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Corbishley Alexander A Moredun Research Institute, Pentlands Science Park, Bush Loan, EH26 0PZ, UK The Roslin Institute, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Midlothian, EH25 9RG, - - 2014
Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 causes haemorrhagic diarrhoea and potentially fatal renal failure in humans. Ruminants are considered to be the primary reservoir for human infection. Vaccines that reduce shedding in cattle are only partially protective and their underlying protective mechanisms are unknown. Studies investigating the response of cattle to ...
Martínez-Pérez J M JM Departamento de Sanidad Animal, Parasitología y Enfermedades Parasitarias, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de León, 24071 León, - - 2014
The effects of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Ochrobactrum intermedium in sheep with fasciolosis was reported previously, resulting in lower fecal egg counts and fluke burden. In the current study, we analyzed its immunological effects in two groups of sheep, treated (T) and controls (C). Fasciolosis induces a T helper (Th) ...
Tarazi Yaser H YH Department of Basic Veterinary Medical Science, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 3030, Irbid 22110, Jordan. Electronic address: - - 2014
This study was aimed at mapping the tissue distribution of some inflammatory parameters associated with a Mannheimia haemolytica (M. haemolytica) infection in sheep. The M. haemolytica was isolated and characterized from the affected lungs of slaughtered animals. Cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-10, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, ...
Li Ping P From the Beijing An Zhen Hospital Affiliated the Capital Medical University, Institute of Heart Lung and Blood Vessel Diseases, Beijing, China (P.L., Y.-l.L., Y.-n.W., C.-c.Z., X.A., C.-x.W., H.-t.S., J.D.); Institude of Basic Medical Science (Z.-y.L.), National Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering (M.-z.H., B.X.), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; and Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX - - 2014
Interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 are key proinflammatory cytokines that play important roles in the pathophysiology of vein graft remodeling. However, the mechanism of IL-1β/IL-18 production and its role in the development of graft remodeling remain unclear. IL-1β/IL-18 were rapidly expressed in venous interposition grafts. Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) death ...
Oberbarnscheidt Martin H - - 2014
Maturation of T cell-activating APCs directly links innate and adaptive immunity and is typically triggered by microbial infection. Transplantation of allografts, which are sterile, generates strong T cell responses; however, it is unclear how grafts induce APC maturation in the absence of microbial-derived signals. A widely accepted hypothesis is that ...
Magenau John J Blood and Marrow Transplant Program, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, 3312 Cancer Centerm, 1500 E. Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, - - 2014
Despite rapid increase in the utilization of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT), non-relapse mortality and sequela from acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remain principle barriers. GVHD involves complex interactions between innate and adaptive immunity, culminating in tissue damage by inflammatory mediators and cellular effectors. Recently, our understanding of the molecular ...
Pajer Krisztián K Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Szeged, Szeged, - - 2014
Following an injury to their axons close to the cell body, adult motoneurons generally die. This type of injury, typically caused by avulsion of the spinal ventral root, initiates the activation of astrocytes and microglial cells and the extracellular space becomes loaded with excessive amounts of excitotoxic glutamate. We have ...
Azevedo Fabíola Pontes - - 2014
Considering that grafted gingival tissue might have to be adapted to the receptor area and that fibroblasts have the ability to respond to bacterial stimuli through the release of various cytokines, this study investigated whether fibroblasts from the palatal mucosa behave differently when grafted onto the gingival margin regarding cytokine ...
Vergani Andrea - - 2014
The role of the novel costimulatory molecule TIM4 in anti?islet response is unknown. We explored TIM4 expression and targeting in Th1 (BALB/c islets into C57BL/6 mice) and Th2 (BALB/c islets into Tbet?/? C57BL/6 mice) models of anti?islet alloimmune response and in a model of anti?islet autoimmune response (diabetes onset in ...
Mizrahi K K Frankel Laboratory, Center for Stem Cell Research, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, Petach Tikva, - - 2014
Mobilized peripheral blood (mPB) is a prevalent source of hematopoietic progenitors for transplantation; however, allogeneic and haploidentical transplants are often accompanied by severe GVHD. Following the observation that murine GVHD is ameliorated by pretransplant donor cell exposure to Fas-ligand (FasL) without host-specific sensitization, we assessed the susceptibility of mPB cells ...
Kobayashi Yoshimi - - 2014
Sand storms in Mongolia have increased in frequency and scale, resulting in increased exposure of the inhabitants of Asian countries, including Japan and Korea, to Asian sand dust (ASD), which results in adverse effects on the respiratory system. However, there is no information on the health risks of severe sand ...
Gaber Lillian W - - 2013
The response to allografting involves adaptive and innate immune mechanisms. In the adaptive system, activated T cells differentiate to cytotoxic effectors that attack the graft and trigger B cells to differentiation to plasma cells that produce anti-HLA antibodies. The innate immune system recognizes antigens in a non-specific manner and recruits ...
Stevens Martin - - 2013
Cuckoo eggs famously mimic those of their foster parents to evade rejection from discriminating hosts. Here we test whether parasites benefit by repeatedly parasitizing the same host nest. This should make accurate rejection decisions harder, regardless of the mechanism that hosts use to identify foreign eggs. Here we find strong ...
Normanton Marília - - 2013
Human interleukin 17 was first described in 1995 as a new cytokine produced primarily by activated T CD4+ cells that stimulate the secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 by human fibroblasts, besides increasing the expression of ICAM-1. Various authors have reported that IL-17A has a role in the protection of organisms ...
Dong Ziqing - - 2013
Optimum perfusion may be the key to the endurance, and hence survival, of autologous adipose tissue transportation. Stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cell therapy can greatly improve the survival of fat grafts by enhancing angiogenesis. However, SVF cells are poorly retained in later stages of SVF-assisted adipose tissue transplant. Therefore it ...
Pearlman Eric E Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA. - - 2013
Microbial infections of the cornea frequently cause painful, blinding and debilitating disease that is often difficult to treat and may require corneal transplantation. In addition, sterile corneal infiltrates that are associated with contact lens wear cause pain, visual impairment and photophobia. In this article, we review the role of Toll-Like ...
Bock Felix - - 2013
The blood and lymphatic vascular systems are essential to supply organs and tissues with oxygen and nutrients, to drain redundant fluid and to facilitate the immune system to observe and defend the body against foreign organisms (Potente et al., 2011; Rovenska and Rovensky, 2011). But there are some organs and ...
Kondo Yuka - - 2013
Nogo-B mediates vascular protection and facilitates monocyte- and macrophage-dependent vascular remodeling. PirB is an alternate receptor for Nogo-B, but a role for the Nogo-PirB axis within the vascular system has not been previously reported. We examined whether Nogo-B or PirB play a role in regulating macrophage-mediated vascular remodeling and hypothesized ...
Nguyen Binh T BT Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, - - 2013
Innate immunity drives numerous cardiovascular pathologies. Vein bypass grafting procedures are frequently accompanied by low-grade wound contamination. We hypothesized that a peri-graft innate immune challenge, via an outside-in route, augments inflammatory responses, which subsequently drive a component of negative vein graft wall adaptations; moreover, adipose tissue mediates this immune response. ...
Sakimoto Tohru - - 2012
ABSTRACT:: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc-dependent endopeptidases with the potential to degrade all types of extracellular matrix. The ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase) family of peptidases was recently identified as cleaving the extracellular domain of transmembrane proteins. This was termed ectodomain shedding. We investigated the MMP expression in patients with ...
Floerchinger Bernhard - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Donor brain death (BD) triggers inflammatory graft activation that leads to impaired graft quality and outcome. We used a mouse BD model to investigate graft inflammation in cardiac transplants from immune-competent and immune-deficient donor animals. Effects of donor T-cell depletion were tested in an additional group of cardiac transplant ...
Cho Kyung-Ah - - 2012
Allogenic bone marrow transplantation (BMT), an important treatment for hematological malignancies, is often complicated by graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Suppression of GVHD is associated with the unwanted diminishment of the graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) response. The aim of this study was to maintain the benefits of GVL during GVHD suppression through isolated blockade ...
Schwer Christian I - - 2012
Carbon monoxide (CO), often referred to as the silent killer, is a colorless, odorless and tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to produce carboxyhemoglobin, which is ineffective for delivering oxygen to animal and human tissues. On the other hand, CO is endogenously produced in the body as a byproduct of ...
Faller Simone - - 2012
Despite modern clinical practice in critical care medicine, acute lung injury still causes unacceptably high rates of morbidity and mortality. Therefore, the challenge today is to identify new and effective strategies in order to improve the outcome of these patients. Carbon monoxide, endogenously produced by the heme oxygenase enzyme system, ...
Maes M - - 2012
Maes M, Kubera M, Leunis J-C, Berk M, Geffard M, Bosmans E. In depression, bacterial translocation may drive inflammatory responses, oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS), and autoimmune responses directed against O&NS-damaged neoepitopes. Objective:  Depression is accompanied by activation of immuno-inflammatory and oxidative and nitrosative stress (IO&NS) pathways, and increased IgM/IgA ...
Thomsen Morten S - - 2012
The anti-inflammatory properties of, particularly the α7, nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the peripheral immune system are well documented. There are also reports of anti-inflammatory actions of nicotine in the CNS, but it is unclear, whether this is due to activation or inhibition of nAChRs. Here we investigate the mechanisms ...
Szabo Csaba - - 2012
Research on the biological roles of ectonucleoidases has revealed that CD73, an ecto-5 nucleotidase, plays a special role in the extracellular conversion of adenosine monophosphate to adenosine-specifically, as a checkpoint that determines whether the extracellular environment is proinflammatory (characterized by adenosine 5´-triphosphate-mediated responses) or anti-inflammatory (adenosine-mediated responses). Inactivating or inhibiting ...
Souza Viviane do Carmo Gonçalves - - 2012
Trypanosoma cruzi infection triggers a chronic inflammatory process in human host and purinergic system ecto-enzymes play an important role in modulating the inflammatory and immune responses. In this study, it was investigated ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (E-NTPDase; EC 3.6.1.5; CD39) and ecto-adenosine deaminase (E-ADA; EC 3.5.4.4) activities in lymphocytes from patients ...
Kinsey Gilbert R - - 2012
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) suppress the innate inflammation associated with kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), but the mechanism is not well understood. Tregs express CD73, the final enzyme involved in the production of extracellular adenosine, and activation of the adenosine 2A receptor (A(2A)R) on immune cells suppresses inflammation and preserves kidney ...
Wang Di - - 2012
Paeoniflorin has been demonstrated to exert anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects in the animal study. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of paeoniflorin on the recombinant human interleukin-1β (rhIL-1β)-stimulated monocytes from the peripheral blood of healthy adults in vitro. Monocytes, collected from the peripheral blood of ...
Katial Rohit K - - 2012
This article covers the relationships between BHR and airway inflammation. Recent evidence suggests that various commonly used bronchoprovocation challenges (BPCs) differ in their potential to serve as inflammatory biomarkers. The response to direct stimuli depends on the smooth muscle's response to the chemical, whereas in indirect challenges, the reaction is ...
de Barros Cintia M - - 2012
Norepinephrine (NE) is a neuro-hormone released by vertebrates and invertebrates during acute stress, and can influence their immune function. We found that NE depressed the production of nitric oxide (NO) by the hemocytes of ascidians. Our results with a fluorescent indicator for NO in assays using both NE and either ...
Matson Kevin D - - 2012
Most birds rely on flight for survival. Yet as an energetically-taxing and physiologically-integrative process, flight has many repercussions. Studying pigeons (Columba livia) and employing physiological and immunological indices that are relevant to ecologists working with wild birds, we determined what, if any, acute immune-like responses result from bouts of intense, ...
MacGlashan Donald W DW - - 2012
A recent study of subjects with peanut allergy treated with omalizumab generated some results that were concordant with a study of subjects with cat allergy treated with omalizumab. However, there were differences that provided additional insight into the nature of the cellular responses in allergic subjects. We sought to determine ...
Campo Giuseppe M - - 2012
The adenosine 2A receptor (A(2A)R) is greatly involved in inflammation pathologies such as rheumatoid arthritis. By interacting with A(2A)R, the purine nucleoside adenosine acts as a potent endogenous inhibitor of the inflammatory process in a variety of tissues. Hyaluronan (HA) fragments act to prime inflammation via CD44 and the toll-like ...
Zhang Jun - - 2012
IFN-β is induced via a c-fos dependent mechanism that is present downstream of the receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-RANK signal transduction cascade during osteoclast differentiation. Increased production of IFN-β in turn inhibits osteoclastogenesis. However, the mechanism by which IFN-β exerts its suppressive function remains unclear. In the present study, ...
Decaluwé Kelly - - 2012
Introduction.  Similar to nitric oxide (NO), the principal mediator of penile erection, carbon monoxide (CO) possesses vasodilator capacities. However, whether CO could be a therapeutic target for treating erectile dysfunction (ED) is unexplored. The danger associated with systemic administration of CO has led to the development of CO-releasing molecules (CORMs), ...
Donalisio C - - 2012
Donalisio, C., Barbero, R., Cuniberti, B., Vercelli, C., Casalone, M., Re, G. Effects of flunixin meglumine and ketoprofen on mediator production in ex vivo and in vitro models of inflammation in healthy dairy cows. J. vet. Pharmacol. Therap. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2885.2012.01396.x. In this study, ex vivo assays were carried out in ...
Sooryanarain Harini - - 2012
In India, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) remains one of the major causative agents of pediatric encephalitis. Macrophages support various neurotropic viruses and influence the immune response. However, the functional status of human macrophages during JEV infection remains unidentified. In this study, we examined the cytokine response and co-stimulatory marker levels ...
Lewis Russell E - - 2012
A large number of studies have been published over the last two decades examining molecular mechanisms of antifungal resistance in Candida species. However, few of these studies have explored how such mechanisms influence the host immune response to this opportunistic pathogen. With recent advances in our understanding of host immunity ...
Härtel Christoph - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an emerging pathogen causing invasive infections in immunocompromised pediatric patients, including neonates and pediatric oncology patients. Information on innate immune responses to S maltophilia and its potential modulation are scarce. METHODS: We established an in vitro S maltophilia whole blood sepsis model and studied the proinflammatory cytokine ...
Yamamoto Tae - - 2012
The hemodialysis (HD) procedure induces an inflammatory response potentially contributing to cardiovascular disease. Here we investigated the acute impact of HD on circulating biomarkers. Circulating biomarkers (small solutes, middle molecular-sized peptides, and proteins) related to inflammation, oxidative stress, and vascular calcification (VC) were measured before and after a single session ...
Park Seoung Ju - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Occupational asthma is characterized by airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness associated with increased vascular permeability. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been suggested to be a novel signaling molecule modulating inflammatory responses. OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate the involvement of AMPK in pathogenesis of occupational asthma and more specifically investigate the ...
Cotou Efthimia - - 2012
We studied if the levels of copper released from antifouling treated nets used in finfish mariculture could affect the immune defense mechanism and/or induce oxidative stress in Dicentrarchus labrax, after short term exposure in laboratory experiments. Dissolved copper concentration released from the treated nets, copper bioavailability and a set of ...
Baniak Nicholas - - 2012
The airway is kept sterile by an efficient innate defence mechanism. The cornerstone of airway defence is mucus containing diverse antimicrobial factors that kill or inactivate pathogens. Most of the mucus in the upper airways is secreted by airway submucosal glands. In cystic fibrosis (CF) patients airway defence fails and ...
Ubeda Carles - - 2012
The gastrointestinal tract microbiota contributes to the development and differentiation of the mammalian immune system. The composition of the microbiota affects immune responses and affects susceptibility to infection by intestinal pathogens and development of allergic and inflammatory bowel diseases. Antibiotic administration, while facilitating clearance of targeted infections, also perturbs commensal ...
Lessard M - - 2012
The effects of a long photoperiod treatment around parturition and throughout lactation on immune status of piglets were studied. Sows were assigned to 2 light regimens: 1) standard short photoperiod (SP, n = 17), 8 h of daily light from d 112 of gestation until d 23 of lactation; and ...
Foley Niamh H - - 2012
miRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that act as regulators of gene expression. Dysregulation of miRNAs has been shown to contribute to multiple disease processes. It has become apparent that miRNAs play a key role in the innate immune response, whereby a large number of miRNAs have been demonstrated to be ...
Mur Luis A J - - 2012
Nitric oxide (NO) plays a role in defence against hemibiotrophic pathogens mediated by salicylate (SA) and also necrotrophic pathogens influenced by jasmonate/ethylene (JA/Et). This study examined how NO-oxidizing haemoglobins (Hb) encoded by GLB1, GLB2, and GLB3 in Arabidopsis could influence both defence pathways. The impact of Hb on responses to ...
Mukherjee Sourav Prasanna - - 2012
Mechanisms underlying the in-vitro cytotoxicity of Polyamidoamine nano-dendrimers in human keratinocytes are explored. Previous studies demonstrated a systematic, dendrimer generation dependent cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and genotoxicity. The emerging picture is of dendrimer endocytosis, endosomal rupture and subsequent mitochondrial attack and cell death. To understand the underlying mechanisms, the evolution of ...
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