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Rasch Janine J *Institut für Mikrobiologie, Technische Universität Braunschweig, 38106 Braunschweig, - - 2014
Legionella pneumophila, typically a parasite of free-living protozoa, can also replicate in human alveolar macrophages and lung epithelial cells causing Legionnaires' disease in humans, a severe atypical pneumonia. The pathogen encodes six peptidylprolyl cis-trans isomerases (PPIases), which generally accelerate folding of prolyl peptide bonds, and influence protein folding. PPIases can ...
Lieskovská Jaroslava J Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia, Branišovská 1760, CZ-37005, České Budějovice, Czech Republic; Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Branišovská 31, CZ-37005, České Budějovice, Czech - - 2014
Type I interferon (IFN), mainly produced by dendritic cells (DC), is critical in the host defence against tick-transmitted pathogens. Here we report that salivary cysteine protease inhibitor from the hard tick Ixodes scapularis, sialostatin L2, affects IFN-β mediated immune reactions in mouse dendritic cells. Following IFN receptor ligation, the Janus ...
Li Zhenhong Z Key Laboratory of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, Ministry of Education and College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, - - 2014
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is considered as a significant contributor to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome, one of the most economically important diseases for the pig industry worldwide. Emerging evidence indicates that pattern recognition receptors play key roles in recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns. In the present study, ...
Suárez-Rodríguez M M Laboratorio de Conducta Animal, Departamento de Ecología Evolutiva, Instituto de Ecología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, - - 2014
Adaptation to human-modified environments such as cities is poised to be a major component of natural history in the foreseeable future. Birds have been shown to adapt their vocalizations, use of nesting places and activity rhythms to the urban environments, and we have previously reported that some species, including the ...
Maure F F MIVEGEC/UMR CNRS-IRD-UM 5290, Montpellier Cedex 5, France; Département de sciences biologiques, Institut de recherche en biologie végétale, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC, - - 2014
By definition, insect parasitoids kill their host during their development. Data are presented showing that ladybirds not only can survive parasitism by Dinocampus coccinellae, but also can retain their capacity to reproduce following parasitoid emergence. We hypothesize that host behaviour manipulation constitutes a preadaptation leading to the attenuation of parasitoid ...
Bain Judith J Aberdeen Fungal Group, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD, - - 2014
The theoretical physicist and Nobel laureate Richard Feynman outlined in his 1959 lecture, "There's plenty of room at the bottom", the enormous possibility of producing and visualising things at smaller scales. The advent of advanced scanning and transmission electron microscopy and high-resolution microscopy has begun to open the door to ...
Smith Leanne M LM Institute of Microbiology and Infection and School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, - - 2014
Phagocytosis by cells of the innate immune system, such as macrophages, and the subsequent successful maturation of the phagosome, is key for the clearance of pathogens. The fungal pathogen C. neoformans is known to overcome killing by host phagocytes and both replicate within these cells and also escape via a ...
Cizauskas Carrie A - - 2014
BackgroundMost vertebrates experience coinfections, and many pathogen-pathogen interactions occur indirectly through the host immune system. These interactions are particularly strong in mixed micro-macroparasite infections because of immunomodulatory effects of helminth parasites. While these trade-offs have been examined extensively in laboratory animals, few studies have examined them in natural systems. Additionally, ...
Quillay Héloïse H Unité de Régulation des Infections Rétrovirales, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Cellule Pasteur, Paris, - - 2014
In order to develop strategies to prevent HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus type 1) transmission, it is crucial to better characterize HIV-1 target cells in the female reproductive tract (FRT) mucosae, and to identify effective innate responses. Control of HIV-1 infection in the decidua (the uterine mucosa during pregnancy) can serve ...
Won Eun-Ji EJ Department of Biological Science, College of Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 440-746, South - - 2014
Accidental release of nuclides into the ocean is causing health risks to marine organisms and humans. All life forms are susceptible to gamma radiation with a high variation, depending on various physical factors such as dose, mode, and time of exposure and various biological factors such as species, vitality, age, ...
Paulus Geraldine L C GL aBroad Institute of Harvard University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge bGastrointestinal Unit, Center for the Study of Inflammatory Bowel Disease, and Center for Computational and Integrative Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, - - 2014
Autophagy plays a crucial role in intracellular defense against various pathogens. Xenophagy is a form of selective autophagy that targets intracellular pathogens for degradation. In addition, several related, yet distinct, intracellular defense responses depend on autophagy-related genes. This review gives an overview of these processes, pathogen strategies to subvert them, ...
Sil Anita A Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, California - - 2014
Fungi are adept at changing their cell shape and developmental program in response to signals in their surroundings. Here we focus on a group of evolutionarily related fungal pathogens of humans known as the thermally dimorphic fungi. These organisms grow in a hyphal form in the environment but shift their ...
Gilbert Andrew S AS Institute of Microbiology and Infection & School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, United - - 2014
The innate immune system is a critical line of defense against pathogenic fungi. Macrophages act at an early stage of infection, detecting and phagocytizing infectious propagules. To avoid killing at this stage, fungal pathogens use diverse strategies ranging from evasion of uptake to intracellular parasitism. This article will discuss five ...
Casadevall Arturo A From the Departments of Microbiology and Immunology and Medicine (Division of Infectious Diseases) at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Ave, Bronx, New York, 10461. - - 2014
Since proof of the germ theory of disease in the late 19(th) century a major focus of the fields of microbiology and infectious diseases has been to seek differences between pathogenic and non-pathogenic microbes and the role that the host plays in microbial pathogenesis. Remarkably, despite the increasing recognition that ...
Shao Qiang Q State Key Laboratory for Agrobiotechnology, China Agricultural University, - - 2014
Retinoic acid-induced gene I (RIG-I), plays a crucial role in sensing viral RNA and facilitating the production of IFN-β. It varies in length and sequence among different species. The present study assessed the functional differences among RIG-I proteins derived from mammals and birds. The transfection of duck caspase recruitment domains ...
Andersson Mats X MX University of - - 2014
Plants defend themselves against microbial pathogens through a range of highly sophisticated and integrated molecular systems. Recognition of pathogen-secreted effector proteins often triggers the hypersensitive response (HR), a complex multicellular defense reaction where programmed cell death (PCD) of cells surrounding the primary site of infection is a prominent feature. Even ...
Marino Simeone S Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, - - 2014
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis, induces formation of granulomas, structures in which immune cells and bacteria co-localize. Macrophages are one of the most abundant cell types in granulomas and have been shown to serve as both critical bactericidal cells and targets for Mtb infection and proliferation throughout ...
Hay Amanda J AJ Department of Microbiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, - - 2014
Vibrio cholerae causes human infection through ingestion of contaminated food and water, leading to the devastating diarrheal disease, cholera. V. cholerae forms matrix-encased aggregates known as biofilms in the native aquatic environment. While formation of V. cholerae biofilms has been well studied, little is known about dispersal from biofilms, particularly ...
Cicenia Alessia A *Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Specialities, University La Sapienza, Viale del Policlinico †Department of Digestive and Liver Disease, Azienda Ospedaliera S. Andrea, Roma, - - 2014
Probiotics are alive nonpathogenic microorganisms present in the gut microbiota that confer benefits to the host for his health. They act through molecular and cellular mechanisms that contrast pathogen bacteria adhesion, enhance innate immunity, decrease pathogen-induced inflammation, and promote intestinal epithelial cell survival, barrier function, and protective responses. Some of ...
Rückerl Dominik D Institute for Immunology and Infection Research, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, - - 2014
Macrophages have long been center stage in the host response to microbial infection, but only in the past 10-15 years has there been a growing appreciation for their role in helminth infection and the associated type 2 response. Through the actions of the IL-4 receptor α (IL-4Rα), type 2 cytokines result ...
Svahn Adam J AJ Developmental Neurobiology Laboratory, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, - - 2014
More than 80 years ago, Pio Del Rio-Hortega recognized that one of the "main controversial points in regard to the microglia" is "whether it belongs to the reticulo-endothelial system [i.e. monocytes and macrophages] and possesses the ordinary characteristics of this system or has a more specialized function." The notion of ...
Kulcsar Kirsten A KA Program in Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205; and W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD - - 2014
Mosquito-borne alphaviruses are important causes of epidemic encephalomyelitis. Neuronal cell death during fatal alphavirus encephalomyelitis is immune-mediated; however, the types of cells involved and their regulation have not been determined. We show that the virus-induced inflammatory response was accompanied by production of the regulatory cytokine IL-10, and in the absence ...
Lyte Mark M Department of Immunotherapeutics and Biotechnology,Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center,1718 Pine - - 2014
The neurophysiological response of an animal to stress involves the production of a number of stress-related neurochemicals including the catecholamines norepinephrine and epinephrine. It is generally believed that such neurochemicals belong exclusively to the animal kingdom and that any role such neurochemicals play in the infective process is largely confined ...
Koziel Joanna J Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, - - 2014
After phagocytosis by macrophages, Staphylococcus aureus evades killing in an α-toxin-dependent manner, and then prevents apoptosis of infected cells by upregulating expression of antiapoptotic genes like MCL-1 (myeloid cell leukemia-1). Here, using purified α-toxin and a set of hla-deficient strains, we show that α-toxin is critical for the induction of ...
Smith Phillip D PD Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294; Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Birmingham, AL 35233; pdsmith@uab.edu - - 2014
Circulating monocytes carrying human CMV (HCMV) migrate into tissues, where they differentiate into HCMV-infected resident macrophages that upon interaction with bacterial products may potentiate tissue inflammation. In this study, we investigated the mechanism by which HCMV promotes macrophage-orchestrated inflammation using a clinical isolate of HCMV (TR) and macrophages derived from ...
Alsina Laia L 1] Baylor Institute for Immunology Research and Baylor Research Institute, Dallas, Texas, USA. [2] Allergy and Clinical Immunology Department, Hospital Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, - - 2014
Loss of function of the kinase IRAK4 or the adaptor MyD88 in humans interrupts a pathway critical for pathogen sensing and ignition of inflammation. However, patients with loss-of-function mutations in the genes encoding these factors are, unexpectedly, susceptible to only a limited range of pathogens. We employed a systems approach ...
Devenish Rodney J RJ 0000000169778281 Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Monash University, Clayton Campus, Melbourne, VIC, - - 2014
Autophagy has become increasingly viewed as an important component of the eukaryotic innate immune system. The elimination of intracellular pathogens by autophagy in mammalian cells (xenophagy) results not only in the degradation of invading bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites, but also liberation of metabolites that may have been utilized during ...
Gernoux Gwladys G INSERM, INSERM UMR 1089, Nantes, France, Nantes University Hospital, Nantes, France, Atlantic Gene Therapies, Nantes, France ; - - 2014
Following in vivo recombinant Adeno-Associated-Virus (rAAV)-based gene transfer, adaptive immune responses specific to the vector or the transgene product have emerged as a potential roadblock to successful clinical translation. The occurrence of such responses depends on several parameters including the route of vector administration as well as the viral serotype ...
Totino Paulo - - 2014
BackgroundApoptosis can occur in red blood cells (RBC) and seems to be involved in hematologic disorders related to many diseases. In malaria it is known that parasitized RBC (pRBC) is involved in the development of anemia and thrombosis; however, non-parasitized RBC (nRBC) apoptosis could amplify these malaria-associated hematologic events. In ...
de Zoete Marcel R MR Department of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut - - 2014
Inflammasomes are large cytosolic multiprotein complexes that assemble in response to detection of infection- or stress-associated stimuli and lead to the activation of caspase-1-mediated inflammatory responses, including cleavage and unconventional secretion of the leaderless proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18, and initiation of an inflammatory form of cell death referred to ...
Araźna Magdalena M Department of Laboratory Diagnostics and Clinical Immunology of Developmental Age, 24 Marszalkowska St, 00-576, Warsaw, Poland, - - 2014
When pathogens invade the body, neutrophils create the first line of defense. Basic weaponry consists of phagocytosis and degranulation, but these cells have yet another ace in the sleeve, a unique strategy in which invading microorganisms are being destroyed. These cellular warriors are able to release nuclear chromatin and form ...
Meisel Joshua D JD Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, - - 2014
Discrimination between pathogenic and beneficial microbes is essential for host organism immunity and homeostasis. Here, we show that chemosensory detection of two secondary metabolites produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa modulates a neuroendocrine signaling pathway that promotes avoidance behavior in the simple animal host Caenorhabditis elegans. Secondary metabolites phenazine-1-carboxamide and pyochelin activate ...
Wegiel Barbara - - 2014
Microbial clearance by eukaryotes relies on complex and coordinated processes that remain poorly understood. The gasotransmitter carbon monoxide (CO) is generated by the stress-responsive enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, encoded by Hmox1), which is highly induced in macrophages in response to bacterial infection. HO-1 deficiency results in inadequate pathogen clearance, exaggerated ...
Dey Bappaditya B Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, MD, - - 2014
The successful establishment and maintenance of a bacterial infection depend on the pathogen's ability to subvert the host cell's defense response and successfully survive, proliferate, or persist within the infected cell. To circumvent host defense systems, bacterial pathogens produce a variety of virulence factors that potentiate bacterial adherence and invasion ...
Vargas G G Instituto de Microbiologia Paulo de Góes, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ, - - 2014
The release of extracellular vesicles (EV) by fungal organisms is considered an alternative transport mechanism to trans-cell wall passage of macromolecules. Previous studies have revealed the presence of EV in culture supernatants from fungal pathogens, such as Cryptococcus neoformans, Histoplasma capsulatum, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Sporothrix schenckii, Malassezia sympodialis and Candida albicans. ...
Vodovotz Yoram Y Department of Surgery , University of Pittsburgh , W944 Starzl Biomedical Sciences Tower, 200 Lothrop Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 , - - 2014
Resilience refers to the ability to recover from illness or adversity. At the cell, tissue, organ and whole-organism levels, the response to perturbations such as infections and injury involves the acute inflammatory response, which in turn is connected to and controlled by changes in physiology across all organ systems. When ...
Simard Carl C Cellular Production, Research and Development, Héma-Québec, - - 2014
Current methods to measure the specific activity of cytokines are based on the time-consuming determination of the growth curve of a sensitive cell line. Here, we present a faster alternative based on flow cytometry, by determining the dose-response curve of cellular response to a cytokine. By using World Health Organization ...
György Bence B Molecular Neurogenetics Unit, Department of Neurology and Center for Molecular Imaging Research, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Program in Neuroscience, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts - - 2014
This review provides an updated perspective on rapidly proliferating efforts to harness extracellular vesicles (EVs) for therapeutic applications. We summarize current knowledge, emerging strategies, and open questions pertaining to clinical potential and translation. Potentially useful EVs comprise diverse products of various cell types and species. EV components may also be ...
Reisenman Carolina E CE Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, 16 Barker Hall # 3204, Berkeley, CA 94720-3204, United States. Electronic address: - - 2014
Blood-sucking insects strongly rely on olfactory cues to find their vertebrate hosts. As in other insects with different lifestyles, it has been shown that endogenous and exogenous factors modulate olfactory responses. The triatomine bug Rhodnius prolixus is an important vector of Chagas disease and a classical model for studies of ...
Marr Alexandra K AK Immunity and Infection Research Centre, Vancouver Coastal Health Research Institute, Department of Medical Genetics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, - - 2014
Infection of macrophages by the intracellular protozoan Leishmania leads to down-regulation of a number of macrophage innate host defense mechanisms, thereby allowing parasite survival and replication. The underlying molecular mechanisms involved remain largely unknown. In this study, we assessed epigenetic changes in macrophage DNA methylation in response to infection with ...
Gill Alessandra Christina AC Institute of Infection & Global Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, Merseyside, United - - 2014
The bacterium Wolbachia (order Rickettsiales) is probably the world's most successful vertically-transmitted symbiont, distributed among a staggering 40% of terrestrial arthropod species. Wolbachia has great potential in vector control due to its ability to manipulate its hosts' reproduction and to impede the replication and dissemination of arboviruses and other pathogens ...
Kaihami Gilberto Hideo GH Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, - - 2014
The killing of bacterial pathogens by macrophages occurs via the oxidative burst and bacteria have evolved to overcome this challenge and survive, using several virulence and defense strategies, including antioxidant mechanisms. We show here that the 1-Cys peroxiredoxin LsfA from the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is endowed with thiol-dependent peroxidase ...
Anisuzzaman - - 2014
Ticks are notorious hematophagous ectoparasites and vectors of many deadly pathogens. As an effective vector, ticks must break the strong barrier provided by the skin of their host during feeding, and their saliva contains a complex mixture of bioactive molecules that paralyze host defenses. The receptor for advanced glycation end ...
Wang Daniel - - 2014
Material properties play a key role in the cellular internalization of polymeric particles. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of material characteristics such as water contact angle, zeta potential, melting temperature, and alternative activation of complement on particle internalization for pro-inflammatory, pro-angiogenic, and naïve macrophages by using ...
Ricklefs Robert E RE Department of Biology, University of Missouri, St. Louis, MO 63121; - - 2014
The malaria parasites (Apicomplexa: Haemosporida) of birds are believed to have diversified across the avian host phylogeny well after the origin of most major host lineages. Although many symbionts with direct transmission codiversify with their hosts, mechanisms of species formation in vector-borne parasites, including the role of host shifting, are ...
Wall Daniel M DM Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ, United - - 2014
Apoptosis is a critical process that intrinsically links organism survival to its ability to induce controlled death. Thus, functional apoptosis allows organisms to remove perceived threats to their survival by targeting those cells that it determines pose a direct risk. Central to this process are apoptotic caspases, enzymes that form ...
Ten Oever Jaap J Department of Internal Medicine (463), Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The - - 2014
Large communities of microorganisms, collectively termed the microbiome, inhabit our body surfaces. With the advent of next-generation sequencing, the diversity and abundance of these communities are being unravelled. Besides an imporant role in metabolic processes, the microbiome is essential for proper functioning of our immune system, including the defense against ...
Juárez Esmeralda - - 2014
Nucleotide-binding oligomerizing domain-1 (NOD1) is a cytoplasmic receptor involved in recognizing bacterial peptidoglycan fragments that localize to the cytosol. NOD1 activation triggers inflammation, antimicrobial mechanisms and autophagy in both epithelial cells and murine macrophages. NOD1 mediates intracellular pathogen clearance in the lungs of mice; however, little is known about NOD1's ...
Ni Bin B Biomedical Sciences Graduate Program, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210; Department of Microbial Infection and Immunity, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210; and Center for Microbial Interface Biology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH - - 2014
IFN-γ-activated macrophages play an essential role in controlling intracellular pathogens; however, macrophages also serve as the cellular home for the intracellular pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Based on previous evidence that M. tuberculosis can modulate host microRNA (miRNA) expression, we examined the miRNA expression profile of M. tuberculosis-infected primary human macrophages. We ...
Wang Zengfu Z State Key Laboratory of Biomembrane and Membrane Biotechnology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, PR - - 2014
Bacterial infection often follows virus infection due to pulmonary interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production during virus infection, which down-regulates macrophage phagocytosis. The molecular mechanisms for this process are still poorly understood. In the present study, IFN-γ treatment significantly inhibited the ability of mouse macrophages to phagocytize nonopsonized chicken red blood cells (cRBCs), ...
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