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Cicenia Alessia A *Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Specialities, University La Sapienza, Viale del Policlinico †Department of Digestive and Liver Disease, Azienda Ospedaliera S. Andrea, Roma, - - 2014
Probiotics are alive nonpathogenic microorganisms present in the gut microbiota that confer benefits to the host for his health. They act through molecular and cellular mechanisms that contrast pathogen bacteria adhesion, enhance innate immunity, decrease pathogen-induced inflammation, and promote intestinal epithelial cell survival, barrier function, and protective responses. Some of ...
Rückerl Dominik D Institute for Immunology and Infection Research, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, - - 2014
Macrophages have long been center stage in the host response to microbial infection, but only in the past 10-15 years has there been a growing appreciation for their role in helminth infection and the associated type 2 response. Through the actions of the IL-4 receptor α (IL-4Rα), type 2 cytokines result ...
Totino Paulo - - 2014
BackgroundApoptosis can occur in red blood cells (RBC) and seems to be involved in hematologic disorders related to many diseases. In malaria it is known that parasitized RBC (pRBC) is involved in the development of anemia and thrombosis; however, non-parasitized RBC (nRBC) apoptosis could amplify these malaria-associated hematologic events. In ...
de Zoete Marcel R MR Department of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut - - 2014
Inflammasomes are large cytosolic multiprotein complexes that assemble in response to detection of infection- or stress-associated stimuli and lead to the activation of caspase-1-mediated inflammatory responses, including cleavage and unconventional secretion of the leaderless proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18, and initiation of an inflammatory form of cell death referred to ...
Ara┼║na Magdalena M Department of Laboratory Diagnostics and Clinical Immunology of Developmental Age, 24 Marszalkowska St, 00-576, Warsaw, Poland, - - 2014
When pathogens invade the body, neutrophils create the first line of defense. Basic weaponry consists of phagocytosis and degranulation, but these cells have yet another ace in the sleeve, a unique strategy in which invading microorganisms are being destroyed. These cellular warriors are able to release nuclear chromatin and form ...
Meisel Joshua D JD Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, - - 2014
Discrimination between pathogenic and beneficial microbes is essential for host organism immunity and homeostasis. Here, we show that chemosensory detection of two secondary metabolites produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa modulates a neuroendocrine signaling pathway that promotes avoidance behavior in the simple animal host Caenorhabditis elegans. Secondary metabolites phenazine-1-carboxamide and pyochelin activate ...
Wegiel Barbara - - 2014
Microbial clearance by eukaryotes relies on complex and coordinated processes that remain poorly understood. The gasotransmitter carbon monoxide (CO) is generated by the stress-responsive enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, encoded by Hmox1), which is highly induced in macrophages in response to bacterial infection. HO-1 deficiency results in inadequate pathogen clearance, exaggerated ...
Dey Bappaditya B Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, MD, - - 2014
The successful establishment and maintenance of a bacterial infection depend on the pathogen's ability to subvert the host cell's defense response and successfully survive, proliferate, or persist within the infected cell. To circumvent host defense systems, bacterial pathogens produce a variety of virulence factors that potentiate bacterial adherence and invasion ...
Vargas G G Instituto de Microbiologia Paulo de Góes, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ, - - 2014
The release of extracellular vesicles (EV) by fungal organisms is considered an alternative transport mechanism to trans-cell wall passage of macromolecules. Previous studies have revealed the presence of EV in culture supernatants from fungal pathogens, such as Cryptococcus neoformans, Histoplasma capsulatum, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Sporothrix schenckii, Malassezia sympodialis and Candida albicans. ...
Vodovotz Yoram Y Department of Surgery , University of Pittsburgh , W944 Starzl Biomedical Sciences Tower, 200 Lothrop Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 , - - 2014
Resilience refers to the ability to recover from illness or adversity. At the cell, tissue, organ and whole-organism levels, the response to perturbations such as infections and injury involves the acute inflammatory response, which in turn is connected to and controlled by changes in physiology across all organ systems. When ...
Simard Carl C Cellular Production, Research and Development, Héma-Québec, - - 2014
Current methods to measure the specific activity of cytokines are based on the time-consuming determination of the growth curve of a sensitive cell line. Here, we present a faster alternative based on flow cytometry, by determining the dose-response curve of cellular response to a cytokine. By using World Health Organization ...
György Bence B Molecular Neurogenetics Unit, Department of Neurology and Center for Molecular Imaging Research, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Program in Neuroscience, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts - - 2014
This review provides an updated perspective on rapidly proliferating efforts to harness extracellular vesicles (EVs) for therapeutic applications. We summarize current knowledge, emerging strategies, and open questions pertaining to clinical potential and translation. Potentially useful EVs comprise diverse products of various cell types and species. EV components may also be ...
Reisenman Carolina E CE Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, 16 Barker Hall # 3204, Berkeley, CA 94720-3204, United States. Electronic address: - - 2014
Blood-sucking insects strongly rely on olfactory cues to find their vertebrate hosts. As in other insects with different lifestyles, it has been shown that endogenous and exogenous factors modulate olfactory responses. The triatomine bug Rhodnius prolixus is an important vector of Chagas disease and a classical model for studies of ...
Marr Alexandra K AK Immunity and Infection Research Centre, Vancouver Coastal Health Research Institute, Department of Medical Genetics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, - - 2014
Infection of macrophages by the intracellular protozoan Leishmania leads to down-regulation of a number of macrophage innate host defense mechanisms, thereby allowing parasite survival and replication. The underlying molecular mechanisms involved remain largely unknown. In this study, we assessed epigenetic changes in macrophage DNA methylation in response to infection with ...
Wang Daniel - - 2014
Material properties play a key role in the cellular internalization of polymeric particles. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of material characteristics such as water contact angle, zeta potential, melting temperature, and alternative activation of complement on particle internalization for pro-inflammatory, pro-angiogenic, and naïve macrophages by using ...
Ricklefs Robert E RE Department of Biology, University of Missouri, St. Louis, MO 63121; - - 2014
The malaria parasites (Apicomplexa: Haemosporida) of birds are believed to have diversified across the avian host phylogeny well after the origin of most major host lineages. Although many symbionts with direct transmission codiversify with their hosts, mechanisms of species formation in vector-borne parasites, including the role of host shifting, are ...
Wall Daniel M DM Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ, United - - 2014
Apoptosis is a critical process that intrinsically links organism survival to its ability to induce controlled death. Thus, functional apoptosis allows organisms to remove perceived threats to their survival by targeting those cells that it determines pose a direct risk. Central to this process are apoptotic caspases, enzymes that form ...
Ten Oever Jaap J Department of Internal Medicine (463), Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The - - 2014
Large communities of microorganisms, collectively termed the microbiome, inhabit our body surfaces. With the advent of next-generation sequencing, the diversity and abundance of these communities are being unravelled. Besides an imporant role in metabolic processes, the microbiome is essential for proper functioning of our immune system, including the defense against ...
Juárez Esmeralda - - 2014
Nucleotide-binding oligomerizing domain-1 (NOD1) is a cytoplasmic receptor involved in recognizing bacterial peptidoglycan fragments that localize to the cytosol. NOD1 activation triggers inflammation, antimicrobial mechanisms and autophagy in both epithelial cells and murine macrophages. NOD1 mediates intracellular pathogen clearance in the lungs of mice; however, little is known about NOD1's ...
Ni Bin B Biomedical Sciences Graduate Program, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210; Department of Microbial Infection and Immunity, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210; and Center for Microbial Interface Biology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH - - 2014
IFN-γ-activated macrophages play an essential role in controlling intracellular pathogens; however, macrophages also serve as the cellular home for the intracellular pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Based on previous evidence that M. tuberculosis can modulate host microRNA (miRNA) expression, we examined the miRNA expression profile of M. tuberculosis-infected primary human macrophages. We ...
Wang Zengfu Z State Key Laboratory of Biomembrane and Membrane Biotechnology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, PR - - 2014
Bacterial infection often follows virus infection due to pulmonary interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production during virus infection, which down-regulates macrophage phagocytosis. The molecular mechanisms for this process are still poorly understood. In the present study, IFN-γ treatment significantly inhibited the ability of mouse macrophages to phagocytize nonopsonized chicken red blood cells (cRBCs), ...
Andrew Alspaugh J J Department of Medicine Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology Duke University School of Medicine Durham, NC 27710 USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
The human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans is able to rapidly and effectively adapt to varying conditions, favoring its survival in the environment and in the infected host. Many microbial phenotypes have been specifically correlated with virulence in this opportunistic pathogen, such as capsule production, melanin formation, and the secretion of ...
Joseph Sarah B SB Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599, USA, - - 2014
HIV-1 replication in the central nervous system (CNS) is typically limited by the availability of target cells. HIV-1 variants that are transmitted and dominate the early stages of infection almost exclusively use the CCR5 coreceptor and are well adapted to entering, and thus infecting, cells expressing high CD4 densities similar ...
Katoch Meenu M Biotechnology Division - - 2014
Abstract Context: For years, natural products from microbes have been used as drugs. Endophytes are the most important fungi that produce many novel metabolites for potential use in pharmacology and agriculture. Objective: The objective of the present study was to explore new endophytes for novel natural products. Materials and methods: ...
Beschin Alain A Myeloid Cell Immunology Laboratory, VIB Brussels, Brussels, Belgium; Cellular and Molecular Immunology Unit, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), B-1050 Brussels, Belgium. Electronic address: - - 2014
The life cycle of African trypanosomes involves adaptations to the defense mechanisms of two completely different hosts, the insect vector Glossina and the mammalian host. This interplay ultimately determines host resistance and/or tolerance to parasite infection. In the tsetse fly, the immune deficiency (IMD)-regulated pathway, the scavenger receptor peptidoglycan-recognition protein ...
Upton Leanna M LM Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, London, - - 2014
Mosquitoes have potent innate defense mechanisms that protect them from infection by diverse pathogens. Much remains unknown about how different pathogens are sensed and specific responses triggered. Leucine-Rich repeat IMmune proteins (LRIMs) are a mosquito-specific family of putative innate receptors. Although some LRIMs have been implicated in mosquito immune responses, ...
Justice Sheryl S SS Center for Microbial Pathogenesis, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio; The Ohio State University School of Medicine, Columbus, - - 2014
Bacteria have the exquisite ability to maintain a precise diameter, cell length and shape. The dimensions of bacteria size and shape are a classical metric in the distinction of bacterial species. Much of what we know about the particular morphology of any given species is the result of investigations of ...
Vigneron Aurélien A Biologie Fonctionnelle Insectes et Interactions, UMR203 BF2I, INRA, INSA-Lyon, Université de Lyon, 69621 Villeurbanne, - - 2014
Symbiotic associations are widespread in nature and represent a driving force in evolution. They are known to impact fitness, and thereby shape the host phenotype [1-4]. Insects subsisting on nutritionally poor substrates have evolved mutualistic relationships with intracellular symbiotic bacteria (endosymbionts) that supply them with metabolic components lacking in their ...
Melander Roberta J RJ Department of Chemistry, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, - - 2014
Indole has recently been implicated as an important small molecule signal utilized by many bacteria to coordinate various forms of behavior. Indole plays a role in numerous bacterial processes, including: biofilm formation and maintenance, virulence factor production, antibiotic resistance and persister cell formation. Intercepting indole-signaling pathways with appropriately designed small ...
Signorino Giacomo G Dipartimenti di Scienze Pediatriche, Ginecologiche, Microbiologiche e Biomediche e - - 2014
Murine TLR13, an endosomal receptor that is not present in humans, is activated by an unmethylated motif present in the large ribosome subunit of bacterial RNA (23S rRNA). Little is known, however, of the impact of TLR13 on antibacterial host defenses. Here we examined the role of this receptor in ...
Meisel Joshua D JD Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, - - 2014
The simple animal host Caenorhabditis elegans utilizes its nervous system to respond to diverse microbial cues, and can engage in a protective behavioral avoidance response to environmental pathogens. This behavior bears hallmarks of an immune response, with sensors and recognition systems that trigger a protective response following a learning experience. ...
Branzk Nora N Division of Molecular Immunology, Medical Research Council National Institute for Medical Research, Mill Hill, London, - - 2014
Neutrophils are critical for antifungal defense, but the mechanisms that clear hyphae and other pathogens that are too large to be phagocytosed remain unknown. We found that neutrophils sensed microbe size and selectively released neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in response to large pathogens, such as Candida albicans hyphae and extracellular ...
Ancillotto Leonardo L Department of Biology and Biotechnology "Charles Darwin", University of Rome "La Sapienza", Rome, - - 2014
Defining the whole spectrum of potential hosts of a parasite has large epidemiological and evolutionary implications in biology. Specialized parasites might be able to occasionally exploit a range of different host species, increasing the individual survival and the chances of successful dispersal. For long time Paraceras melis has been considered ...
Cox C M CM Avian Immunobiology Laboratory, Department of Animal and Poultry Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, 3170 Litton-Reaves Hall, VA 24061, - - 2014
Recently, there has been an increasing debate regarding the use of sub-therapeutic antibiotics in animal feed. This stems from worries that this practice may result in microbial resistance to human antibiotics employed in treating infections, thus causing a human health concern. Due to this tension, the poultry industry is under ...
Kaiser Julienne C - - 2014
The Streptococcus Milleri/Anginosus Group (SMG) colonize mucosal surfaces, especially the airways, and are considered to be normal mucosal microbiota; however, they are a major cause of abscesses, pneumonia and pleural empyema. The production of exoenzymes and virulence factors do not correlate with SMG pathogenicity. Since SMG infections are associated with ...
Griffiths Paul P Centre for Virology, UCL Medical School, Rowland Hill Street, London, NW3 - - 2014
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a recognised cause of disease in the fetus, the allograft recipient and AIDS patients. More recently, it has been recognised as a pathogen for those admitted to intensive care units, for the elderly and for the general population. The epidemiology and molecular and cellular pathology of ...
Molesworth-Kenyon Sara J SJ Department of Biology, University of West Georgia , Carrollton, GA , USA - - 2014
Abstract Purpose: To investigate the production of monokine induced by gamma-interferon (MIG) during a primary Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection of the cornea. We hypothesize that multiple CXCR3 ligands are involved in T cell recruitment during HSV-1 corneal infection and that neutrophils have the potential to contribute to ...
Jonz Michael G MG Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 30 Marie Curie Pvt., Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5, Canada. Electronic address: - - 2014
The story of control of cardiorespiratory reflexes by peripheral chemoreceptors includes a chapter on evolution in large part because of the work of Prof. William K. Milsom. Bill has reminded us to think comparatively about O2 and CO2/H(+) sensing. We present a brief review of the fish gill and O2 ...
Patterson Elaine E Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre,Biosciences Institute, University College - - 2014
A healthy gut microbiota plays many crucial functions in the host, being involved in the correct development and functioning of the immune system, assisting in the digestion of certain foods and in the production of health-beneficial bioactive metabolites or 'pharmabiotics'. These include bioactive lipids (including SCFA and conjugated linoleic acid) ...
Bruegge Jennifer Zur JZ Institute of Veterinary Biochemistry, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Freie Universität Berlin, Oertzenweg 19b, 14163 Berlin, Germany. Electronic address: - - 2014
Recent case reports have identified Arcobacter (A.) butzleri to be another emerging pathogen of the family Campylobacteraceae causing foodborne diseases. However, little is known about its interaction with the human immune system. As macrophages act as first defense against bacterial infections, we studied for the first time the impact of ...
Galante Joana - - 2014
Bacteria are able to colonize and thrive in a variety of different environments as a biofilm, but only within the last half century new insights have been gained in this complex biosystem. Bacterial biofilms play a major role in human health by forming a defensive barrier against antibacterial chemical therapeutics ...
Pandey Surya Prakash SP National Centre for Cell Science, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007, India; - - 2014
TLRs recognize pathogen-expressed Ags and elicit host-protective immune response. Although TLR2 forms heterodimers with TLR1 or TLR6, recognizing different ligands, differences in the functions of these heterodimers remain unknown. In this study, we report that in Leishmania major-infected macrophages, the expression of TLR1 and TLR2, but not TLR6, increased; TLR2-TLR2 ...
Baccarella Alyssa - - 2014
Malaria, caused by Plasmodium sp. parasites, is a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality. Cerebral malaria, characterized by neurological symptoms, is a life-threatening complication of malaria affecting over 500,000 young children in Africa every year. Because of the prevalence and severity of cerebral malaria, a better understanding of the ...
Poirier Valérie V UBC, - - 2014
Mycobacterium tuberculosis tyrosine phosphatase PtpA inhibits two key cellular events in macrophages required for the elimination of invading organisms; phagosome maturation and acidification. Kinome analysis revealed multiple PtpA-dependent changes to the phosphorylation status of macrophage proteins upon M. tuberculosis infection. Among those, we show that PtpA dephosphorylates GSK3α on amino ...
Hamer Isabelle - - 2014
BackgroundSeveral intracellular bacterial pathogens have evolved subtle strategies to subvert vesicular trafficking pathways of their host cells to avoid killing and to replicate inside the cells. Brucellae are Gram-negative facultative intracellular bacteria that are responsible for brucellosis, a worldwide extended chronic zoonosis. Following invasion, Brucella abortus is found in a ...
Sintsova Anna A Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, - - 2014
An overwhelming neutrophil-driven response causes both acute symptoms and the lasting sequelae that result from infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Neutrophils undergo an aggressive opsonin-independent response to N. gonorrhoeae, driven by the innate decoy receptor CEACAM3. CEACAM3 is exclusively expressed by human neutrophils, and drives a potent binding, phagocytic engulfment and ...
Zhang Kaiyi K Institute for Medical Microbiology and Hospital Epidemiology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, - - 2014
The coordinated action of a variety of virulence factors allows Salmonella enterica to invade epithelial cells and penetrate the mucosal barrier. The influence of the age-dependent maturation of the mucosal barrier for microbial pathogenesis has not been investigated. Here, we analyzed Salmonella infection of neonate mice after oral administration. In ...
Hillyer Julián F JF Department of Biological Sciences and Institute for Global Health, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, - - 2014
Hemocytes are a key component of the mosquito immune system that kill pathogens via phagocytic, lytic and melanization pathways. Individual mosquitoes contain between 500 and 4,000 hemocytes, which are divided into three populations named granulocytes, oenocytoids and prohemocytes. Hemocytes can also be divided by their anatomical location with 75% of ...
Thirunavukkarasu Shyamala S Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney , Camden , - - 2014
Abstract Mycobacteria have a complex cell wall with a high lipid content that confers unique advantages for bacterial survival in the hostile host environment, leading to long-term infection. There is a wealth of evidence suggesting the role cell wall-associated lipid antigens play at the host-pathogen interface by contributing to bacterial ...
Zhang Yan-Li YL Laboratory of Pathogenic Biology, Medical College, Qingdao University, 266071, Qingdao, Shandong, - - 2014
Clostridium sporogenes ATCC 3584 is an obligate anaerobe that has been reported to possess excellent tumour-targeting capacity. Here, we use Cl. sporogenes as a vector to deliver IL-12, a potent antitumour cytokine that bears numerous anti-tumour properties but that has limited clinical applications due to its strong toxicity when delivered ...
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