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Sharma Rohit B RB Diabetes Center of Excellence, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 368 Plantation Street, Worcester, MA, 01605, - - 2014
Free fatty acids (FFAs) exert both positive and negative effects on beta cell survival and insulin secretory function, depending on concentration, duration, and glucose abundance. Lipid signals are mediated not only through metabolic pathways, but also through cell surface and nuclear receptors. Toxicity is modulated by positive signals arising from ...
Ruiz Lina María LM Center for Biomedical Research, Faculty of Biological Sciences and Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago, - - 2014
Copper is an essential cofactor of complex IV of the electron transfer chain, and it is directly involved in the generation of mitochondrial membrane potential. Its deficiency induces the formation of ROS, large mitochondria and anemia. Thus, there is a connection between copper metabolism and bioenergetics, mitochondrial dynamics and erythropoiesis. ...
Mondini Anna A aRenal Research Laboratory, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico & Fondazione D'Amico per la Ricerca sulle Malattie Renali bDepartment of Nephrology, Dialysis, and Renal Transplant, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milano, - - 2014
Segmental glomerulosclerosis is the end-point of a series of processes with have podocyte damage as a common denominator. This review summarizes the important advances that have been made in the past 2 years leading to the comprehension of several molecular mechanisms of regulation of podocyte physiology and pathology. From recent ...
Barbi Joseph J Department of Oncology, Immunology and Hematopoiesis Division, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, - - 2014
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) prevent autoimmunity and tissue damage resulting from excessive or unnecessary immune activation through their suppressive function. While their importance for proper immune control is undeniable, the stability of the Treg lineage has recently become a controversial topic. Many reports have shown dramatic loss of the signature ...
Wang Gang G From the *Department of Pancreatic and Biliary Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University; and †Department of Pharmacology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, - - 2014
Nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulfide in addition to hydrogen are well established as gaseous signal molecules throughout the body. Although the role of gasotransmitters in acute pancreatitis (AP) has been explored for many years, many details remain to be elucidated. The physiologic effect of NO in AP ...
Tsuchisaka Atsunari A Department of Dermatology, Kurume University School of Medicine, and Kurume University Institute of Cutaneous Cell Biology, Kurume, - - 2014
The role of structural components and cell adhesion molecules in the epidermis has not been fully studied in terms of the pathophysiology of atopic dermatitis (AD). In this issue, Omori-Miyake et al. (2014) report that IL-4 and IL-13, which are Th2 cytokines, downregulate the expression of keratins and desmosomal cadherins ...
Mishra P K PK 1] Center for Immunity and Inflammation, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Newark, New Jersey, USA [2] Department of Medicine, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Newark, New Jersey, - - 2014
In this review, we examine the evidence that intestinal helminths can control harmful inflammatory responses and promote homeostasis by triggering systemic immune responses. Induction of separable components of immunity by helminths, which includes type 2 and immune regulatory responses, can both contribute toward the reduction in harmful type 1 immune ...
Wira Charles R CR Department of Physiology and Neurobiology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, One Medical Center Drive, Lebanon, NH, - - 2014
The immune system in the female reproductive tract (FRT) does not mount an attack against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or other sexually transmitted infections (STI) with a single endogenously produced microbicide or with a single arm of the immune system. Instead, the body deploys dozens of innate antimicrobials to the ...
Stremnitzer C C Comparative Immunology and Oncology, Department of Pathophysiology and Allergy Research, Center of Pathophysiology, Infectiology and Immunology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, - - 2014
The major house dust mite allergen Der p 2 is a structural and functional homologue of MD-2 within the TLR4-CD14-MD-2 complex. An asthma mouse model in TLR4-deficient mice recently suggested that the allergic immune response against Der p 2 is solely dependent on TLR4 signaling. We investigated whether similar mechanisms are important ...
Sagar Seil - - 2014
Asthma is estimated to affect as many as 300 million people worldwide and its incidence and prevalence are rapidly increasing throughout the world, especially in children and within developing countries. Recently, there has been a growing interest in the use of potentially beneficial bacteria for allergic diseases. This study is ...
Momeni Mohammad M Immunology of Infectious Diseases Research Center, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, - - 2014
Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) play key roles in regulating genes of the immune system. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of miR-1, 21 and 125a in the immune cells taken from the peripheral blood of patients suffering from chronic HBV infection (CHB). This cross-sectional study was performed on ...
Bhattacharyya Swati S Division of Rheumatology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611, - - 2014
Scleroderma is a progressive autoimmune disease affecting multiple organs. Fibrosis, the hallmark of scleroderma, represents transformation of self-limited wound healing into a deregulated self-sustaining process. The factors responsible for maintaining persistent fibroblast activation in scleroderma and other conditions with chronic fibrosis are not well understood. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and ...
Doridot Ludivine Daniel Vaiman Inserm Fr LD Paris, France ; - - 2014
Aims: Storkhead Box 1 (STOX1) is a winged-helix transcription factor implicated in the genetic forms of a high-prevalence human gestational disease, preeclampsia. STOX1 overexpression confers preeclampsia-like transcriptomic features to trophoblastic cell lines, and preeclampsia symptoms to pregnant mice. The aim of this work was to evaluate the impact of STOX1 ...
Sim Ji Hyun JH 1 Department of Anatomy & Biomedical Sciences, Seoul National University College of Medicine , Seoul, Korea - - 2014
Abstract Aster yomena is used in traditional remedies to treat cough, asthma and insect bites; however, its therapeutic mechanism is not completely understood. To elucidate the anti-asthmatic effect of A. yomena, we investigated the anti-asthmatic characteristics of an alcohol extract of A. yomena in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced murine asthma model. ...
Ferrero Simone S Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, San Martino Hospital and National Institute for Cancer Research, University of Genoa, Genoa, - - 2014
Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent inflammatory disease defined by the growth of endometrial stroma and glands outside of the uterus. Epidemiological and clinical studies show that estrogen is essential for the growth of endometriosis. There are several molecular links between estrogen production and inflammation in endometriosis. The enzyme aromatase P450 is ...
Myllymäki Henna H Laboratory of Experimental Immunology, BioMediTech, University of Tampere, FIN-33014 Tampere, - - 2014
The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has helped us to understand how innate immunity is activated. In addition to the Toll receptor and the Toll signaling pathway, the Drosophila immune response is regulated by another evolutionarily conserved signaling cascade, the immune deficiency (Imd) pathway, which activates NF-κB. In fact, the Imd ...
Naureen Irum I Faculty of Life Sciences, The University of Manchester, AV Hill Building, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PT, - - 2014
Hydrocephalus (HC) has a multifactorial and complex picture of pathophysiology due to aetiology, age at and duration since onset. We have previously identified distinctions in markers of cell death associated with different aetiologies. Here, we examined cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from human HC neonates for cytokines to identify further distinguishing features ...
Dai Yuxiang Y Jinling Hospital, School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Nanjing University, Nanjing, - - 2014
Nur77 is a potent proapoptotic member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that is expressed predominantly in brain tissue. It has been demonstrated that Nur77 mediates apoptosis in multiple organs. Nur77-mediated early brain injury (EBI) involves a conformational change in BCL-2 and triggers cytochrome C (cytoC) release resulting in cellular apoptosis. ...
Biethahn K K Research Center Borstel, Borstel, - - 2014
Mast cells (MCs) play a central role in allergic and inflammatory disorders by rapid degranulation and release of inflammatory mediators upon antigen-driven engagement of the FcεRI. Receptor-mediated MC responses are controlled by the activation of different isoforms of phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) and the downstream signaling processes. Recent evidence suggests that miRNAs ...
Zhou Chun-Hong CH National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China; School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou, - - 2014
MicroRNAs are key regulators of gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. In this study, we focus on miR-605 and miR-34a, which are direct transcriptional targets of p53 and in turn enhance its tumor suppressor function by acting upstream and downstream of it, respectively. miR-605 promotes p53 activation by repressing the ...
Gillissen Adrian A Department of Pulmonary Medicine, General Hospital Kassel, - - 2014
Asthma is driven by an inflammatory response against normally harmless environmental anorganic and organic compounds in the respiratory tract. The inflammation is characterized by eosinophilia, goblet cell hyperplasia, bronchial hyperresponsiveness which eventually leads to airway remodeling. Immune responses to airborne pathogens such as viruses and bacteria may reduce the allergic ...
Nystrand M M School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, Vic., - - 2014
Immune responses are highly dynamic. The magnitude and efficiency of an immune response to a pathogen can change markedly across individuals, and such changes may be influenced by variance in a range of intrinsic (e.g. age, genotype, sex) and external (e.g. abiotic stress, pathogen identity, strain) factors. Life history theory ...
Jobse Brian N - - 2014
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is known to greatly affect ventilation (V) and perfusion (Q) of the lung through pathologies such as inflammation and emphysema. However, there is little direct evidence regarding how these pathologies contribute to the V/Q mismatch observed in COPD and models thereof. Also, little is known ...
Martín Rebeca R INRA; Commensal and Probiotics-Host Interactions Laboratory; UMR 1319 Micalis; Jouy-en-Josas, France; AgroParisTech; UMR1319 Micalis; Jouy-en-Josas, - - 2014
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a gastrointestinal disorder characterized by chronic abdominal pain, discomfort, and bloating. Interestingly, there is now evidence of the presence of a low grade inflammation status in many IBS patients, including histopathological and mucosal cytokine levels in the colon, as well as the presence of IBS-like ...
Fredriksson Karin K Laboratory of Asthma and Lung Inflammation, Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Branch, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD - - 2014
The very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) is a member of the low-density lipoprotein receptor family that binds multiple ligands and plays a key role in brain development. Although the VLDLR mediates pleiotropic biological processes, only a limited amount of information is available regarding its role in adaptive immunity. In ...
Shadie Alexander M AM Inflammation and Infection Research Centre, School of Medical Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia, - - 2014
High levels of ambient environmental particulate matter (PM10 i.e. <10 μm median aerodynamic diameter) have been linked to acute exacerbations of asthma. We examined the effects of delivering a single dose of Sydney PM10 by intranasal instillation to BALB/c mice that had been sensitised to ovalbumin and repeatedly challenged with ...
Douglas Angela E AE Department of Entomology and Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, 5134 Comstock Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY14853, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Insects provide experimentally tractable and cost-effective model systems to investigate the molecular basis of animal-bacterial interactions. Recent research is revealing the central role of the insect innate immune system, especially anti-microbial peptides and reactive oxygen species, in regulating the abundance and composition of the microbiota in various insects, including Drosophila ...
Ramsdell Fred F Novo Nordisk Inflammation Research Center, 530 Fairview Avenue, Seattle, Washington 98109, - - 2014
It has been 65 years since the scurfy mutation arose spontaneously in mice at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the United States, and it is 13 years since the molecular cloning of the forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) gene was reported. In this Timeline article, we review the events that ...
Sipos Ferenc F Cell Analysis Laboratory, 2nd Department of Internal Medicine, Semmelweis University, Szentkirályi Street 46, 1088, Budapest, Hungary, - - 2014
In inflammatory bowel diseases the presence of free-circulating DNA (fcDNA) sequences in the sera is an established phenomenon, albeit its real biological function still remains unclear. In our study the immunobiologic effects of a single-dose, intravenously administered fcDNA of normal and colitic origin were assayed in DSS-colitic and control mice. ...
Gagnaire Béatrice B Institut de Radioprotection et de Sureté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV, SERIS, LECO, Centre de Cadarache, Bât 186, B.P. 3, 13115, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, France, - - 2014
In this study, we investigated the effects of depleted uranium (DU), the byproduct of nuclear enrichment of uranium, on several parameters related to defence system in the zebrafish, Danio rerio, using flow cytometry. Several immune cellular parameters were followed on kidney leucocytes: cell proportion, cell mortality, phagocytosis activity and associated ...
Cutrera Ana Paula AP Laboratorio de Ecofisiología, Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras, CONICET - Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, CC 1245 Mar del Plata, Argentina. Electronic address: - - 2014
A traditional approach used to assess whether immune defense is costly is to explore the existence of trade-offs between immunity and other functions; however, quantitative studies of the energetic costs associated with the activation of the immune system are scarce. We assessed the magnitude of a PHA-triggered immune response and ...
Truxova Iva I Department of Immunology, Charles University, Second Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic; Sotio, Prague, Czech - - 2014
Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells that are capable of inducing immune responses. DC-based vaccines are normally generated using a standard 5- to 7-day protocol. To shorten the DC-based vaccine production for use in cancer immunotherapy, we have developed a fast DC protocol by comparing standard DCs (Day 5 ...
Uchoa Ernane Torres ET Department of Physiology, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP, - - 2014
Normal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity leading to rhythmic and episodic release of adrenal glucocorticoids (GCs) is essential for body homeostasis and survival during stress. Acting through specific intracellular receptors in the brain and periphery, GCs regulate behavior, metabolic, cardiovascular, immune, and neuroendocrine activities. In contrast to chronic elevated levels, circadian ...
Rook Graham A W GA Centre for Clinical Microbiology, Department of Infection, University College London (UCL), London, UK. Electronic address: - - 2014
The immune system influences brain development and function. Hygiene and other early childhood influences impact the subsequent function of the immune system during adulthood, with consequences for vulnerability to neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Inflammatory events during pregnancy can act directly to cause developmental problems in the central nervous system (CNS) ...
Chen Minggang M Department of Pharmacology, Harbin Medical University-Daqing, Daqing, - - 2014
Background: Tanshinone IIA inhibits the proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs), but the potential mechanisms of its effects on PASMCs apoptosis remain unclear. Methods: Rat were subjected to hypoxia for 9 days with or without Tanshinone IIA treatment. PASMCs were exposed to the conditions of 2% O2 and ...
Cosentino Katia K German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany; Max-Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems, Stuttgart, - - 2014
Besides their conventional role as energy suppliers for the cell, mitochondria in vertebrates are active regulators of apoptosis. They release apoptotic factors from the intermembrane space into the cytosol through a mechanism that involves the Bcl-2 protein family, mediating permeabilization of the outer mitochondrial membrane (MOMP). Associated with this event, ...
Varrin-Doyer Michel M Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94158, - - 2014
Laquinimod is a novel oral drug that is currently being evaluated for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Although the mode of action of laquinimod remains to be fully elucidated, current knowledge indicates laquinimod exerts beneficial activities both on the peripheral immune system and within the central nervous system ...
Hermosilla Carlos C Institute of Parasitology, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Giessen, - - 2014
SUMMARY The capacity of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) and other leucocytes of the innate immune system to expel their DNA in a controlled process into the extracellular environment to trap and kill pathogenic microorganisms led to a paradigm shift in our comprehension of host leucocyte-pathogen interactions. Formation of neutrophil extracellular traps ...
Pusic Kae M KM Department of Neurology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, - - 2014
Microglia play an important role in fine-tuning neuronal activity. In part, this involves their production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα), which increases neuronal excitability. Excessive synaptic activity is necessary to initiate spreading depression (SD). Increased microglial production of proinflammatory cytokines promotes initiation of SD, which, when recurrent, may play a ...
Ferreyra Jessica A JA Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, - - 2014
The gut microbiota is a dense and diverse microbial community governed by dynamic microbe-microbe and microbe-host interactions, the status of which influences whether enteric pathogens can cause disease. Here we review recent insights into the key roles that nutrients play in bacterial pathogen exploitation of the gut microbial ecosystem. We ...
Lin Sijie - - 2014
We have previously demonstrated that there is a relationship between the aspect ratio (AR) of CeO2 nanoparticles and in vitro hazard potential. CeO2 nanorods with AR ≥ 22 induced lysosomal damage and progressive effects on IL-1β production and cytotoxicity in the human myeloid cell line, THP-1. In order to determine ...
Peplow Philip V PV Department of Anatomy, University of Otago , Dunedin , New - - 2014
Abstract Growth factors and cytokines released at sites of injury and inflammation play an important role in stimulating endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) migration to these sites. A comparative analysis of the literature shows under neutral in vitro conditions (pH 7.4), several growth factors and cytokines influenced favorably indices of EPC ...
Farazi Michelle M *Departments of Immunology/Microbiology and †General Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, - - 2014
Decline in CD4 T cell immune responses is associated with aging. Although a number of immunological defects have been identified in elderly mice (>18 months old), a key early-onset immune defect at middle age could be a driver or contributor to defective CD4 T cell responses. Our studies demonstrate that ...
Rivera Amariliz A Department of Pediatrics, Center for Immunity and Inflammation, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Newark, NJ 07101, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Pattern recognition receptors (PRR) promote pathogen eradication and shape adaptive immunity. Although evidence suggests PRRs can antagonize each other, few detailed mechanisms are known. Wevers et al. (2014) uncover a mechanism of PRR antagonism where fungal-induced Mincle signaling suppresses IL-12 transcription induced by other PRRs and thereby abates antifungal immunity.
Wevers Brigitte A BA Department of Experimental Immunology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, - - 2014
Recognition of fungal pathogens by C-type lectin receptor (CLR) dectin-1 on human dendritic cells is essential for triggering protective antifungal TH1 and TH17 immune responses. We show that Fonsecaea monophora, a causative agent of chromoblastomycosis, a chronic fungal skin infection, evades these antifungal responses by engaging CLR mincle and suppressing ...
Karakawa Masaru M Department of Dermatology, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo,, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan; Department of Dermatology, Jichi Medical University, 3311-1 Yakushiji, Shimotsuke, Tochigi, - - 2014
The cutaneous T cell-attracting chemokine (CTACK)/CCL27 is indispensable in skin inflammation. CTACK/CCL27 is exclusively produced by epidermal keratinocytes to attract CCR10-expressing T lymphocytes to the skin. We investigated the mechanism of CTACK/CCL27 production from normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) by the proinflammatory cytokines TNFα and IFNγ. CTACK/CCL27 production was induced ...
Thomson Carolyn A - - 2014
Although the central nervous system (CNS) was once considered an immunologically privileged site, in recent years it has become increasingly evident that cross talk between the immune system and the CNS does occur. As a result, patients with chronic inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease or psoriasis, ...
Liu Shiyu S 1] Research and Development Center for Tissue Engineering, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China [2] Department of Oral Histology and Pathology, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, - - 2014
The cutaneous wound healing process can lead to hypertrophic scar formation, during which exaggerated inflammation has been demonstrated to play an important role. Therefore, an exploration of strategies designed to regulate this inflammatory process is warranted. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have recently been demonstrated to regulate inflammation in various diseases. ...
Westra Edze R ER University of Exeter, Penryn, Cornwall TR10 9EZ, - - 2014
The discovery of CRISPR-Cas (clustered, regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated proteins) adaptive immune systems in prokaryotes has been one of the most exciting advances in microbiology in the past decade. Their role in host protection against mobile genetic elements is now well established, but there is mounting evidence that these ...
Jackson Shaun W SW Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA - - 2014
Systemic lupus erythematosus is a multisystem autoimmune disease characterized by autoantibodies targeting nucleic acid-associated Ags. The endosomal TLRs TLR7 and TLR9 are critical for generation of Abs targeting RNA- or DNA-associated Ags, respectively. In murine lupus models, deletion of TLR7 limits autoimmune inflammation, whereas deletion of TLR9 exacerbates disease. Whether ...
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