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Allen Judith E JE Centre for Immunity, Infection & Evolution, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK. Electronic address: - - 2014
Metazoan parasites typically induce a type 2 immune response, characterized by T helper 2 (Th2) cells that produce the cytokines IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 among others. The type 2 response is host protective, reducing the number of parasites either through direct killing in the tissues, or expulsion from the intestine. ...
Kelly Genevieve G Dermatology Research Group, Education and Research Centre, St. Vincent's University Hospital, Tallaght, Dublin, - - 2014
Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory disease of follicular occlusion characterized by boils, sinus tracts, fistulae, and scarring. It has a significant underestimated morbidity. Antimicrobial, immunosuppressive, anti-androgenic, and surgical approaches have been used with varying results. Knowledge of the pathogenesis of HS is fragmented, and treatment choices have ...
Ben-Mordechai Tamar T Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Neufeld Cardiac Research Institute, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel Tamman Cardiovascular Research Institute, Leviev Heart Center, Sheba Medical Center, Tel-hashomer, Israel Sheba Center for Regenerative Medicine, Stem Cell, and Tissue Engineering, Tel-Hashomer, - - 2014
Macrophages are involved in every cardiovascular disease and are an attractive therapeutic target. Macrophage activation is complex and can be either beneficial or deleterious, depending upon its mode of action, its timing, and its duration. An important macrophage characteristic is its plasticity, which enables it to switch from one subset ...
Williams Jessica L JL Department of Internal Medicine, 2 Department of Pathology and Immunology, and 3 Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO - - 2014
Current treatment modalities for the neurodegenerative disease multiple sclerosis (MS) use disease-modifying immunosuppressive compounds but do not promote repair. Although several potential targets that may induce myelin production have been identified, there has yet to be an approved therapy that promotes remyelination in the damaged central nervous system (CNS). Remyelination ...
Chua Melvin Lee Kiang ML Public Health England, Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards, Chilton, OX11 0RQ, - - 2014
This study aimed to test whether induction of apoptosis following ex vivo X-irradiation of unstimulated blood lymphocytes correlated with clinical radiosensitivity and DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair in breast radiotherapy patients and healthy volunteers. Using small molecule inhibitors, the relationship between DSB repair and radiation-induced apoptosis was examined. Sixteen breast ...
Kim Jong Youl - - 2013
Stroke is a frequent cause of long-term disability and death worldwide. Ischemic stroke is more commonly encountered compared to hemorrhagic stroke, and leads to tissue death by ischemia due to occlusion of a cerebral artery. Inflammation is known to result as a result of ischemic injury, long thought to be ...
D'Angelo F F Service of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, - - 2013
Macrophages play a critical role in intestinal wound repair. However, the mechanisms of macrophage-assisted wound repair remain poorly understood. We aimed to characterize more clearly the repair activities of murine and human macrophages. Murine macrophages were differentiated from bone marrow cells and human macrophages from monocytes isolated from peripheral blood ...
Roy-Chaudhury Prabir - - 2013
Purpose: Arteriovenous fistula non-maturation because of a peri-anastomotic venous stenosis is currently a huge clinical problem for which there are no effective therapies. ‚Ä©Methods: In an attempt to further define the cellular pathways involved in this process we have assessed the pattern and intensity of macrophage infiltration at different time ...
Feingold Kenneth R - - 2013
A key function of the skin is to provide a permeability barrier to restrict the movement of water, electrolytes, and other small molecules between the outside environment and the internal milieu. Following disruption of the permeability barrier, there is a rapid restoration of barrier function, and one of the key ...
R Acosta C M - - 2013
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease resulting from targeted destruction of central nervous system (CNS) myelin.MS is suggested to be an autoimmune disease involving the pathogenic activation of CD4+ T lymphocytesby a foreign antigen in the peripheral blood. The activated CD4+ T cellsliberate inflammatory cytokines that facilitate the breakdown ...
Rowland Kathryn J KJ Division of Pediatric Surgery, St Louis Children's Hospital, St Louis, One's Children's Place, Suite 5540, Missouri 63110, - - 2013
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating intestinal disease resulting in major neonatal morbidity and mortality. The pathology is poorly understood, and the means of preventing and treating NEC are limited. Several endogenous growth factors have been identified as having important roles in intestinal growth as well as aiding intestinal repair ...
Ohkubo Hirotoki - - 2013
Recruited macrophages play a critical role in liver repair after acute liver injury. Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is a potent chemoattractant for macrophages. In this study, we investigated the role of LTB4 receptor type 1 (BLT1) in liver repair during hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. BLT1-knockout mice (BLT1(-/-)) or their wild-type counterparts ...
Novak Margaret L ML Department of Kinesiology and Nutrition, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612, - - 2013
Mp are crucial for tissue repair and regeneration but can also contribute to tissue damage and fibrosis. Mp can adopt a variety of functional phenotypes in response to different stimuli; two of the best-characterized in vitro phenotypes are a proinflammatory "M1" phenotype, produced by exposure to IFN-γ and TNF-α, and ...
Roponen Marjut - - 2013
This intervention study evaluated the effect of moisture-damage repairs on the exposure and on the upper airway inflammatory responses of the occupants. The airborne microbial exposure was followed by quantitative PCR analyses of 13 microbial species in repeated longterm indoor air samples before (N=26) and after (N=28) repairs of the ...
Palmeiro Brian S - - 2013
Cyclosporine is an immunomodulatory medication that is efficacious and approved for atopic dermatitis in dogs and allergic dermatitis in cats; it has also been used to successfully manage a variety of immune-mediated dermatoses in dogs and cats. This article reviews the use of cyclosporine in veterinary dermatology including its mechanism ...
Huang Wei-Chang - - 2013
Myocardial injury, such as myocardial infarction (MI), can lead to drastic heart damage. Zebrafish have the extraordinary ability to regenerate their heart after a severe injury. Upon ventricle resection, fibrin clots seal the wound and serve as a matrix for recruiting myeloid-derived phagocytes. Accumulated neutrophils and macrophages not only reduce ...
Jeong Hey-Kyeong HK Neuroscience Graduate Program, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Kyunggi-do 443-721, - - 2013
Inflammation in injured tissue has both repair functions and cytotoxic consequences. However, the issue of whether brain inflammation has a repair function has received little attention. Previously, we demonstrated monocyte infiltration and death of neurons and resident microglia in LPS-injected brains (Glia. 2007. 55:1577; Glia. 2008. 56:1039). Here, we found ...
Ramos T N TN Department of Microbiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, - - 2012
Complement receptors for C3-derived fragments (CR1-4) play critical roles in innate and adaptive immune responses. Of these receptors, CR3 and CR4 are important in binding and phagocytosis of complement-opsonized pathogens including parasites. The role of CR3 and CR4 in malaria or in cerebral malaria (CM) has received little attention and ...
Frank Matthew G - - 2012
IL-1RA has been used intra-cerebrally to ameliorate neuroinflammatory responses. The present study explored the possibility that the bioactivity of IL-1RA administered intra-cerebrally may be prolonged in the CNS. hIL-1RA was detected in hippocampus from 2h to 14d post-ICM treatment. hIL-1RA ameliorated both the hippocampal cytokine (TNFα and NFκBIα) and sickness ...
Zhang Yan - - 2012
The inflammatory responses accompanying stroke are recognized to contribute to secondary ischemic injury. TIPE2 is a very recently identified negative regulator of inflammation that maintains immune homeostasis. However, it is unknown whether TIPE2 is expressed in the brain and contributes to the regulation of cerebral diseases. In this study, we ...
Gu Jin-Hua - - 2012
Ginkgolide B (GB) has potent neuroprotective effects against ischemia-induced brain injury in vivo and in vitro. However, the underlying mechanisms of GB's neuroprotection remain poorly understood. Excessive inflammation and apoptosis contribute to the pathogenesis of ischemic brain damage, and NF-κB is considered to be a key player in these processes. ...
Garay Paula A PA Center for Neuroscience, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95618, - - 2013
Maternal infection is a risk factor for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia (SZ). Indeed, modeling this risk factor in mice through maternal immune activation (MIA) causes ASD- and SZ-like neuropathologies and behaviors in the offspring. Although MIA upregulates pro-inflammatory cytokines in the fetal brain, whether MIA leads to long-lasting ...
Bergmark Brian - - 2012
There are approximately 225-600 million new malaria infections worldwide annually, with severe and cerebral malaria representing major causes of death internationally. The role of nitric oxide (NO) in the host response in cerebral malaria continues to be elucidated, with numerous known functions relating to the cytokine, endovascular, and cellular responses ...
Dietel Barbara - - 2012
Cerebral ischemia provokes an inflammatory cascade, which is assumed to secondarily worsen ischemic tissue damage. Linking adaptive and innate immunity dendritic cells (DCs) are key regulators of the immune system. The hematopoietic factor G-CSF is able to modulate DC-mediated immune processes. Although G-CSF is under investigation for the treatment of ...
Piva Lucia - - 2012
Plasmodium infections trigger strong innate and acquired immune responses, which can lead to severe complications, including the most feared and often fatal cerebral malaria (CM). To begin to dissect the roles of different dendritic cell (DC) subsets in Plasmodium-induced pathology, we have generated a transgenic strain, Clec9A-diphtheria toxin receptor that ...
Nimmervoll Birgit - - 2012
During the pre- and neonatal period, the cerebral cortex reveals distinct patterns of spontaneous synchronized activity, which is critically involved in the formation of early networks and in the regulation of neuronal survival and programmed cell death (apoptosis). During this period, the cortex is also highly vulnerable to inflammation and ...
Jiang Susan X - - 2012
Microglia are the "immune cells" of the brain and their activation plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative diseases. Activated microglia produce high levels of proinflammatory factors, such as TNFα, causing neurotoxicity. Here we show that vimentin played a key role in controlling microglia activation and neurotoxicity ...
Xu Yiming - - 2012
Class A scavenger receptor (SR-A) is primarily expressed in microglia/macrophages and plays an important role in immune responses. However, whether SR-A can influence microglia/macrophage polarization in cerebral ischemic injury is not known. To this end we monitored the phenotypic alteration of microglia/macrophages in an animal model of cerebral ischemia injury. ...
Teeling Jessica L - - 2012
In this study, we investigate the underlying mechanisms of antibody-mediated inflammation in the brain. We show that immune complexes formed in the brain parenchyma generate a robust and long-lasting inflammatory response, characterized by increased expression of the microglia markers CD11b, CD68 and FcRII/III, but no neutrophil recruitment. In addition to ...
Butterworth Roger F - - 2012
It is increasingly evident that neuroinflammatory mechanisms are implicated in the pathogenesis of the central nervous system (CNS) complications (intracranial hypertension, brain herniation) of acute liver failure (ALF). Neuroinflammation in ALF is characterized by microglial activation and arterio-venous difference studies as well as studies of gene expression confirm local brain ...
Burd Irina - - 2012
Intrauterine infection and inflammation are known risk factors for brain damage in the neonate irrespective of the gestational age. Infection-induced maternal immune activation leads to a fetal inflammatory response mediated by cytokines that has been implicated in the development of not only periventricular leukomalacia and cerebral palsy but also a ...
Lai Aaron Y - - 2012
Accumulation of senile plaques consisting of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) aggregates is a prominent pathological feature in Alzheimer's disease. Effective clearance of Aβ from the brain parenchyma is thought to regulate the development and progression of the disease. Macrophages in the brain play an important role in Aβ clearance by a ...
Melzer Nico - - 2012
BACKGROUND: In amyloid β (Aβ)-related angiitis (ABRA) of the central nervous system (CNS), cerebral amyloid angiopathy occurs in association with primary vasculitis of small- and medium-sized leptomeningeal and cortical arteries. It has been suggested that ABRA is triggered by vascular deposition of Aβ followed by an Aβ-directed (auto)immune response. OBJECTIVE: ...
Kou Jinghong J Department of Cancer Biology and Pharmacology, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, Peoria, IL 61656, - - 2012
We evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of combined treatment of Aβ-immunization with simvastatin in an Alzheimer mouse model at age 22 months. DNA prime-adenovirus boost immunization induced modest anti-Aβ titers and simvastatin increased the seropositive rate. Aβ-KLH was additionally administered to boost the titers. Irrespective of simvastatin, the immunization did not ...
Mingomataj E C - - 2012
Episodic hemorrhage is not a typical symptom of anaphylactic reaction to insect stings. Cases of reactions to honeybee (HB) sting or venom immunotherapy in which the uterus is the main target organ are very rare. Hemorrhage can be induced by HB venom components, especially melittin, which interfere with complement cleavage ...
Benakis Corinne - - 2012
Cerebral ischemia is associated with the activation of glial cells, infiltration of leukocytes and an increase in inflammatory mediators in the ischemic brain and systemic circulation. How this inflammatory response influences lesion size and neurological outcome remains unclear. D-JNKI1, an inhibitor of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway, is strongly neuroprotective ...
Schneider Ulf C - - 2012
To functionally characterize pro-inflammatory and vasoconstrictive properties of cerebrospinal fluid after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in vivo and in vitro. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 10 patients suffering from SAH was applied to the transparent skinfold chamber model in male NMRI mice which allows for in vivo analysis of the ...
Winerdal Max - - 2012
Hypoxic ischemia (HI) is an important cause of neonatal brain injury and subsequent inflammation affects neurological outcome. In this study we performed investigations of systemic and local activation states of inflammatory cells from innate and adaptive immunity at different time points after neonatal HI brain injury in mice. We developed ...
Püntener Ursula - - 2012
Systemic infection leads to generation of inflammatory mediators that result in metabolic and behavioural changes. Repeated or chronic systemic inflammation leads to a state of innate immune tolerance: a protective mechanism against overactivity of the immune system. In this study, we investigated the immune adaptation of microglia and brain vascular ...
Young Adam M H - - 2012
It is becoming clear that inflammation plays a significant role in a number of neurological and psychiatric conditions. Post mortem brain samples in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, schizophrenia and most recently autism spectrum condition, all exhibit neuroglial activation and inflammatory markers within the CSF. Many ...
Gonzalez-Perez Maria Paz MP Department of Microbiology and Physiological Systems, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01605-2377, - - 2012
Transmitted HIV-1 clade B or C R5 viruses have been reported to infect macrophages inefficiently, while other studies have described R5 viruses in late disease with either an enhanced macrophage-tropism or carrying envelopes with an increased positive charge and fitness. In contrast, our previous data suggested that viruses carrying non-macrophage-tropic ...
Fossati S S Department of Pathology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, - - 2012
Vascular deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) in sporadic and familial Alzheimer's disease, through poorly understood molecular mechanisms, leads to focal ischemia, alterations in cerebral blood flow, and cerebral micro-/macro-hemorrhages, significantly contributing to cognitive impairment. Here, we show that tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) death receptors DR4 and DR5 specifically mediate ...
Webb Jerry G - - 2011
Abstract The kallikrein/kinin system uses two distinct serine proteases, plasma kallikrein and tissue kallikrein, to yield bradykinin and Lys-bradykinin (kallidin) from specific substrate kininogens. The kallikrein/kinin system is known to have a role in contact-activated coagulation mechanisms and in inflammatory responses, and recently has been shown to contribute to homeostatic ...
O'Donnell Marie Anne MA Immunology Institute, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029, USA. - - 2011
Caspase 8 initiates apoptosis downstream of TNF death receptors by undergoing autocleavage and processing the executioner caspase 3 (ref. 1). However, the dominant function of caspase 8 is to transmit a pro-survival signal that suppresses programmed necrosis (or necroptosis) mediated by RIPK1 and RIPK3 (refs 2-6) during embryogenesis and haematopoiesis(7-9). ...
Hagberg Henrik - - 2011
Inflammation is increasingly recognized as being of both physiological and pathological importance in the immature brain. The rationale of this review is to present an update on this topic with focus on long-term consequences of inflammation during childhood and in adults. The immature brain can be exposed to inflammation in ...
Shekhawat Sujan S - - 2011
Caspases play a central role in apoptosis, differentiation, and proliferation, and represent important therapeutic targets for treating cancer and inflammatory disorders. Toward the goal of developing new tools to probe caspase substrate cleavage specificity as well as to systematically interrogate caspase activation pathways, we have constructed and investigated a comprehensive ...
Ennes-Vidal V - - 2011
SUMMARYRecent have shown the relationship between Ecto-Nucleoside-Triphosphate-Diphosphohydrolases (Ecto-NTPDases or ecto-nucleotidases) and virulence and infectivity in trypanosomatids. In this work, the inhibition of the ecto-ATPase activities and promastigote growth of Leishmania amazonensis by CrATP was characterized. Furthermore, this compound was used to investigate the role of ecto-nucleotidase in the interaction of ...
Hirayama Tomoyuki - - 2011
Macrophages phagocytose metallic wear particles and produce mediators, which can induce cellular host response and aseptic implant loosening. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the wear debris can stimulate macrophages via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and enhance the response. However, the precise functional role and interaction of TLRs and their adaptor molecules is ...
Gammelgaard L K - - 2011
Neisseria meningitidis (N. meningitidis) causes sepsis, epidemic meningitis, and sometimes also meningoencephalitis. Despite early antibiotic treatment, mortality and morbidity remain significant. We present recent studies on meningococcal disease with focus on the pathophysiology caused by bacterial virulence factors and the host immune responses. The bacterial outer membrane lipopolysaccharide and non-lipopolysaccharide ...
Jakobsen Tim Holm - - 2011
The formation of biofilms in conjunction with quorum sensing (QS)-regulated expression of virulence by opportunistic pathogens contributes significantly to immune evasion and tolerance to a variety of antimicrobial treatments. The present protocol describes methods to determine the in vitro efficacy of potential quorum sensing inhibitors (QSIs). Work on Pseudomonas aeruginosa ...
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