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Campbell John D M - - 2003
The Cytokine Secretion Assay is an innovative method for analysing and enriching live cytokine-secreting cells. In this assay, a cytokine affinity matrix is built on the cell plasma membrane, which traps cytokines produced by the cell in response to specific stimuli. The specifically bound cytokine is then detected, and the ...
Glickstein Lisa - - 2003
In a study of cytokine production ex vivo by Borrelia burgdorferi-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 27 patients with culture-positive erythema migrans, production of inflammatory cytokines predominated, particularly gamma interferon and, to a lesser degree, tumor necrosis factor alpha. In contrast, with the exception of interleukin-13, anti-inflammatory cytokine production was ...
Meijer H H ORTHOGEN Lab Services, Graf-Adolf-Strasse 43, 40210 Düsseldorf, Germany. - - 2003
Cytokines such as interleukin-1 (IL-1) play an important role in degenerative musculo-skeletal diseases, including osteoarthritis, and a multitude of inflammatory disorders. Agents that inhibit the action of such cytokines have a high therapeutic potential in such diseases. Here we describe a new method for enhancing the production of the interleukin-l ...
Schoppet Michael - - 2003
Sarcoidosis is a chronic systemic disease of unknown etiology, which is characterized by noncaseating epitheloid granulomas usually in multiple organs. Here we describe changes in cytokine mRNA expression by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and changes of cytokine protein levels in plasma over a time course of 12 months in ...
Kellar Kathryn L - - 2003
Cytokines play a pivotal role in the regulation of immunologic, hematologic and wound-healing processes. They function to stimulate as well as inhibit the proliferation, differentiation and maturation of a variety of cell types. Thus, their functions are pleiotropic as well as interdependent to the extent that any cytokine may have ...
Finkelman Fred - - 2003
Because most cytokines are utilized, catabolized, or excreted shortly after they are produced, it has been difficult to directly measure in vivo cytokine production. Consequently, it has been necessary to infer in vivo cytokine secretion levels from the results of ex vivo assays of cytokine secretion, assays that measure tissue ...
Hung Adriana M - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To determine the associations among dietary intake and inflammatory cytokines with physical activity, function, and performance in maintenance dialysis patients. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of cohort study. SETTING: University-affiliated dialysis units, general clinical research center. SUBJECTS: Multiethnic cohort of maintenance hemodialysis patients. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Physical activity by accelerometry; physical ...
Gadina Massimo - - 2003
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It is now well established that cytokines play a critical role in the regulation of the immune system. Processes such as lymphoid development, differentiation, homeostasis, tolerance and memory are all regulated by cytokines that bind the type I family of cytokine receptors. Like the interferons, which bind ...
Multz Alan S - - 2003
Pneumonia is a very common admission diagnosis of critically ill patients. Patients with severe episodes of pneumonia are at risk for development of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome, which is known to induce the production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukins (ILs) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). This response ...
Vandenbroeck Koen - - 2003
Recent advances in cytokine biology have led to novel approaches to the treatment of inflammatory diseases. In this article, we review recent data regarding the role of functional polymorphisms in the genes encoding the prototypic Th1 cytokine interferon gamma and Th2 cytokine interleukin 4 in multifactorial disorders. We have compared ...
Denkert Carsten - - 2003
The development of therapeutic strategies for inhibition of peritoneal dissemination and invasion would be central for the treatment of ovarian carcinoma. In the microenvironment of ovarian carcinomas, various inflammatory cytokines like tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) are present. In this study we investigated the role of inflammatory cytokines in the ...
Klassen Henry J - - 2003
Recent work with mammalian neural stem cells has highlighted the role of cytokine signaling in the proliferation and differentiation of these multipotent cells. While the responsiveness of neural progenitors to exogenously applied growth factors has been demonstrated in vivo as well as in vitro, little attention has been given to ...
Sennikov Sergey V - - 2003
Quantitative analysis of human immunoregulatory cytokines in physiological media and cell cultures plays an important role in fundamental and clinical research. Here we describe the quantification of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-10 and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) in human serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-conditioned medium by electrochemiluminescence method (ECL). We demonstrate ...
Villinger François - - 2003
In spite of the explosive growth in the discovery of cytokines and chemokines and in the understanding of their modes of action, clinical use of such agents as adjuvants has been primarily restricted to patients with cancer or chronic viral infections suffering from various levels of immune impairment and for ...
Corcos M - - 2003
A number of findings from clinical and animal studies indicate that pro-inflammatory cytokines may play roles in eating disorders. The measurement of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, TNFalpha), which are known to decrease food intake, provides highly variable data from which firm conclusions cannot be drawn. In most of the longitudinal ...
Winkler Matthias - - 2003
In spite of impressive advances in biochemistry and molecular biology, it has not yet been possible to fit the individual biochemical components of cervical ripening and dilatation to a uniform clinical moiety or to uncover any regulatory mechanisms. The production of interleukin-8 by activated fibroblasts and macrophages plays a key ...
Lindenlaub Thies - - 2003
Proinflammatory cytokines are supposed to play a major role in the pathophysiology of vasculitis and in the development of neuropathic pain. Here we studied the cytokine expression in sural nerve biopsy specimens from patients with vasculitic and other inflammatory and non-inflammatory neuropathies, and investigated whether an increased cytokine expression was ...
Diwan Abhinav - - 2003
Recent studies have identified the importance of proinflammatory mediators in regulating cardiac structure in health and disease. Recent studies suggest that cytokines that are expressed within the myocardium in response to a environmental injury, namely tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), interleukin-1 (IL-1) and the interleukin-6 (IL-6) family of cytokines play an ...
Haddad John J - - 2003
The many specific, yet overlapping and redundant activities of individual cytokines have been the basis for current concepts of therapeutical intervention. Cytokines are powerful two-edged weapons that can trigger a cascade of reactions and may show activities that often go beyond the single highly specific property that it is hoped ...
Hopkins Stephen John - - 2003
Cytokines are important hormonal mediators, produced in tissues undergoing defence, growth and repair processes. Infection and inflammation in particular result in a cascade of cytokine induction that acts to maintain tissue homeostasis. Most cytokines act within the injured tissues, although some have an endocrine action, recruiting distant tissues in defence ...
Salmeri Francesca M - - 2003
BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE WORK: The follow-up of sarcoidosis is usually performed by invasive tools such as thoracic biopsy, supported by Broncho-Alveolar Lavage (BAL), Gallium-scintigraphy and Gadolinium Magnetic Resonance Imaging (Gd-MRI) to evaluate the degree of disease. Its pathogenesis can be ascribed to an accumulation of cells due to ...
Lin Ying - - 2003
Previously we demonstrated that multiple cytokines could be simultaneously detected using an antibody-based protein array system with high sensitivity and specificity from conditioned medium and serum. Here, we created a higher density array system to simultaneously detect 35 cytokines from cell lysates and tissue lysates. This assay combines the advantages ...
Diemer T - - 2003
Inflammatory disease is known to affect male reproductive function and fertility. Male accessory gland infections (MAGI) account for almost 15% of all cases of male infertility seen in infertility clinics. Infections of the male accessory glands are associated with increased counts of white blood cells in semen and elevated levels ...
Hedger Mark P - - 2003
Cytokines are regulatory proteins involved in haematopoiesis, immune cell development, inflammation and immune responses. Several cytokines have direct effects on testicular cell functions, and a number of these are produced within the testis even in the absence of inflammation or immune activation events. There is compelling evidence that cytokines, in ...
Borish Larry C - - 2003
Cytokines and chemokines are redundant secreted proteins with growth, differentiation, and activation functions that regulate and determine the nature of immune responses and control immune cell trafficking and the cellular arrangement of immune organs. Which cytokines are produced in response to an immune insult determines initially whether an immune response ...
Kato Takashi - - 2003
Since recombinant gene technology was established to provide rare important regulatory proteins as recombinant molecules, cytokine therapies have widely developed and enormously contributed to the treatment of various diseases; nevertheless, it has been revealed that recombinant therapeutic molecules are not always perfect because of side-effects related to pharmacological functions of ...
Rook Alain H - - 2003
It has long been known that certain immune augmenting therapeutics, particularly interferon alpha, can exert profound salutary effects on the clinical progress of patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Emerging evidence that the host immune response may play an important role in the control of this disorder has led to the ...
Anisman Hymie - - 2003
Cytokines, signaling molecules of the immune system, have been implicated as a contributing factor for mood disorders such as depression. Several lines of evidence supporting this contention are briefly reviewed and caveats are introduced. Essentially, a relationship between cytokines and depression is based on the findings that: 1) proinflammatory cytokines ...
de Jager Wilco - - 2003
Cytokines secreted by cells of the immune system can alter the behavior and properties of immune or other cells. At a site of inflammation, sets of cytokines interact with immune cells, and their combined effect is often more important than the function of one isolated component. Conventional techniques, such as ...
Ziegenhagen M W - - 2003
In recent years, analysis of the cytokine network has substantially improved our knowledge of the immunopathogenesis of sarcoidosis. There is increasing evidence from clinical immunology that analysis of the cytokine network may be helpful for clinicians to assess the extent and activity of sarcoid inflammation. Genetic polymorphisms may contribute to ...
Pan Weihong - - 2003
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) mediates interactions between the brain and the cytokines produced in the periphery. Some of these cytokines play significant roles in feeding behavior. This review will summarize various ways by which cytokines cross the BBB and discuss the implications of their transport systems in feeding. For simplicity ...
Ghanekar S A - - 2003
More precise quantitation of cellular immune responses has become possible with the advent of single-cell assays of immune function, such as cytokine flow cytometry, enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT), and MHC-peptide multimers. Cytokine flow cytometry is an attractive technique because it allows the detection of responses to whole antigens without regard to ...
Mäkitalo Barbro - - 2002
Evaluation of cytokine production in macaques has been hampered by a lack of availability of optimized and standardized immunoassays such as ELISA and enzyme-linked immune spot assay (ELISpot); only a limited number of macaque cytokines have been assessed by ELISpot. Using monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to human cytokines that cross-react with ...
Hofmann Sigrun R - - 2002
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The development of lymphoid tissues as well as the ultimate differentiation of naïve and memory T cells are dependent on cytokines. In this review, we will focus on recent advances in the understanding of molecular mechanisms that regulate lymphoid development, homeostasis and tolerance. RECENT FINDINGS: Cytokines play ...
Woo Patricia - - 2002
Cytokines are a large group of polypeptides and small proteins that are effector molecules for cells involved in immune and inflammatory responses. There are agonists and antagonists that interact with each other to maintain a dynamic equilibrium, and ensure eventual recovery of any perturbation, for example, by trauma or infection, ...
Okada Hideho - - 2002
For more than two decades, there has been a concerted effort to define the biology of, and develop the clinical applications for, cytokines that influence the immune system. However, intrinsic potency and toxicity have complicated application of cytokines as therapeutic agents when applied systemically. Indeed, one of the major characteristics ...
Seed Thomas - - 2002
New strategies for the prevention of radiation injuries are currently being explored with the ultimate aim of developing globally radioprotective, nontoxic pharmacologics. The prophylactic treatments under review encompass such diverse pharmacologic classes as novel immunomodulators, nutritional antioxidants, and cytokines. An immunomodulator that shows promise is 5-androstenediol (AED), a well-tolerated, long-acting ...
Mari Daniela - - 2002
Several lines of evidence support a role of immune mechanisms in the pathogenesis of chronic heart failure (CHF). Proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1, -2, -6, and tumor necrosis factor) and chemokines are involved in cardiac depression and in the progression of heart failure. Other components believed to be relevant to the pathogenesis ...
Kenis Gunter - - 2002
There is now evidence that major depression is associated with an up-regulation of the inflammatory response system (IRS). One of the major factors in this IRS activation is the hyperproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Recently, a number of studies examined whether there is a causative role of these inflammatory mediators in ...
Zhang Lei - - 2002
There are two distinct phenotypes of T cell cytokine responses that lead to different effector functions and different outcomes in disease processes. Although evidence suggests a possible role of the local microenvironment in the differentiation or localization of T cells with these phenotypes, there are no examples of divergent T ...
Haddad John J - - 2002
Cytokines represent a multi-diverse family of polypeptide regulators; they are of relatively low molecular weight, pharmacologically active proteins that are secreted by one cell for the purpose of altering either its own functions (autocrine effect) or those of adjacent cells (paracrine effect). Cytokines are small, non-enzymatic glycoproteins whose actions are ...
Werner Claudia - - 2002
In recent years, the pathophysiological concept of chronic heart failure (CHF) has changed from an isolated hemodynamic view to a more complex concept involving neuroendocrine and inflammatory pathways. New therapeutic strategies, such as beta-blocker therapy, are based on these new concepts and provide clinical evidence for a clinical benefit in ...
Castanon Nathalie - - 2002
There are intriguing analogies between many features of depression and physiological and behavioral responses to infection, which are mediated by the brain effects of cytokines. These observations suggest that depression can be considered as a psychoneuroimmunological disorder where a central increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines, may have adverse consequences on the ...
Hosaka Yoshinao - - 2002
Although inflammatory activation of cytokines have been analyzed in various tissues, there have only been a few and as-yet-inconclusive studies on cytokines in equine tendons. In this study, the localizations of 4 cytokines (IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, TNFalpha and IFNgamma) in tendinocytes of the equine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) were analyzed ...
Asadullah K - - 2002
Cytokines are highly potent biologically active proteins that play an essential role in intercellular communication. They are vital to the mediation and regulation of inflammatory and specific immune reactions as well as to nonimmunological processes. Several cytokines are already used for the treatment of malignant, inflammatory and infectious skin diseases. ...
Haddad John J - - 2002
Cytokines represent a multi-diverse family of polypeptide regulators; they are relatively low molecular weight (< 30 kDa), pharmacologically active proteins that are secreted by one cell for the purpose of altering either its own functions (autocrine effect) or those of adjacent cells (paracrine effect). Cytokines are small, nonenzymatic glycoproteins whose ...
Pollmächer Thomas - - 2002
Animal studies provide consistent evidence for the pivotal role of inflammatory cytokines in inducing sickness behavior during systemic infection and inflammation. Because depression in humans shows a considerable symptomatic overlap with sickness behavior, it has been hypothesized that cytokines are also involved in affective disorders. This view is supported by ...
Schwenger Gretchen T F - - 2002
It is clear from the biology of eosinophilia that a specific regulatory mechanism must exist. Because interleukin-5 (IL5) is the key regulatory cytokine, it follows that a gene-specific control of IL5 expression must exist that differs even from closely related cytokines such as IL4. Two features of IL5 induction make ...
Parissis John - - 2002
Recent investigations have shown that, in addition to neurohormonal system overactivation, another class of biologically active molecules, termed cytokines, is also overexpressed in the setting of chronic heart failure and participates actively in the progression of the syndrome. In this article, we present recent experimental and clinical data describing the ...
Asadullah Khusru - - 2002
During the past decade, the detection of cytokines has been a focus of scientific interest, including in dermatology. Dysregulation of cytokine production seems to be involved in the pathogenesis of various diseases. The determination of cytokine levels is of increasing diagnostic importance, and cytokines are used as therapeutic agents too. ...
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