should be considered a breakthrough in the management of several rheumatic diseases. However, many patients will exhibit ...
Golledge Alexandra L V AL Vascular Biology Unit, School of Medicine, James Cook University, Townsville, - - 2009
Inflammation is critical in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) but there is no current consensus on which inflammation related cytokines are important. The aim of this review was to systemically assess previous studies investigating the relative expression of inflammation associated cytokines within human AAA samples. The MEDLINE database was searched for ...
Amsen Derk D Department of Cell Biology and Histology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The - - 2009
There is an increasing awareness of the role of inflammation in cancer. Immune responses can limit the growth of some tumors, but paradoxically, may promote the growth of others. Cytokines are critical mediators of both the innate and the adaptive immune responses. In this chapter, we will describe several methods ...
Togo Fumiharu F Pain & Fatigue Study Center, Department of Neurosciences, UMDNJ-New Jersey Medical School, 1618 ADMC, 30 Bergen Street, Newark, NJ 07103, - - 2009
We examined the pattern of cytokine secretion across the 24-hr day for women with widespread pain and tenderness having the diagnosis of fibromyalgia (FM) and matched healthy controls. Subjects were given time to habituate to being in a clinical research laboratory environment and then were sampled for cytokines without their ...
Vollmer-Conna Ut? - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Functional polymorphisms in immune response genes are increasingly recognized as important contributors to the marked individual differences in susceptibility to and outcomes of infectious disease. The acute sickness response is a stereotypical set of illness manifestations mediated by the proinflammatory cytokines induced by many different pathogens. The genetic determinants ...
Delavallée Laure - - 2008
Most chronic inflammatory diseases have an unknown etiology but all involve cytokine cascade in their development. Several cytokines have been identified as major targets in various autoimmune diseases, resulting in the development of monoclonal antibodies against those cytokines. Even if monoclonal antibodies are indeed efficient, passive immunotherapies present some disadvantages ...
Calleja-Agius Jean - - 2008
Recurrent miscarriage is defined as three or more consecutive miscarriages before 20 weeks of gestation. This condition is a frequent reproductive problem worldwide, affecting up to 1% of couples. Immune effector cell dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of early pregnancy loss. This dysfunction may involve defects in cytokines, ...
Fouser Lynette A - - 2008
T-helper 17 (Th17) cells are a new lineage of CD4(+) T cells that are characterized by their production of interleukin-17A (IL-17A). Recent studies show that these cells can also express IL-17F, IL-22, and IL-21. IL-17A and IL-17F can form a heterodimeric cytokine, which mediates biological activities, at least in part, ...
Dong Chen C Department of Immunology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA. - - 2008
The interleukin-17 (IL-17) family consists of six cytokines in mammals. Among them, IL-17 and IL-17F are expressed by a novel subset of CD4(+) helper T cells and play critical function in inflammation and autoimmunity. IL-17E, also called IL-25, has been associated with allergic responses. Here, I summarize recent work by ...
Martinez-Taboada Victor Manuel - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To summarize the contribution of cytokines to pathogenesis, clinical manifestations and prognosis of polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) and giant cell arteritis (GCA). METHODS: MEDLINE database search for studies published between 1980 and April 2008. RESULTS: PMR and GCA are characterized by a hyperproduction of IL-6. The role of other circulating ...
Feldmann Marc - - 2008
Cytokines are a large family of more than 100 small proteins that function as short-range mediators involved in essentially all biological processes. They have been found to be important rate-limiting signals, and it is now known that blocking some cytokines, e.g., TNF-alpha, and cytokine receptors, such as human EGFR 1 ...
Shah Kalpesh - - 2009
Several studies show cytokine concentrations in the peripheral blood are associated with inflammatory activity and surgical trauma. Cytokine concentrations have more rapid increase and quicker return to normal values than either C-reactive protein or erythrocyte sedimentation rate - a matter of hours rather than weeks; some studies suggest they are ...
Allen, Charlotte Annette, 1970-
The replication of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) in macrophages not only leads to cell death, but also to the induction of a variety of cytokines that may affect immune function. Cytokine production may be responsible for the fever, anorexia, hemorrhages, lethargy or thrombocytopenia seen in the acute and chronic ...
Seruga Bostjan - - 2008
Tumours contain immune cells and a network of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, which collaborate in the development and progression of cancer. Cytokine profiles might prove to be prognostic. The systemic effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines are associated with fatigue, depression and cognitive impairment, and can affect quality of life before, during ...
Smaldone Marc C - - 2009
The urinary proteome is a potential easily accessible source of biomarkers for inflammatory bladder diseases, including interstitial cystitis. In the present study, we subjected rat urine to multiplex cytokine analysis in an attempt to identify an inflammatory signature of the temporal course of cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced cystitis. Rat urine was collected ...
Capaldo Christopher T CT Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, - - 2009
Epithelial and endothelial tight junctions act as a rate-limiting barrier between an organism and its environment. Continuing studies have highlighted the regulation of the tight junction barrier by cytokines. Elucidation of this interplay is vital for both the understanding of physiological tight junction regulation and the etiology of pathological conditions. ...
Coca Andreea - - 2008
The introduction of biological agents in the treatment of systemic vasculitis offers the promise of targeted therapy with greater efficacy and fewer side effects than conventional treatments. In this paper, we review the rationale for biological strategies in vasculitis and discuss the results of clinical studies to date. The biotherapies ...
Wilson Debra Rose - - 2008
PURPOSE: This study aims to review the cytokines that mediate the inflammatory process, the interleukins and the interferons, and the interaction of cytokines with serotonin as causative factors in the role of depression. CONCLUSIONS: Administration of proinflammatory cytokines to treat medical diseases induces depressive symptoms in humans. Patients diagnosed with ...
Margolin Kim - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Cytokines provide important intercellular signals in inflammation, immunity and tumor and endothelial cell biology. Several cytokines have therapeutic potential when delivered exogenously alone or in combinations with chemotherapy or other biological agents. OBJECTIVES: To summarize current data on the biology and therapeutic use of human cytokines in malignancy. METHODS: ...
Al-Banna Nadia - - 2008
Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of diarrhea in humans. A mouse lung model of infection was previously established for C. jejuni. We used this model to study cytokine production in the lungs and correlated it with pathological changes. C. jejuni strain 81-176 or sterile phosphate-buffered saline was intranasally inoculated ...
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