Search Results
Results 1 - 50 of 923
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >
Konrad Matthias M Evolutionary Biology, IST Austria (Institute of Science and Technology Austria), Am Campus 1, Klosterneuburg 3400, - - 2015
The fitness effects of symbionts on their hosts can be context-dependent, with usually benign symbionts causing detrimental effects when their hosts are stressed, or typically parasitic symbionts providing protection towards their hosts (e.g. against pathogen infection). Here, we studied the novel association between the invasive garden ant Lasius neglectus and ...
Silge Anja A Institute of Physical Chemistry and Abbe Center of Photonics, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Helmholtzweg 4, D-07743 Jena, Germany; InfectoGnostics Research Campus Jena, Center for Applied Research, Philosophenweg 7, D-07743 Jena, - - 2014
Macrophages are the primary habitat of pathogenic mycobacteria during infections. The current research about the host pathogen interaction on the cellular level is still going on. The present study proves the potential of Raman microspectroscopy as a label-free and non-invasive method to investigate intracellular mycobacteria in situ. Therefore, macrophages were ...
Lavin Yonit Y Department of Oncological Sciences, Immunology Institute and the Tisch Cancer Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, - - 2014
Macrophages are critical for innate immune defense and also control organ homeostasis in a tissue-specific manner. They provide a fitting model to study the impact of ontogeny and microenvironment on chromatin state and whether chromatin modifications contribute to macrophage identity. Here, we profile the dynamics of four histone modifications across seven ...
Vagner Tatyana T Centre for Brain Research, University of Auckland, 85 Park Rd, Grafton, Auckland 1142, New Zealand; Dept. of Molecular Medicine & Pathology, University of Auckland, 85 Park Rd, Grafton, Auckland 1142, New Zealand. Electronic address: - - 2014
Apoptosis is involved in pathological cell death of a wide range of human diseases. One of the most important biochemical markers of apoptosis is activation of caspase-3. Ability to detect caspase-3 activation early in the pathological process is important for determining the timing for interfering with apoptosis initiation and prevention ...
Chang Ya-Ling YL Institute of Molecular Medicine, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei 100, - - 2014
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is an emerging life-threatening pathogen particularly in the Asia-Pacific region. The major pathogenic feature in EV71-infected cells is apoptosis. However, which molecular mechanism mainly contributes to EV71-induced apoptosis is not investigated thoroughly. MiRNAs, the newly discovered molecules, govern a wide range of biological functions through post-transcriptional regulation ...
Lai Frances W FW McMaster Immunology Research Centre, Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, - - 2014
MVs, which can be subgrouped into exosomes, SVs, and OMVs, are secreted by eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Many previously inexplicable phenomena can be explained by the existence of these vesicles, as they appear to be important in a wide range of biologic processes, such as intercellular communication and transfer of ...
Rasch Janine J *Institut für Mikrobiologie, Technische Universität Braunschweig, 38106 Braunschweig, - - 2014
Legionella pneumophila, typically a parasite of free-living protozoa, can also replicate in human alveolar macrophages and lung epithelial cells causing Legionnaires' disease in humans, a severe atypical pneumonia. The pathogen encodes six peptidylprolyl cis-trans isomerases (PPIases), which generally accelerate folding of prolyl peptide bonds, and influence protein folding. PPIases can ...
Smitha K T KT Amrita Center for Nanosciences and Molecular Medicine, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham University, Kochi- 682041, - - 2014
Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) provide the primary host defence against invading pathogens by producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and microbicidal products. However, few pathogens can survive for a prolonged period of time within the PMNs. Additionally their intracellular lifestyle within the PMNs protect themselves from the additional lethal action of host ...
Day J D JD Department of Mathematics University of Tennessee 1403 Circle Dr 227 Ayres Hall Knoxville, TN 37996 USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
The immune brinksmanship conceptual model postulates that many of the non-specific stressful components of the acute-phase response (e.g. fever, loss of appetite, iron and zinc sequestration) are host-derived systemic stressors used with the hope that pathogens will be harmed relatively more than the host. The concept proposes that pathogens, needing ...
Dey Somrita S Department of Physiology, Immunology Laboratory, University Colleges of Science and Technology, University of Calcutta, 92 APC Road, Calcutta, 700009, West Bengal, - - 2014
We hypothesized that if internalization of Staphylococcus aureus could be blocked by using cytochalasin D (an inhibitor of phagocytosis and phagolysosome fusion), then the intracellular entry and survival of the pathogen in host's phagocytic cells recruited to the inflammatory site can be restricted. At the same time, if we use ...
Cohen Lianne B LB Division of Biological Sciences, Section of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093, United - - 2014
Epithelial cells line the surfaces of the body, and are on the front lines of defense against microbial infection. Like many other metazoans, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans lacks known professional immune cells and relies heavily on defense mediated by epithelial cells. New results indicate that epithelial defense in C. elegans ...
Hu An-Kang AK College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, - - 2014
Hypodermins A (HA), B (HB) and C (HC) are the major proteases secreted by first-instar larvae of Hypoderma lineatum (Diptera: Oestridae). These proteases are involved in the larval migration in the tissue, and prevent the activation of the host immune response. We previously showed that the recombinant HA functions as ...
Rai Ambak Kumar AK Department of Biotechnology, Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology Allahabad, Allahabad-211004, (U.P.), India. - - 2014
Pathogenesis of tuberculosis is marked with infection of macrophages followed by expansion of M. tuberculosis. Every step of this host-pathogen interaction is determined by the battle between the pathogen and host immune factors. It starts with phagocytosis of bacilli by mononuclear cells including alveolar macrophages and Dendritic Cells (DCs), both ...
Zhao Xilin X Public Health Research Institute, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences, 225 Warren Street, Newark, NJ 07103, USA Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences, 225 Warren Street, Newark, NJ 07103, USA State Key Laboratory of Molecular Vaccinology and Molecular Diagnostics, School of Public Health, Xiamen University, South Xiang-An Road, Xiang-An District, Xiamen, Fujian Province 361102, - - 2014
Support for the contribution of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to antimicrobial lethality has been refined and strengthened. Killing by diverse antimicrobials is enhanced by defects in genes that protect against ROS, inhibited by compounds that block hydroxyl radical accumulation, and is associated with surges in intracellular ROS. Moreover, support has ...
Karavolos Michail H MH The Roslin Institute Edinburgh University Easter Bush Campus Edinburgh EH25 9RG. - - 2014
Through many millennia of continuous evolution hosts and microorganisms have developed sophisticated and sometimes extremely complex mechanisms of coexisting through symbiosis and mutualism. It is now known that in humans, the population of commensal bacteria on or inside the body significantly outnumbers the host cells. Despite their numerical superiority, microorganisms ...
Lieskovská Jaroslava J Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia, Branišovská 1760, CZ-37005, České Budějovice, Czech Republic; Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Branišovská 31, CZ-37005, České Budějovice, Czech - - 2014
Type I interferon (IFN), mainly produced by dendritic cells (DC), is critical in the host defence against tick-transmitted pathogens. Here we report that salivary cysteine protease inhibitor from the hard tick Ixodes scapularis, sialostatin L2, affects IFN-β mediated immune reactions in mouse dendritic cells. Following IFN receptor ligation, the Janus ...
Li Zhenhong Z Key Laboratory of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, Ministry of Education and College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, - - 2014
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is considered as a significant contributor to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome, one of the most economically important diseases for the pig industry worldwide. Emerging evidence indicates that pattern recognition receptors play key roles in recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns. In the present study, ...
Suárez-Rodríguez M M Laboratorio de Conducta Animal, Departamento de Ecología Evolutiva, Instituto de Ecología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, - - 2014
Adaptation to human-modified environments such as cities is poised to be a major component of natural history in the foreseeable future. Birds have been shown to adapt their vocalizations, use of nesting places and activity rhythms to the urban environments, and we have previously reported that some species, including the ...
Maure F F MIVEGEC/UMR CNRS-IRD-UM 5290, Montpellier Cedex 5, France; Département de sciences biologiques, Institut de recherche en biologie végétale, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC, - - 2014
By definition, insect parasitoids kill their host during their development. Data are presented showing that ladybirds not only can survive parasitism by Dinocampus coccinellae, but also can retain their capacity to reproduce following parasitoid emergence. We hypothesize that host behaviour manipulation constitutes a preadaptation leading to the attenuation of parasitoid ...
Bain Judith J Aberdeen Fungal Group, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD, - - 2014
The theoretical physicist and Nobel laureate Richard Feynman outlined in his 1959 lecture, "There's plenty of room at the bottom", the enormous possibility of producing and visualising things at smaller scales. The advent of advanced scanning and transmission electron microscopy and high-resolution microscopy has begun to open the door to ...
Smith Leanne M LM Institute of Microbiology and Infection and School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, - - 2014
Phagocytosis by cells of the innate immune system, such as macrophages, and the subsequent successful maturation of the phagosome, is key for the clearance of pathogens. The fungal pathogen C. neoformans is known to overcome killing by host phagocytes and both replicate within these cells and also escape via a ...
Meijer Annemarie H AH a Institute of Biology ; Leiden University ; Leiden , The - - 2014
Autophagy provides an important defense mechanism against intracellular bacteria, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis disease (TB). We recently reported that pathogen recognition and antibacterial autophagy are connected by the induction of the DNA damage-regulated autophagy modulator DRAM1 via the toll-like receptor (TLR)-MYD88-NFKB innate immunity signaling ...
Cizauskas Carrie A - - 2014
BackgroundMost vertebrates experience coinfections, and many pathogen-pathogen interactions occur indirectly through the host immune system. These interactions are particularly strong in mixed micro-macroparasite infections because of immunomodulatory effects of helminth parasites. While these trade-offs have been examined extensively in laboratory animals, few studies have examined them in natural systems. Additionally, ...
Quillay Héloïse H Unité de Régulation des Infections Rétrovirales, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Cellule Pasteur, Paris, - - 2014
In order to develop strategies to prevent HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus type 1) transmission, it is crucial to better characterize HIV-1 target cells in the female reproductive tract (FRT) mucosae, and to identify effective innate responses. Control of HIV-1 infection in the decidua (the uterine mucosa during pregnancy) can serve ...
Won Eun-Ji EJ Department of Biological Science, College of Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 440-746, South - - 2014
Accidental release of nuclides into the ocean is causing health risks to marine organisms and humans. All life forms are susceptible to gamma radiation with a high variation, depending on various physical factors such as dose, mode, and time of exposure and various biological factors such as species, vitality, age, ...
Paulus Geraldine L C GL aBroad Institute of Harvard University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge bGastrointestinal Unit, Center for the Study of Inflammatory Bowel Disease, and Center for Computational and Integrative Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, - - 2014
Autophagy plays a crucial role in intracellular defense against various pathogens. Xenophagy is a form of selective autophagy that targets intracellular pathogens for degradation. In addition, several related, yet distinct, intracellular defense responses depend on autophagy-related genes. This review gives an overview of these processes, pathogen strategies to subvert them, ...
Sil Anita A Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, California - - 2014
Fungi are adept at changing their cell shape and developmental program in response to signals in their surroundings. Here we focus on a group of evolutionarily related fungal pathogens of humans known as the thermally dimorphic fungi. These organisms grow in a hyphal form in the environment but shift their ...
Gilbert Andrew S AS Institute of Microbiology and Infection & School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, United - - 2014
The innate immune system is a critical line of defense against pathogenic fungi. Macrophages act at an early stage of infection, detecting and phagocytizing infectious propagules. To avoid killing at this stage, fungal pathogens use diverse strategies ranging from evasion of uptake to intracellular parasitism. This article will discuss five ...
Casadevall Arturo A From the Departments of Microbiology and Immunology and Medicine (Division of Infectious Diseases) at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Ave, Bronx, New York, 10461. - - 2014
Since proof of the germ theory of disease in the late 19(th) century a major focus of the fields of microbiology and infectious diseases has been to seek differences between pathogenic and non-pathogenic microbes and the role that the host plays in microbial pathogenesis. Remarkably, despite the increasing recognition that ...
Shao Qiang Q State Key Laboratory for Agrobiotechnology, China Agricultural University, - - 2014
Retinoic acid-induced gene I (RIG-I), plays a crucial role in sensing viral RNA and facilitating the production of IFN-β. It varies in length and sequence among different species. The present study assessed the functional differences among RIG-I proteins derived from mammals and birds. The transfection of duck caspase recruitment domains ...
Andersson Mats X MX University of - - 2014
Plants defend themselves against microbial pathogens through a range of highly sophisticated and integrated molecular systems. Recognition of pathogen-secreted effector proteins often triggers the hypersensitive response (HR), a complex multicellular defense reaction where programmed cell death (PCD) of cells surrounding the primary site of infection is a prominent feature. Even ...
Di Bella Maria Antonietta MA Department of Biopatologia e Biotecnologie mediche e forensi, Sezione di Biologia e Genetica, Università degli Studi di Palermo, Italy. Electronic address: - - 2014
Efficient wound healing is essential for all animals from insects to mammals. Ciona intestinalis and Styela plicata are solitary ascidians belonging to urochordates, a subphylum that occupies a key phylogenetic position as it includes the closest relative to vertebrates. Urochordate first physical barrier against invaders is the tunic, an extracellular ...
Demon Dieter D Department of Medical Protein Research, VIB, Ghent, B-9000, Belgium; Department of Biochemistry, Ghent University, Ghent, B-9000, - - 2014
Caspase-11 contributes to host defense against Gram-negative bacterial pathogens by inducing an inflammatory form of programmed cell death in infected cells. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) have been identified as the microbial agents that stimulate caspase-11 activation; however, the mechanism of LPS detection has been unknown. In a recent study, Shao and colleagues ...
Marino Simeone S Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, - - 2014
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis, induces formation of granulomas, structures in which immune cells and bacteria co-localize. Macrophages are one of the most abundant cell types in granulomas and have been shown to serve as both critical bactericidal cells and targets for Mtb infection and proliferation throughout ...
Hay Amanda J AJ Department of Microbiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, - - 2014
Vibrio cholerae causes human infection through ingestion of contaminated food and water, leading to the devastating diarrheal disease, cholera. V. cholerae forms matrix-encased aggregates known as biofilms in the native aquatic environment. While formation of V. cholerae biofilms has been well studied, little is known about dispersal from biofilms, particularly ...
Cicenia Alessia A *Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Specialities, University La Sapienza, Viale del Policlinico †Department of Digestive and Liver Disease, Azienda Ospedaliera S. Andrea, Roma, - - 2014
Probiotics are alive nonpathogenic microorganisms present in the gut microbiota that confer benefits to the host for his health. They act through molecular and cellular mechanisms that contrast pathogen bacteria adhesion, enhance innate immunity, decrease pathogen-induced inflammation, and promote intestinal epithelial cell survival, barrier function, and protective responses. Some of ...
Rückerl Dominik D Institute for Immunology and Infection Research, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, - - 2014
Macrophages have long been center stage in the host response to microbial infection, but only in the past 10-15 years has there been a growing appreciation for their role in helminth infection and the associated type 2 response. Through the actions of the IL-4 receptor α (IL-4Rα), type 2 cytokines result ...
Svahn Adam J AJ Developmental Neurobiology Laboratory, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, - - 2014
More than 80 years ago, Pio Del Rio-Hortega recognized that one of the "main controversial points in regard to the microglia" is "whether it belongs to the reticulo-endothelial system [i.e. monocytes and macrophages] and possesses the ordinary characteristics of this system or has a more specialized function." The notion of ...
Kulcsar Kirsten A KA Program in Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205; and W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD - - 2014
Mosquito-borne alphaviruses are important causes of epidemic encephalomyelitis. Neuronal cell death during fatal alphavirus encephalomyelitis is immune-mediated; however, the types of cells involved and their regulation have not been determined. We show that the virus-induced inflammatory response was accompanied by production of the regulatory cytokine IL-10, and in the absence ...
Lyte Mark M Department of Immunotherapeutics and Biotechnology,Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center,1718 Pine - - 2014
The neurophysiological response of an animal to stress involves the production of a number of stress-related neurochemicals including the catecholamines norepinephrine and epinephrine. It is generally believed that such neurochemicals belong exclusively to the animal kingdom and that any role such neurochemicals play in the infective process is largely confined ...
Koziel Joanna J Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, - - 2014
After phagocytosis by macrophages, Staphylococcus aureus evades killing in an α-toxin-dependent manner, and then prevents apoptosis of infected cells by upregulating expression of antiapoptotic genes like MCL-1 (myeloid cell leukemia-1). Here, using purified α-toxin and a set of hla-deficient strains, we show that α-toxin is critical for the induction of ...
Rajaram Murugesan V S MV Center for Microbial Interface Biology, Department of Microbial Infection and Immunity, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, - - 2014
Macrophages, the major host cells harboring Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), are a heterogeneous cell type depending on their tissue of origin and host they are derived from. Significant discord in macrophage responses to M.tb exists due to differences in M.tb strains and the various types of macrophages used to study tuberculosis ...
Smith Phillip D PD Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294; Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Birmingham, AL 35233; pdsmith@uab.edu - - 2014
Circulating monocytes carrying human CMV (HCMV) migrate into tissues, where they differentiate into HCMV-infected resident macrophages that upon interaction with bacterial products may potentiate tissue inflammation. In this study, we investigated the mechanism by which HCMV promotes macrophage-orchestrated inflammation using a clinical isolate of HCMV (TR) and macrophages derived from ...
Alsina Laia L 1] Baylor Institute for Immunology Research and Baylor Research Institute, Dallas, Texas, USA. [2] Allergy and Clinical Immunology Department, Hospital Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, - - 2014
Loss of function of the kinase IRAK4 or the adaptor MyD88 in humans interrupts a pathway critical for pathogen sensing and ignition of inflammation. However, patients with loss-of-function mutations in the genes encoding these factors are, unexpectedly, susceptible to only a limited range of pathogens. We employed a systems approach ...
Hoang Ky V KV Center for Microbial Interface Biology, Department of Microbial Infection and Immunity, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, United - - 2014
AR-12 has been evaluated in clinical trials as an anti-cancer agent but also has demonstrated host-directed, broad-spectrum clearance of bacteria. We have previously shown that AR-12 has activity in vitro against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Francisella species by inducing autophagy and other host immune pathways. AR-12 treatment of S. ...
Alenghat Theresa T Division of Immunobiology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
The trillions of beneficial commensal microorganisms that normally reside in the gastrointestinal tract have emerged as a critical source of environmentally-derived stimuli that can impact health and disease. However, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms that recognize commensal bacteria-derived signals and regulate mammalian homeostasis are just beginning to be defined. ...
Bishayi Biswadev B Department of Physiology, Immunology laboratory, University of Calcutta, University Colleges of Science and Technology, 92 APC Road, Calcutta 700009, West Bengal, India. Electronic address: - - 2014
It has been reported that Staphylococcus aureus survives within macrophages by hijacking host cell surface Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR-2). Moreover, S. aureus infection induced activation of TLR-2 has been reported to downregulate the expression of CC-chemokine receptor-2 (CCR-2), a receptor essential for binding of chemokines to propagate phagocytosis. Thus, we hypothesized ...
Devenish Rodney J RJ 0000000169778281 Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Monash University, Clayton Campus, Melbourne, VIC, - - 2014
Autophagy has become increasingly viewed as an important component of the eukaryotic innate immune system. The elimination of intracellular pathogens by autophagy in mammalian cells (xenophagy) results not only in the degradation of invading bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites, but also liberation of metabolites that may have been utilized during ...
Gernoux Gwladys G INSERM, INSERM UMR 1089, Nantes, France, Nantes University Hospital, Nantes, France, Atlantic Gene Therapies, Nantes, France ; - - 2014
Following in vivo recombinant Adeno-Associated-Virus (rAAV)-based gene transfer, adaptive immune responses specific to the vector or the transgene product have emerged as a potential roadblock to successful clinical translation. The occurrence of such responses depends on several parameters including the route of vector administration as well as the viral serotype ...
Totino Paulo - - 2014
BackgroundApoptosis can occur in red blood cells (RBC) and seems to be involved in hematologic disorders related to many diseases. In malaria it is known that parasitized RBC (pRBC) is involved in the development of anemia and thrombosis; however, non-parasitized RBC (nRBC) apoptosis could amplify these malaria-associated hematologic events. In ...
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >