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Haschemi Arvand - - 2011
Carbon monoxide (CO) dampens pro-inflammatory responses in a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) dependent manner. Previously, we demonstrated that CO inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of the proinflammatory early growth response-1 (Egr-1) transcription factor in macrophages via activation of PPARγ. Here, we further characterize the molecular ...
Sargsyan Siranush A - - 2011
Overexpression of mutant copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) in rodents has provided useful models for studying the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Microglia have been shown to contribute to ALS disease progression in these models, although the mechanism of this contribution remains to be elucidated. Here, we present the first ...
Smith Benjamin - - 2011
Infantile Krabbe disease results in the accumulation of lipid-raft-associated galactosylsphingosine (psychosine), demyelination, neurodegeneration and premature death. Recently, axonopathy has been depicted as a contributing factor in the progression of neurodegeneration in the Twitcher mouse, a bona fide mouse model of Krabbe disease. Analysis of the temporal-expression profile of MBP (myelin ...
Ramos-Sevillano Elisa - - 2011
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common colonizer of the human nasopharynx and one of the major pathogens causing invasive disease worldwide. Dissection of the molecular pathways responsible for colonization, invasion, and evasion of the immune system will provide new targets for antimicrobial or vaccine therapies for this common pathogen. We have ...
Gregory-Evans Cheryl Y - - 2011
We recently demonstrated that molecular therapy using aminoglycosides can overcome the underlying genetic defect in two zebrafish models of ocular coloboma and showed abnormal cell death to be a key feature associated with the optic fissure closure defects. In further studies to identify molecular therapies for this common congenital malformation, ...
Beare Paul A - - 2011
Central to Q fever pathogenesis is replication of the causative agent, Coxiella burnetii, within a phagolysosome-like parasitophorous vacuole (PV) in mononuclear phagocytes. C. burnetii modulates PV biogenesis and other host cell functions, such as apoptotic signaling, presumably via the activity of proteins delivered to the host cytosol by a Dot/Icm ...
Blaser Cornelia - - 2011
Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common pathogen causing non-epidemic bacterial meningitis worldwide. The immune response and inflammatory processes contribute to the pathophysiology. Hence, the anti-inflammatory dexamethasone is advocated as adjuvant treatment although its clinical efficacy remains a question at issue. In experimental models of pneumococcal meningitis, dexamethasone increased neuronal damage ...
Liu Shuliang - - 2011
Citrobacter koseri (C. koseri) is a Gram-negative bacterium that can cause a highly aggressive form of neonatal meningitis, which often progresses to establish multi-focal brain abscesses. The roles of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and its signaling adaptor MyD88 during CNS C. koseri infection have not yet been examined, which is ...
Bonifait Laetitia - - 2011
Streptococcus suis is a major swine pathogen worldwide that causes meningitis, septicemia, arthritis, and endocarditis. Using animal models, a surface-associated subtilisin-like protease (SspA) has recently been shown to be an important virulence factor for S. suis. In this study, we hypothesized that the S. suis SspA subtilisin-like protease may modulate ...
Thywißen Andreas - - 2011
Aspergillus fumigatus is the most important air-borne fungal pathogen of humans. The interaction of the pathogen with the host's immune system represents a key process to understand pathogenicity. For elimination of invading microorganisms, they need to be efficiently phagocytosed and located in acidified phagolysosomes. However, as shown previously, A. fumigatus ...
Graves Dana T DT Department of Periodontics, School of Dental Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, - - 2011
Both lesions of endodontic origin and periodontal diseases involve the host response to bacteria and the formation of osteolytic lesions. Important for both is the upregulation of inflammatory cytokines that initiate and sustain the inflammatory response. Also important are chemokines that induce recruitment of leukocyte subsets and bone-resorptive factors that ...
Tymkiw Keelen D KD Department of Periodontics, College of Dentistry, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, - - 2011
The aim of this study was to compare the expression of 22 chemokines and cytokines in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) from smokers and non-smokers with periodontitis and periodontally healthy control subjects. Forty subjects with generalized severe chronic periodontitis (20 smokers and 20 non-smokers) and 12 periodontally healthy control subjects participated ...
van Sorge Nina M NM Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, - - 2011
Salmonella meningitis is a serious disease of the central nervous system, common particularly in Africa. Here, we show that Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is able to adhere, invade, and penetrate human brain microvascular endothelial cells (hBMECs), the single-cell layer constituting the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Cellular invasion was dependent on host ...
Deshmukh Sachin D SD Centre of Chronic Immunodeficiency, Medical Centre, University Freiburg, Breisacherstrasse 117, Freiburg 79106, - - 2011
Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of both neonatal sepsis and meningitis, two diseases that are characterized by inflammation. However, the manner in which GBS organisms are recognized by monocytes and macrophages is poorly understood. In this study, we report that the recognition of GBS and other Gram-positive ...
Ebe N - - 2011
High-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) protein acts as a transcription factor in the nucleus and also as a pro-inflammatory cytokine when released into extracellular fluids. The presence of higher levels of HMGB1 is reported in the gingival crevicular fluid from periodontal patients. Since the proliferation of bacteria within the periodontal pocket ...
Gironi Maira - - 2010
To better understand the presumed immune system dysregulation of chronic dysimmune neuropathy (CDN) patients, we designed a study to evaluate the levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the most common forms of CDN: chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), and anti-myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG)-related polyneuropathy (MAGnp). Sixteen patients fulfilled diagnostic criteria ...
Croxford Andrew L - - 2011
Cytokines are soluble messenger molecules with important regulatory functions throughout the immune system. 'Cytokine reporter' strains express marker molecules under control of elements from cytokine genes allowing for easy identification of their cellular sources. Such systems are well-accepted tools for research of cytokine function. The value of these strains lies ...
Kim Jee Taek - - 2011
The purpose of the study is to evaluate the causes of inflammation in Demodex-induced blepharitis by analyzing cytokine levels in lacrimal fluid. Fifteen Demodex blepharitis patients were selected for assessment of tear cytokine concentrations. Fifteen Demodex-free blepharitis patients and 15 subjects with no ocular symptoms were selected as control groups. ...
Siebert Janet C - - 2010
Measuring cytokine production is an integral part of measuring immune response during immunotherapy. Current technologies allow the simultaneous quantification of multiple cytokines in a variety of tissues. Patterns of cytokine response can be referred to as cytokine profiles. This article discusses the experimental design and data analysis of a number ...
Nokhbehsaim Marjan - - 2010
Orthodontic malpractice as well as hyperocclusal forces can aggravate periodontitis-induced destruction of tooth-supporting tissues, but the underlying mechanisms for the co-destructive effect of biomechanical loading are yet to be elucidated. This in-vitro study was performed to investigate whether biomechanical forces modulate the response of periodontal ligament (PDL) cells to inflammation. ...
Rosenbaum James T - - 2010
To review biological therapies as they pertain to the treatment of inflammatory eye diseases, especially uveitis. Biological therapies including antibodies, soluble receptors, and cytokines are being tested increasingly for a variety of ocular inflammations. As a class, tumor necrosis factor inhibitors have arguably been the most widely employed and have ...
Duo Jia J Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Center for Biotechnology and Interdisciplinary Studies, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180, - - 2011
Heparin-immobilized microspheres were included in microdialysis sampling perfusion fluids under both in vitro and in vivo conditions to improve the recovery of different cytokines, acidic fibroblast growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (or CCL2), and regulation upon activation normal T cell express sequence (or CCL5). Different strategies ...
Rousseau Francois - - 2010
IL-27, consisting of the subunits IL-27p28 and Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 3 (EBI3), is a heterodimeric cytokine belonging to the IL-6/IL-12 family of cytokines. IL-27p28 is a four-helical cytokine requiring association with the soluble receptor EBI3 to be efficiently secreted and functionally active. Computational and biological analyses of the IL-27 binding ...
Bencherif Merouane - - 2011
In recent years the etiopathology of a number of debilitating diseases such as type 2 diabetes, arthritis, atherosclerosis, psoriasis, asthma, cystic fibrosis, sepsis, and ulcerative colitis has increasingly been linked to runaway cytokine-mediated inflammation. Cytokine-based therapeutic agents play a major role in the treatment of these diseases. However, the temporospatial ...
Beohar Nirat N Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, - - 2010
Cytokine therapy promises to provide a noninvasive treatment option for ischemic heart disease. Cytokines are thought to influence angiogenesis directly via effects on endothelial cells or indirectly through progenitor cell-based mechanisms or by activating the expression of other angiogenic agents. Several cytokines mobilize progenitor cells from the bone marrow or ...
Nold Marcel F MF Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, Colorado, - - 2010
The function of interleukin 37 (IL-37; formerly IL-1 family member 7) has remained elusive. Expression of IL-37 in macrophages or epithelial cells almost completely suppressed production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, whereas the abundance of these cytokines increased with silencing of endogenous IL-37 in human blood cells. Anti-inflammatory cytokines were unaffected. Mice ...
Pui Tze-Sian - - 2011
Nanotechnology, such as nanoelectronic biosensors, is bringing new opportunities and tools to the studies of cell biology, clinical applications, and drug discovery. In this study, crystalline silicon nanowire based field-effect transistors fabricated using top-down approach were employed to parallelly detect pro-inflammatory cytokines in the complex biological fluids (cell culture medium ...
Andersson H - - 2010
We investigated changes in a large battery of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in elite female soccer players following two 90-min games separated by a 72-h active or passive recovery. Blood samples were taken from 10 players before, within 15-20 min, 21, 45 and 69 h after the first game and ...
Müller T - - 2010
Various studies have shown that dietary glutamine can modify the course of an immune response, through altering the release of cytokines. Nutritional supplementation of glutamine may therefore be of advantage to patients, particularly those with compromised immunity. Given that polymorphisms in cytokine genes can also affect cytokine levels, we have ...
Cuellar Vanessa G - - 2010
To evaluate the presence and relative concentrations of cytokines, known to be involved in the inflammatory cascade, in acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. We evaluated an extensive cytokine profile in synovial fluid from 12 patients with acute ACL injury undergoing arthroscopy compared with 15 control subjects using a BioPlex ...
Brocker Chad - - 2010
Cytokines play a very important role in nearly all aspects of inflammation and immunity. The term 'interleukin' (IL) has been used to describe a group of cytokines with complex immunomodulatory functions - including cell proliferation, maturation, migration and adhesion. These cytokines also play an important role in immune cell differentiation ...
Pallardy M - - 2010
The failure of toxicity studies in non-human primates to predict the cytokine release syndrome during a first-in-man study of the CD28-specific monoclonal antibody TGN1412 has remained unexplained so far. In this issue of the BJP, work from the NIBSC first identifies the effector memory subset of human T-lymphocytes as the ...
Endeman H - - 2011
The role of individual cytokines and polymorphisms in pneumonia has been described, but the relationship between different cytokines and polymorphisms in relation to causative microorganisms, antibiotics, corticosteroids and clinical course has not. This study questions the relationship between cytokines, polymorphisms and clinical characteristics of pneumonia. Patients diagnosed with pneumonia were ...
Lundh M - - 2010
Cytokine-induced beta cell toxicity is abrogated by non-selective inhibitors of lysine deacetylases (KDACs). The KDAC family consists of 11 members, namely histone deacetylases HDAC1 to HDAC11, but it is not known which KDAC members play a role in cytokine-mediated beta cell death. The aim of the present study was to ...
von Maltzan Kristine K Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Louisiana State University, LSU Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA 71104, - - 2011
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) are frequently used in studies on cytokine production in response to treatment of cell cultures or laboratory animals. When an ELISA assay is performed on cell culture supernatants, samples often contain the treatment agents. The purpose of the present study was to determine if some of ...
Crop M J - - 2010
There is emerging interest in the application of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) for the prevention and treatment of autoimmune diseases, graft-versus-host disease and allograft rejection. It is, however, unknown how inflammatory conditions affect phenotype and function of MSC. Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASC) were cultured with alloactivated peripheral blood ...
Kopf Manfred - - 2010
Cytokines are key instigators and regulators of immune responses and therefore hold great potential as targets for new therapeutic strategies. However, the selection of which cytokines to target, and in particular the identification of which cytokines regulate the rate-limiting steps of disease pathways, is crucial to the success of such ...
Turner Sharon L - - 2010
Soluble fractalkine is increased in the liver during times of injury; however the effect of pro-inflammatory cytokines in this process is currently unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether pro-inflammatory cytokines elevated in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma influence fractalkine shedding from HepG2 cells and whether ADAM17 was ...
Chatzigeorgiou Antonios - - 2010
AIMS: To evaluate the profile of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and the way they are connected in co-regulated networks and determine whether disease duration influences their pattern. METHODS: Plasma levels of 20 cytokines and soluble CD40 (sCD40) from 44 uncomplicated patients and 22 healthy ...
Fett James D - - 2010
Acute peripartum cardiomyopathy, a unique form of heart failure with onset in the last phase of pregnancy or shortly postpartum, has demonstrated evidence of an inflammatory process characterized by cytokine imbalance. Cytokines serve as inducers of repair mechanisms and promoters of both inflammatory and anti-inflammatory immune responses. Elevated plasma C-reactive ...
Zhou Xin X UConn Center on Aging, University of Connecticut Health Center, 263 Farmington, Farmington, CT 06030-5215, - - 2010
To provide clinical investigators with an understanding of factors to consider when wishing to add cytokine and inflammatory marker measurements to their studies. Inflammation involves complex and coordinated responses of the immune system to tissue damage. In the absence of tools to routinely assess inflammation within living tissues, measurements of ...
Shooshtari Parisa P Terry Fox Laboratory, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC, - - 2010
The immune response in humans is usually assessed using immunogenicity assays to provide biomarkers as correlates of protection (CoP). Flow cytometry is the assay of choice to measure intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) of cell-mediated immune (CMI) biomarkers. For CMI analysis, the integrated mean fluorescence intensity (iMFI) was introduced as a ...
Chou Danny Hung-Chieh - - 2010
Pancreatic beta-cell apoptosis is a critical event during the development of type-1 diabetes. The identification of small molecules capable of preventing cytokine-induced apoptosis could lead to avenues for therapeutic intervention. We developed a set of phenotypic cell-based assays designed to identify such small-molecule suppressors. Rat INS-1E cells were simultaneously treated ...
Baraut Julie - - 2010
Although the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis (SSc) remains unknown, cytokine production and release are key events in this autoimmune disease, characterized by T cell activation and auto-antibodies production leading to microvascular damage, inflammation and fibrosis. We review herein experimental and clinical data, aiming to analyze the relationship between cytokine release ...
Eyerich Stefanie - - 2010
T helper (Th) cell subsets secrete cytokines that regulate other immune cells. Interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-22 belong to a new class of cytokines with predominant effects on epithelial cells. Thus, these cytokines are key molecules in several disease processes. IL-17 and IL-22 are released by leukocytes such as Th and ...
Stanley Amanda C - - 2010
Cytokine secretion is a widely studied process, although little is known regarding the specific mechanisms that regulate cytokine release. Recent findings have shed light on some of the precise molecular pathways that regulate the packaging of newly synthesized cytokines from immune cells. These findings begin to elucidate pathways and mechanisms ...
Calle Mariana C - - 2010
Resistance training (RT) is associated with reduced risk of low grade inflammation related diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The majority of the data studying cytokines and exercise comes from endurance exercise. In contrast, evidence establishing a relationship between RT and inflammation is more limited. This review ...
Dula Stacey B SB Department of Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, 22908, United - - 2010
In obesity and the early stages of type 2 diabetes (T2D), proinflammatory cytokines are mildly elevated in the systemic circulation. This low-grade systemic inflammation exposes pancreatic islets to these circulating cytokines at much lower levels than seen within the islet during insulitis. These low-dose effects have not been well described. ...
Van Itallie Christina M CM Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, - - 2010
The function of occludin remains elusive. Proposed roles include maintenance of tight junction barriers, signaling and junction remodeling. To investigate a potential role in mediating cytokine-induced changes in barrier properties, we measured barrier responses to interferon-gamma plus TNFalpha in control, occludin-overexpressing and occludin knockdown MDCK II monolayers. MDCK cells show ...
Henry N L - - 2010
The aromatase inhibitor (AI)-associated musculoskeletal syndrome (AIMSS) occurs in approximately 50% of AI-treated patients. Inflammatory mediators are associated with oestrogen signalling and may change with oestrogen depletion. We hypothesised that AIMSS may be associated with changes in circulating inflammatory markers. Patients with breast cancer were enrolled in a trial of ...
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