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Juárez Esmeralda - - 2014
Nucleotide-binding oligomerizing domain-1 (NOD1) is a cytoplasmic receptor involved in recognizing bacterial peptidoglycan fragments that localize to the cytosol. NOD1 activation triggers inflammation, antimicrobial mechanisms and autophagy in both epithelial cells and murine macrophages. NOD1 mediates intracellular pathogen clearance in the lungs of mice; however, little is known about NOD1's ...
Ten Oever Jaap J Department of Internal Medicine (463), Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The - - 2014
Large communities of microorganisms, collectively termed the microbiome, inhabit our body surfaces. With the advent of next-generation sequencing, the diversity and abundance of these communities are being unravelled. Besides an imporant role in metabolic processes, the microbiome is essential for proper functioning of our immune system, including the defense against ...
Ni Bin B Biomedical Sciences Graduate Program, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210; Department of Microbial Infection and Immunity, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210; and Center for Microbial Interface Biology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH - - 2014
IFN-γ-activated macrophages play an essential role in controlling intracellular pathogens; however, macrophages also serve as the cellular home for the intracellular pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Based on previous evidence that M. tuberculosis can modulate host microRNA (miRNA) expression, we examined the miRNA expression profile of M. tuberculosis-infected primary human macrophages. We ...
Andrew Alspaugh J J Department of Medicine Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology Duke University School of Medicine Durham, NC 27710 USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
The human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans is able to rapidly and effectively adapt to varying conditions, favoring its survival in the environment and in the infected host. Many microbial phenotypes have been specifically correlated with virulence in this opportunistic pathogen, such as capsule production, melanin formation, and the secretion of ...
Joseph Sarah B SB Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599, USA, - - 2014
HIV-1 replication in the central nervous system (CNS) is typically limited by the availability of target cells. HIV-1 variants that are transmitted and dominate the early stages of infection almost exclusively use the CCR5 coreceptor and are well adapted to entering, and thus infecting, cells expressing high CD4 densities similar ...
Katoch Meenu M Biotechnology Division - - 2014
Abstract Context: For years, natural products from microbes have been used as drugs. Endophytes are the most important fungi that produce many novel metabolites for potential use in pharmacology and agriculture. Objective: The objective of the present study was to explore new endophytes for novel natural products. Materials and methods: ...
Beschin Alain A Myeloid Cell Immunology Laboratory, VIB Brussels, Brussels, Belgium; Cellular and Molecular Immunology Unit, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), B-1050 Brussels, Belgium. Electronic address: - - 2014
The life cycle of African trypanosomes involves adaptations to the defense mechanisms of two completely different hosts, the insect vector Glossina and the mammalian host. This interplay ultimately determines host resistance and/or tolerance to parasite infection. In the tsetse fly, the immune deficiency (IMD)-regulated pathway, the scavenger receptor peptidoglycan-recognition protein ...
Upton Leanna M LM Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, London, - - 2014
Mosquitoes have potent innate defense mechanisms that protect them from infection by diverse pathogens. Much remains unknown about how different pathogens are sensed and specific responses triggered. Leucine-Rich repeat IMmune proteins (LRIMs) are a mosquito-specific family of putative innate receptors. Although some LRIMs have been implicated in mosquito immune responses, ...
Justice Sheryl S SS Center for Microbial Pathogenesis, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio; The Ohio State University School of Medicine, Columbus, - - 2014
Bacteria have the exquisite ability to maintain a precise diameter, cell length and shape. The dimensions of bacteria size and shape are a classical metric in the distinction of bacterial species. Much of what we know about the particular morphology of any given species is the result of investigations of ...
Vigneron Aurélien A Biologie Fonctionnelle Insectes et Interactions, UMR203 BF2I, INRA, INSA-Lyon, Université de Lyon, 69621 Villeurbanne, - - 2014
Symbiotic associations are widespread in nature and represent a driving force in evolution. They are known to impact fitness, and thereby shape the host phenotype [1-4]. Insects subsisting on nutritionally poor substrates have evolved mutualistic relationships with intracellular symbiotic bacteria (endosymbionts) that supply them with metabolic components lacking in their ...
Signorino Giacomo G Dipartimenti di Scienze Pediatriche, Ginecologiche, Microbiologiche e Biomediche e - - 2014
Murine TLR13, an endosomal receptor that is not present in humans, is activated by an unmethylated motif present in the large ribosome subunit of bacterial RNA (23S rRNA). Little is known, however, of the impact of TLR13 on antibacterial host defenses. Here we examined the role of this receptor in ...
Meisel Joshua D JD Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, - - 2014
The simple animal host Caenorhabditis elegans utilizes its nervous system to respond to diverse microbial cues, and can engage in a protective behavioral avoidance response to environmental pathogens. This behavior bears hallmarks of an immune response, with sensors and recognition systems that trigger a protective response following a learning experience. ...
Branzk Nora N Division of Molecular Immunology, Medical Research Council National Institute for Medical Research, Mill Hill, London, - - 2014
Neutrophils are critical for antifungal defense, but the mechanisms that clear hyphae and other pathogens that are too large to be phagocytosed remain unknown. We found that neutrophils sensed microbe size and selectively released neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in response to large pathogens, such as Candida albicans hyphae and extracellular ...
Ancillotto Leonardo L Department of Biology and Biotechnology "Charles Darwin", University of Rome "La Sapienza", Rome, - - 2014
Defining the whole spectrum of potential hosts of a parasite has large epidemiological and evolutionary implications in biology. Specialized parasites might be able to occasionally exploit a range of different host species, increasing the individual survival and the chances of successful dispersal. For long time Paraceras melis has been considered ...
Cox C M CM Avian Immunobiology Laboratory, Department of Animal and Poultry Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, 3170 Litton-Reaves Hall, VA 24061, - - 2014
Recently, there has been an increasing debate regarding the use of sub-therapeutic antibiotics in animal feed. This stems from worries that this practice may result in microbial resistance to human antibiotics employed in treating infections, thus causing a human health concern. Due to this tension, the poultry industry is under ...
Kaiser Julienne C - - 2014
The Streptococcus Milleri/Anginosus Group (SMG) colonize mucosal surfaces, especially the airways, and are considered to be normal mucosal microbiota; however, they are a major cause of abscesses, pneumonia and pleural empyema. The production of exoenzymes and virulence factors do not correlate with SMG pathogenicity. Since SMG infections are associated with ...
Griffiths Paul P Centre for Virology, UCL Medical School, Rowland Hill Street, London, NW3 - - 2014
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a recognised cause of disease in the fetus, the allograft recipient and AIDS patients. More recently, it has been recognised as a pathogen for those admitted to intensive care units, for the elderly and for the general population. The epidemiology and molecular and cellular pathology of ...
Molesworth-Kenyon Sara J SJ Department of Biology, University of West Georgia , Carrollton, GA , USA - - 2014
Abstract Purpose: To investigate the production of monokine induced by gamma-interferon (MIG) during a primary Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection of the cornea. We hypothesize that multiple CXCR3 ligands are involved in T cell recruitment during HSV-1 corneal infection and that neutrophils have the potential to contribute to ...
Jonz Michael G MG Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 30 Marie Curie Pvt., Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5, Canada. Electronic address: - - 2014
The story of control of cardiorespiratory reflexes by peripheral chemoreceptors includes a chapter on evolution in large part because of the work of Prof. William K. Milsom. Bill has reminded us to think comparatively about O2 and CO2/H(+) sensing. We present a brief review of the fish gill and O2 ...
Patterson Elaine E Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre,Biosciences Institute, University College - - 2014
A healthy gut microbiota plays many crucial functions in the host, being involved in the correct development and functioning of the immune system, assisting in the digestion of certain foods and in the production of health-beneficial bioactive metabolites or 'pharmabiotics'. These include bioactive lipids (including SCFA and conjugated linoleic acid) ...
Bruegge Jennifer Zur JZ Institute of Veterinary Biochemistry, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Freie Universität Berlin, Oertzenweg 19b, 14163 Berlin, Germany. Electronic address: - - 2014
Recent case reports have identified Arcobacter (A.) butzleri to be another emerging pathogen of the family Campylobacteraceae causing foodborne diseases. However, little is known about its interaction with the human immune system. As macrophages act as first defense against bacterial infections, we studied for the first time the impact of ...
Galante Joana - - 2014
Bacteria are able to colonize and thrive in a variety of different environments as a biofilm, but only within the last half century new insights have been gained in this complex biosystem. Bacterial biofilms play a major role in human health by forming a defensive barrier against antibacterial chemical therapeutics ...
Pandey Surya Prakash SP National Centre for Cell Science, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007, India; - - 2014
TLRs recognize pathogen-expressed Ags and elicit host-protective immune response. Although TLR2 forms heterodimers with TLR1 or TLR6, recognizing different ligands, differences in the functions of these heterodimers remain unknown. In this study, we report that in Leishmania major-infected macrophages, the expression of TLR1 and TLR2, but not TLR6, increased; TLR2-TLR2 ...
Baccarella Alyssa - - 2014
Malaria, caused by Plasmodium sp. parasites, is a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality. Cerebral malaria, characterized by neurological symptoms, is a life-threatening complication of malaria affecting over 500,000 young children in Africa every year. Because of the prevalence and severity of cerebral malaria, a better understanding of the ...
Poirier Valérie V UBC, - - 2014
Mycobacterium tuberculosis tyrosine phosphatase PtpA inhibits two key cellular events in macrophages required for the elimination of invading organisms; phagosome maturation and acidification. Kinome analysis revealed multiple PtpA-dependent changes to the phosphorylation status of macrophage proteins upon M. tuberculosis infection. Among those, we show that PtpA dephosphorylates GSK3α on amino ...
Hamer Isabelle - - 2014
BackgroundSeveral intracellular bacterial pathogens have evolved subtle strategies to subvert vesicular trafficking pathways of their host cells to avoid killing and to replicate inside the cells. Brucellae are Gram-negative facultative intracellular bacteria that are responsible for brucellosis, a worldwide extended chronic zoonosis. Following invasion, Brucella abortus is found in a ...
Sintsova Anna A Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, - - 2014
An overwhelming neutrophil-driven response causes both acute symptoms and the lasting sequelae that result from infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Neutrophils undergo an aggressive opsonin-independent response to N. gonorrhoeae, driven by the innate decoy receptor CEACAM3. CEACAM3 is exclusively expressed by human neutrophils, and drives a potent binding, phagocytic engulfment and ...
Zhang Kaiyi K Institute for Medical Microbiology and Hospital Epidemiology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, - - 2014
The coordinated action of a variety of virulence factors allows Salmonella enterica to invade epithelial cells and penetrate the mucosal barrier. The influence of the age-dependent maturation of the mucosal barrier for microbial pathogenesis has not been investigated. Here, we analyzed Salmonella infection of neonate mice after oral administration. In ...
Thirunavukkarasu Shyamala S Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney , Camden , - - 2014
Abstract Mycobacteria have a complex cell wall with a high lipid content that confers unique advantages for bacterial survival in the hostile host environment, leading to long-term infection. There is a wealth of evidence suggesting the role cell wall-associated lipid antigens play at the host-pathogen interface by contributing to bacterial ...
Zhang Yan-Li YL Laboratory of Pathogenic Biology, Medical College, Qingdao University, 266071, Qingdao, Shandong, - - 2014
Clostridium sporogenes ATCC 3584 is an obligate anaerobe that has been reported to possess excellent tumour-targeting capacity. Here, we use Cl. sporogenes as a vector to deliver IL-12, a potent antitumour cytokine that bears numerous anti-tumour properties but that has limited clinical applications due to its strong toxicity when delivered ...
Petersen Troels R TR Malaghan Institute of Medical Research, Wellington, New Zealand; and - - 2014
This study tests the hypothesis that CD8α(+) DCs in the spleen of mice contain an immature precursor for functionally mature, "classical" cross-presenting CD8α(+) DCs. The lymphoid tissues contain a network of phenotypically distinct DCs with unique roles in surveillance and immunity. Splenic CD8α(+) DCs have been shown to exhibit a ...
Jagannathan Prasanna P Department of Medicine, San Francisco General Hospital, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94110, - - 2014
Although clinical immunity to malaria eventually develops among children living in endemic settings, the underlying immunologic mechanisms are not known. The Vδ2(+) subset of γδ T cells have intrinsic reactivity to malaria antigens, can mediate killing of Plasmodium falciparum merozoites, and expand markedly in vivo after malaria infection in previously ...
Canton Johnathan J *Program in Cell Biology, Hospital for Sick Children, 686 Bay Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5G - - 2014
Macrophages respond to changes in environmental stimuli by assuming distinct functional phenotypes, a phenomenon referred to as macrophage polarization. We generated classically (M1) and alternatively polarized (M2) macrophages -two extremes of the polarization spectrum- to compare the properties of their phagosomes. Specifically, we analyzed the regulation of the luminal pH ...
Chereddy Kiran Kumar KK Université catholique de Louvain (UCL), Louvain Drug Research Institute (LDRI), Advanced Drug Delivery and Biomaterials, Avenue E. Mounier 73 bte box B1.73.12, 1200 Brussels, - - 2014
Wound treatment remains one of the most prevalent and economically burdensome healthcare issues in the world. Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) supplies lactate that accelerates neovascularization and promotes wound healing. LL37 is an endogenous human host defense peptide that modulates wound healing, angiogenesis and fights infection. Hence, we hypothesized that the ...
Isla A A Instituto de Bioquímica y Microbiología, F. de Ciencias, U. Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile; Centro FONDAP, Interdisciplinary Center for Aquaculture Research (INCAR), Concepción, - - 2014
Piscirickettsia salmonis is the pathogen responsible for salmonid rickettsial septicemia (SRS), a disease that affects a wide variety of marine cultivated fish species and causes economic losses for the aquaculture industry worldwide. Many in vitro studies have reported on the capacity of this microorganism to replicate in the interior of ...
Rosenzweig Jason A JA Department of Biology and Center for Bionanotechnology and Environmental Research, Texas Southern University, 3100 Cleburne Street, Houston, TX, 77004, USA, - - 2014
As their environments change, microbes experience various threats and stressors, and in the hypercompetitive microbial world, dynamism and the ability to rapidly respond to such changes allow microbes to outcompete their nutrient-seeking neighbors. Viewed in that light, the very difference between microbial life and death depends on effective stress response ...
Hussain Mazhar M Australian Infectious Disease Research Centre, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072, - - 2014
Insects are the most successful group of animals on earth, owing this partly to their very effective immune responses to microbial invasion. These responses mainly include cellular and humoral responses as well as RNA interference (RNAi). Small non-coding RNAs (snRNAs) produced through RNAi are important molecules in the regulation of ...
Magenta Daniele D Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano, - - 2014
Malaria remains one of the world's most common infectious diseases, being responsible for more deaths than any other communicable disease except tuberculosis. There is strong evidence that tumour necrosis factor α and interleukin-1β are important contributors to the systemic disease caused by the infection with Plasmodium falciparum. Circulating levels of ...
Michalski Mateusz M Institute of Medical Biology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Lodowa 106, 93-232 Lodz, Poland; Institute of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Immunology, University of Lodz, Banacha 12/16, 90-237 Lodz, - - 2014
Ficolin-3 (also called H-ficolin or Hakata antigen) is a complement-activating pattern recognition molecule, possessing a fibrinogen-like domain involved in carbohydrate binding. Amongst human ficolins, Ficolin-3 has the highest concentration in serum and is the most potent lectin pathway activator in vitro. Evidence for its physiological function is sparse, although its ...
Huang Kaisong K Unit of Animal Infectious Disease, National State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China; College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, - - 2014
Streptococcus suis is an important zoonotic pathogen worldwide and is responsible for disease in swine and humans. In the present study, we identified and characterised a surface-associated peptidase (abpb, amylase-binding protein B) in Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (S. suis 2) that has high hydrolytic activity towards H-Arg-pNa, with maximum activity ...
Molina-Cruz Alvaro A Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland, - - 2014
Plasmodium falciparum originated in Africa, dispersed around the world as a result of human migration and had to adapt to several different indigenous anopheline mosquitoes. Anophelines from the New World are evolutionary distant form African ones and this probably resulted in a more stringent selection of Plasmodium as it adapted ...
Lim Hun Jai HJ College of Pharmacy, Kangwon National University, Chunchon 200-701, - - 2014
The roots of Angelica decursiva Fr. Et Sav (Umbelliferae) have been frequently used in traditional medicine as anti-inflammatory, antitussive, analgesic agents and expectorant, especially for treating cough, asthma, bronchitis and upper respiratory tract infections. To establish the scientific rationale for the clinical use of Angelica decursiva and to identify new ...
Kennedy Ann R AR Department of Radiation Oncology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA - - 2014
As part of a program to assess the adverse biological effects expected from astronaut exposure to space radiation, numerous different biological effects relating to astronaut health have been evaluated. There has been major focus recently on the assessment of risks related to exposure to solar particle event (SPE) radiation. The ...
Kim Jong-Hwan JH Herbal Medicine Research Division, Korea Food & Drug Administration, Seoul 363-700, - - 2014
To investigate the cytotoxicity, anti-inflammatory activity, and action mechanism of root bark extracts of Acanthopanax henryi. The hot methanol extract of the root bark of A. henryi was subjected to XAD-4 column chromatography eluting with a gradient of methanol in water. The cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory effects of the MeOH fractions ...
Kaku Masato M Department of Orthodontics and Craniofacial Developmental Biology, Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima, Japan. Electronic address: - - 2014
Previous studies have revealed that orthodontic force affects dental pulp via the rupture of blood vessels and vacuolization of pulp tissues. We hypothesized that pulp tissues express inflammatory cytokines and regulators of odontoclast differentiation after excess orthodontic force. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of tensile ...
Mesureur Jennifer J INSERM, U1047, Nîmes, - - 2014
In recent years the zebrafish has gained enormous attention in infection biology, and many protocols have been developed to study interaction of both human and fish pathogens, including viruses, fungi, and bacteria, with the host. Especially the extraordinary possibilities for live imaging of disease processes in the transparent embryos using ...
Barel Monique M INSERM 1151 Team 11, Unité de Pathogénie des Infections Systémiques, Université Paris Descartes, Bâtiment Leriche, 14 rue Maria Helena Vieira Da Silva CS61431, 75993, Paris cedex 14, France, - - 2014
Dissecting the interaction between bacterial and host proteins is fundamental in understanding pathogenesis. It is also very helpful for exploring new therapeutic approaches, either preventive or curative. Here, we describe different techniques, which allowed us to detect new molecules involved in the binding and infection of the bacterium Francisella tularensis, ...
McClure Ryan R Department of Microbiology, Boston University School of Medicine , Boston, MA , - - 2014
Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling represents one of the best studied pathways to implement defense mechanisms against invading microbes in human being as well as in animals. TLRs respond to specific microbial ligands and to danger signals produced by the host during infection, and initiate downstream cascades that activate both innate ...
Silva-Bailão Mirelle Garcia MG Laboratório de Biologia Molecular, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Patologia Molecular, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, - - 2014
Iron is a micronutrient required by almost all living organisms, including fungi. Although this metal is abundant, its bioavailability is low either in aerobic environments or within mammalian hosts. As a consequence, pathogenic microorganisms evolved high affinity iron acquisition mechanisms which include the production and uptake of siderophores. Here we ...
Hunt Nicholas H NH Molecular Immunopathology Unit, School of Medical Sciences and Bosch Institute, University of Sydney Sydney, NSW, - - 2014
There are two theories that seek to explain the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria, the mechanical obstruction hypothesis and the immunopathology hypothesis. Evidence consistent with both ideas has accumulated from studies of the human disease and experimental models. Thus, some combination of these concepts seems necessary to explain the very complex ...
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