Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 1015
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Takemura Yukihiro - - 2007
Obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with chronic inflammation. Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived hormone with antidiabetic and antiinflammatory actions. Here, we demonstrate what we believe to be a previously undocumented activity of adiponectin, facilitating the uptake of early apoptotic cells by macrophages, an essential feature of immune system function. ...
Morrow Dympna M P - - 2007
Pseudomonas. aeruginosa (PA) is a leading cause of nosocomial pneumonia in patients receiving mechanical ventilation with hyperoxia. Exposure to supraphysiological concentrations of reactive oxygen species during hyperoxia may result in macrophage damage that reduces their ability to phagocytose PA. We tested this hypothesis in cultured macrophage-like RAW 264.7 cells and ...
Brennan Catherine A CA Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, 299 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305, USA. - - 2007
Phagocytic blood cells are critical to innate immune defense: They internalize and destroy microbial invaders and produce signals that trigger other immune responses. Despite this central role, the in vivo contributions of phagocytosis to systemic immune activation are not well understood. Drosophila has proven a fruitful model for the investigation ...
Premanandan, Christopher
Bacillus anthracis is a gram-positive, spore forming facultative anaerobic bacteria and is the etiologic agent for anthrax. Pulmonary anthrax is the form associated with the highest mortality in humans and is considered a significant threat due to its potential as a bioterrorist weapon. We examined the functionality and the expression ...
Kay, Jason
Macrophages are a central player in the immune system. They are sentinels that&#13;phagocytose and degrade senescent cells and foreign invading microorganisms such as&#13;bacteria and yeast, and then present antigens derived from the foreign invaders to&#13;activate the adaptive immune system. Macrophages also regulate immunity through the&#13;release of cytokines that control the ...
Stoilova Yordanka D - - 2007
Susceptibility of patients with burn injuries to infections is associated with disturbances of the humoral and cell-mediated immunity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the dynamics of phagocytic indices and serum immunoglobulin levels in patients with burn injuries as there is a high risk of colonization and ...
Veranth John M - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The induction of cytokines by airway cells in vitro has been widely used to assess the effects of ambient and occupational particles. This study measured cytotoxicity and the release of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 by human bronchial epithelial cells treated with manufactured nano- and micron-sized particles of ...
Passantino L - - 2007
Fish erythrocytes are endowed with the ability to produce cytokine like factors when stimulated with Candida albicans (Ca). To evaluate whether similar activities are still conserved in bird erythrocytes (BE), a morphological, cytochemical and immunological evaluation was conducted on peripheral cells in chickens (Gallus gallus). BE form rosettes with monocytes ...
Vollmers H Peter - - 2007
Immunity, based on a natural and an educated system, is responsible for recognition and elimination of infectious particles, cellular waste, modified self and transformed cells. This dual system guarantees that dangerous particles are removed immediately after appearance and that a memory with maturated weapons exists, if the organism is re-infected ...
Ashwood Paul P Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology and MIND Institute, University of California at Davis, Wet Lab Building, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA. - - 2007
Fine particles (10(2)- to 10(3)-nm diameter) are potentially potent adjuvants in acquired immune responses but little is known about their interaction with pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and impact upon innate immunity. Here we show that 200-nm-sized, food-grade titanium dioxide avidly binds lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with bridging calcium cations, and the complex ...
Müller Karin - - 2007
Ferumoxtran-10, a dextran-coated ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide particle, has the potential to reveal macrophages in vivo using magnetic resonance imaging potentially acting as a marker of inflammatory status. Pending clinical trials, we examined the interactions of Ferumoxtran-10 with human monocyte-macrophages (HMMs) in vitro to assess its safety and lack of ...
Kiss Robert S - - 2006
Engulfment of apoptotic cells by phagocytes is important throughout development and adult life. When phagocytes engulf apoptotic cells, they increase their cellular contents including cholesterol and phospholipids, but how the phagocytes respond to this increased load is poorly understood. Here, we identify one type of a phagocyte response, wherein the ...
Greenberg Michael E - - 2006
The phagocytosis of apoptotic cells within an organism is a critical terminal physiological process in programmed cell death. Evidence suggests that apoptotic cell engulfment and removal by macrophages is facilitated by phosphatidylserine (PS) displayed at the exofacial surface of the plasma membrane; however, neither the macrophage receptors responsible for PS ...
Chan Andrew - - 2006
Apoptosis of autoaggressive T cells in the central nervous system (CNS) and subsequent phagocytosis by microglia is probably crucial in the rapid resolution of the inflammatory infiltrate in T cell mediated neuroinflammatory diseases. In addition to mere clearance, phagocytosis of apoptotic leukocytes results in the downregulation of different microglial immune ...
Zhou Hongwei - - 2007
Particulate air pollution is linked to increased pneumonia epidemiologically and diminished lung bacterial clearance experimentally. We investigated the effect of concentrated ambient particles (CAPs, </= PM(2.5)) on the interaction of murine primary alveolar macrophages (AMs) and the murine macrophage cell line, J774 A.1, with Streptococcus pneumoniae. We found that CAPs ...
Hayakawa M - - 2006
Chromoblastomycosis is characterized by the slow development of polymorphic skin lesions (nodules, verrucas, tumores, plaques and scar tissue). Inside the host, infectious propagules adhere to epithelial cells and differentiate into sclerotic forms, which effectively resist destruction by host effector cells and allow onset of chronic disease. A cellular immune response ...
Wang Ruibo - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Exogenous Heat Shock Protein-70 (HSP70), a product of necrotic cell death, binds the lipid raft microdomains of macrophages and, within minutes, stimulates the phagocytosis and presentation of internalized antigens. The aim of this study was to identify (a) the receptor on the lipid raft microdomain that interacts with HSP70 ...
Li Jun - - 2006
The present paradigm dictates that phagocytosis is accomplished mainly by 'professional' phagocytes (such as macrophages and monocytes), whereas B cells lack phagocytic capabilities. Here we demonstrate that B cells from teleost fish have potent in vitro and in vivo phagocytic activities. Particle uptake by B cells induced activation of 'downstream' ...
Potter Paul K - - 2007
It is now accepted that the recognition and uptake of apoptotic cells by phagocytes is a complex process involving a large number of opsonins, receptors and ligands, however the relative contribution of all these molecules are still debated. Here we examined the role of CD31 (PECAM-1) in the recognition/uptake of ...
Frahm Jana - - 2006
The aim of the present study is to investigate whether extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) affect certain cellular functions and immunologic parameters of mouse macrophages. In this study, the influence of 50 Hz magnetic fields (MF) at 1.0 mT was investigated on the phagocytic activity and on the interleukin-1beta ...
Millet Sam - - 2007
Studies that blend a comparative approach to immunology with an appreciation for physiological ecology are defining an important new field in biology--ecological immunology. However, a panel of assays that permits a comparative approach to immunology is not yet available. In this paper, we describe several assays of innate immunity that ...
Orlando Kelly A - - 2006
Apoptotic cells undergo a number of changes to prepare for phagocytosis; most occur during the execution phase of apoptosis, when dying cells undergo shrinkage and/or fragmentation into apoptotic bodies and express phagocytic markers on their surface. Although events during the execution phase are important to prepare corpses for phagocytosis, the ...
Liu G - - 2006
The termination of the apoptotic programme occurs in most cases via recognition and clearance by phagocytes, especially the professional phagocytes, such as macrophages and immature dendritic cells. Engulfed cells do not simply disappear from the midst of living tissues. The fine-defined presentation of yielded self-antigens to T cells is a ...
Gilmour James S - - 2006
Glucocorticoids promote macrophage phagocytosis of leukocytes undergoing apoptosis. Prereceptor metabolism of glucocorticoids by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11beta-HSDs) modulates cellular steroid action. 11beta-HSD type 1 amplifies intracellular levels of active glucocorticoids in mice by reactivating corticosterone from inert 11-dehydrocorticosterone in cells expressing the enzyme. In this study we describe the rapid (within ...
Sydlik Ulrich - - 2006
Apoptosis and proliferation are important causes of adverse health effects induced by inhaled ultrafine particles. The molecular mechanisms of particle cell interactions mediating these end points are therefore a major topic of current particle toxicology and molecular preventive medicine. Initial studies revealed that ultrafine particles induce apoptosis and proliferation in ...
Hodge S - - 2006
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with increased apoptosis and defective phagocytosis in the airway. As uncleared cells can undergo secondary necrosis and perpetuate inflammation, strategies to improve clearance would have therapeutic significance. There is evidence that the 15-member macrolide antibiotic azithromycin has anti-inflammatory properties. Its effects may be ...
Cuesta Alberto - - 2007
The early cellular innate immune responses of the teleost gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) against whole yeast cells were studied. Fish received a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and leukocyte mobilization, degranulation, peroxidase content, respiratory burst, phagocytic and cytotoxic activities were assayed in both head-kidney leukocytes (HKLs) and ...
Weigert Andreas - - 2006
Programmed cell death is vital for a number of pathophysiologic settings. Apoptotic cells are rapidly engulfed by phagocytes (ie, macrophages), which in turn acquire an anti-inflammatory phenotype known as alternative activation or the M2-type. Here we show that interaction of apoptotic cells with macrophages attenuates cell death pathways in the ...
Ghosn Eliver Eid Bou - - 2006
The role of B lymphocytes in protecting the host against pulmonary Cryptococcus neoformans infection is until now, uncertain. A recent study using B lymphocyte-deficient mice suggests that B lymphocytes play a protective role in cryptococcal infection. It has been well established that at least three B cell subsets, B-1a, B-1b, ...
Dorhoi A - - 2006
Standardized ethanol extracts of Allium sativum (garlic), Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice), Plantago major (plantain) and Hippophae rhamnoides (sea buckthorn) were assessed for their effects on cellular immunity in laying hens. Birds (n = 25) had blood samples taken and both specific and non-specific immune cell responsiveness were evaluated by a leukocyte ...
Lindbom John - - 2006
Health risks associated with exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) have been shown epidemiologically as well as experimentally, pointing to both respiratory and cardiovascular effects. Lately, wear particles generated from traffic have been recognized to be a major contributing source to the overall particle load, especially in the Nordic countries ...
Champion Julie A - - 2006
Phagocytosis is a principal component of the body's innate immunity in which macrophages internalize targets in an actin-dependent manner. Targets vary widely in shape and size and include particles such as pathogens and senescent cells. Despite considerable progress in understanding this complicated process, the role of target geometry in phagocytosis ...
Böttcher Andrea - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Uningested dead cells may be an important source of autoantigens and may trigger autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Multiple receptors involved in the clearance of apoptotic cells have been described; however, little is known about the receptors and ligands involved in uptake of necrotic cells that ...
Braun Virginie - - 2006
Phagocytosis is used by macrophages, dendritic cells and neutrophils to capture and destroy pathogens and particulate antigens. Although localized assembly of actin filaments is the driving force for particle internalization, exocytosis of intracellular compartments, and in particular endocytic compartments, has been shown recently to be required for the early steps ...
Poma Anna - - 2006
Recent studies support a participation of fine airborne particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microm in the effects of air pollutants on health. Particulate matter was collected in an urban area of L'Aquila during the winter 2004. Fine particulate samples were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy ...
Pérez Rebeca - - 2006
Hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis of U937 cells results in substantial hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids by calcium-independent group VIA phospholipase A(2) (iPLA(2)-VIA). However, abrogation of cellular iPLA(2)-VIA neither delays nor decreases apoptosis, suggesting that, beyond a mere destructive role, iPLA(2)-VIA may serve other specific roles. In this study, we report that phagocytosis ...
Vachon Eric - - 2006
CD44, a transmembrane adhesion molecule involved in binding and metabolism of hyaluronan, has additional functions in inflammatory and immune responses, contributing to the ingestion and clearance of particles and apoptotic cells. Our goal was to determine the specific role of CD44 in phagocytosis and whether it functions as a primary ...
Pan Wanling - - 2006
Immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies to the variant surface glycoproteins (VSG) of African trypanosomes are the first and predominant class of anti-trypanosomal antibodies in the infected host. They are a major factor in controlling waves of parasitemia, but not in long-term survival. The macrophage receptor(s) that enables phagocytosis of IgM anti-VSG-coated ...
880-01 Yi-Ching, Ho
Thesis (M.A.)--National Taipei University of Technology Graduate Institute of Biotechnology
Ai, Jing
Neutrophils and macrophages are two major cell types of innate immune system. They both have specific surface receptors, which transduce unique signals that are critical for their survival, differentiation, and functions. In Part I, we characterized the physiological roles of a novel protein, LRG, in G-CSFR signaling pathways in granulocytes. ...
Refsnes Magne - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Particles are known to induce both cytokine release (MIP-2, TNF-alpha), a reduction in cell viability and an increased apoptosis in alveolar macrophages. To examine whether these responses are triggered by the same particle determinants, alveolar macrophages were exposed in vitro to mineral particles of different physical-chemical properties. RESULTS: The ...
Peters Annette - - 2006
Particulate air pollution has been associated with respiratory and cardiovascular disease. Evidence for cardiovascular and neurodegenerative effects of ambient particles was reviewed as part of a workshop. The purpose of this critical update is to summarize the evidence presented for the mechanisms involved in the translocation of particles from the ...
Frick Chris - - 2006
The main causes for the long-term prosthetic implants' failure are the body's reaction to the implanted material or mechanical stress on the device resulting in the formation of wear particles. Particulate wear debris attracts macrophages, and depending on the chemical composition of the material and particle size, various levels of ...
Kaji Hiroaki - - 2006
In our previous study, water-soluble extracts from Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (B. xylophilus), a pine wood nematode, were shown to enhance interleukin (IL)-4 plus lipopolysaccharide-induced polyclonal immunoglobulin (Ig) E production in vitro in mice and to increase serum levels of an antigen-nonspecific IgE in vivo. Here we examined whether the nematode extracts ...
Yu Fu-Shun - - 2006
Emodin has been reported to induce apoptosis in many human cancer cell lines, although its effects on leukocyte functions in vitro have not been demonstrated Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the effect of emodin on the phagocytosis of macrophages, the activity of natural killer cells and ...
Girón-Pérez M I - - 2006
Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphorous insecticide widely used in agriculture and domestic activities. However, little is known about the effect of this pesticide on the immune system of fish and other alterations of its physiological system. The aims of the present study were the evaluation of the LC(50) (lethal concentration(50)) and ...
Scannell Michael - - 2006
Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells plays a pivotal role in developmental processes and in the resolution of inflammation. Failed or delayed clearance of apoptotic cells can result in chronic inflammation. Furthermore, clearance of apoptotic cells leads to release of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Recent evidence has shown that endogenous mediators can regulate such ...
Siglienti Ines - - 2006
Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO/USPIO) particles are a promising new tool to label cells for in vivo monitoring of their migration into the nervous system by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Upon systemic application, SPIO/USPIO particles are preferentially internalized by macrophages. It is unclear whether this affects their immunological profile. We tested ...
Kenis Heidi - - 2006
Apoptosis and subsequent clearance of apoptotic cells are important for the prevention of diseases. Therefore, it is essential to understand the mechanisms underlying the biology of phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells. The best characterized "eat me" signal on the surface of apoptotic cells is phosphatidylserine (PS). Recently, we demonstrated that ...
Li Yankun - - 2006
Macrophage apoptosis and the ability of phagocytes to clear these apoptotic cells are important processes in advanced atherosclerosis. Phagocytic clearance not only disposes of dead cells but usually elicits an anti-inflammatory response. To study this process in a model of advanced lesional macrophage death, macrophages rendered apoptotic by free cholesterol ...
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