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Results 351 - 400 of 1084
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Roth Olivia - - 2009
Specificity and memory are the hallmarks of the adaptive immune system of vertebrates. However, phenomena of specificity upon priming of immunity have recently been demonstrated also in invertebrates, which rely exclusively on innate immune defence. It has been suggested that phagocytosis might represent a core candidate for such specificity in ...
Chen Yifang - - 2009
Natural Abs, which arise without known immune exposure, have been described that specifically recognize cells dying from apoptosis, but their role in innate immunity remains poorly understood. Herein, we show that the immune response to neoantigenic determinants on apoptotic thymocytes is dominated by Abs to oxidation-associated Ags, phosphorylcholine (PC), a ...
Ghigo Eric - - 2009
Coxiella burnetii, the agent of Q fever, is an obligate intracellular bacterium that is considered a potential biological weapon of category B. C. burnetii survives within myeloid cells by subverting receptor-mediated phagocytosis and preventing phagosome maturation. The intracellular fate of C. burnetii also depends on the functional state of myeloid ...
Wright Adam K A - - 2009
Macrophages in the airways form an important element of immune defense and inflammation. We analyzed induced sputum from airways of patients with CF for the types of macrophages present, their receptor expression, and phagocytic function. In samples from patients and age-matched controls, macrophages were analyzed by multicolor flow cytometry, scavenger ...
Cron L E - - 2009
Streptococcus pneumoniae produces two surface-associated lipoproteins that share homology with two distinct families of peptidyl-prolyl isomerases (PPIases), the streptococcal lipoprotein rotamase A (SlrA) and the putative proteinase maturation protein A (PpmA). Previously, we have demonstrated that SlrA has PPIase activity, and that the enzyme plays a role in pneumococcal virulence. ...
Cape Jonathan L - - 2009
Macrophages and neutrophils are essential elements of host cellular defense systems that function, at least in part, by generating respiration-driven oxidative toxins in response to external stimuli. In both cells, encapsulation by phagocytosis provides a mechanism to direct the toxins against the microbes. The toxic chemicals formed by these two ...
Balestrieri Barbara B Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA. - - 2009
Phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) hydrolyzes the sn-2 position of cell membrane phospholipids to release fatty acids and lysophospholipids. We have previously reported that group V secretory PLA(2) (sPLA(2)) translocates from the Golgi and recycling endosomes of mouse peritoneal macrophages to newly formed phagosomes and regulates the phagocytosis of zymosan, suggesting a ...
Bouchard B - - 2009
The goal of this study was to examine the disruptive effects of municipal effluents on the immune and reproductive systems of freshwater mussels. For 30 days, caged mussels were immersed in the Rivière des Mille Iles (Quebec, Canada), 150 m both upstream and downstream from two urban wastewater treatment plants: ...
Shirzad Hedayatollah - - 2009
It has been claimed that, in contrast to most opioids, tramadol does not suppress immune functions. We therefore, studied the effects of tramadol in comparison to morphine, on the number of phagocytes and the number of sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) engulfed by each individual cell (phagocytic index) of mouse ...
Jayasree S - - 2009
Immune cells were identified and their interaction towards Vibrio alginolyticus, V. parahaemolyticus and V. anguillarum was studied in vitro in the penaeid shrimp, Penaeus indicus. Haemocytes were divided into agranulocytes, semi-dense granulocytes and dense granulocytes according to their morphology. Agranulocytes (100%) and 0.3-0.7% of granulocytes were actively involved in coagulation. ...
Stokes Leanne - - 2009
ATP-gated P2X(4) receptors (P2X(4)R) in macrophages and microglia have been implicated in neuropathic and inflammatory pain by currently unidentified mechanisms. P2X(4)R are found predominantly in intracellular lysosomal compartments but can be rapidly trafficked to the surface membrane by procedures that induce endolysosomal secretion. We studied total and surface membrane P2X(4)R ...
Alfaro-Moreno Ernesto - - 2009
Exposure to particulate matter (PM) induces inflammatory cytokines. In the present study, we evaluated the secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 by an airway cell line exposed to PM with a mean aerodynamic size equal to or less than 10 or 2.5 microm (PM10 and PM2.5, respectively) collected in Mexico City, ...
Márkus Róbert - - 2009
The blood cells, or hemocytes, in Drosophila participate in the immune response through the production of antimicrobial peptides, the phagocytosis of bacteria, and the encapsulation of larger foreign particles such as parasitic eggs; these immune reactions are mediated by phylogenetically conserved mechanisms. The encapsulation reaction is analogous to the formation ...
Martinet Wim - - 2009
Phagocytosis represents a mechanism used by macrophages to remove pathogens and cellular debris. Recent evidence suggests that phagocytosis is stimulated under specific conditions of stress, such as extracellular pressure and hypoxia. In the present study, we show that amino acid or glucose deprivation caused an increase in the phagocytosis of ...
Leung, Wendy Wen Sie
The intracellular fate of microorganisms ingested by phagocytes may be determined by the specific receptors mediating their uptake. To test this hypothesis, the subcellular location of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in human monocyte-derived macrophages upon phagocytosis via opsonic versus non-opsonic receptors was investigated by indirect double immunofluorescence. Opsonic ingestion of P. aeruginosa ...
Mehta Harshini - - 2009
SLAT (SWAP-70-like adaptor protein of T cells) is an adaptor protein expressed in cells of the hematopoietic system. SLAT interacts with and alters the function of small GTPase Rac1 in fibroblasts. In these nonhematopoietic models, the SLAT-Rac interaction leads to changes in F-actin and causes cytoskeletal reorganization. In T cells, ...
Shah Vaibhav B - - 2009
Microglia are the resident innate immune cells that are critical for innate and adaptive immune responses within the CNS. They recognize and are activated by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) present on the surface of pathogens. beta-glucans, the major PAMP present within fungal cell walls, are recognized by Dectin-1, which mediates ...
Nakayama Masafumi - - 2009
Phagocytes such as macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) engulf apoptotic cells to maintain peripheral immune tolerance. However, the mechanism for the recognition of dying cells by phagocytes is not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that T-cell immunoglobulin mucin-3 (Tim-3) recognizes apoptotic cells through the FG loop in the IgV domain, ...
Hannam M L - - 2009
The discharge of oil well produced water (PW) provides a constant source of contaminants to the marine environment including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkylated phenols, metals and production chemicals. High concentrations of PW cause adverse effects to exposed biota, including reduced survival, growth and reproduction. Here we explore the effects of ...
Landgraeber Stefan - - 2009
Particle-induced osteolysis is a major cause of aseptic loosening after total joint replacement. Earlier studies demonstrated apoptotic macrophages, giant cells, fibroblasts and T-lymphocytes in capsules and interface membranes of patients with aseptic hip implant loosening. The aim of the current study was to determine in a murine calvarial model of ...
Hernanz-Falcón Patricia - - 2009
Dectin-1 is a pattern-recognition receptor recognizing beta-(1,3)-glucans found on fungal cell walls. Dectin-1 plays an important role in immunity to fungi by mediating phagocytic clearance of fungal particles and inducing transcription of innate response genes. We show here that the two processes are linked and that Dectin-1 signalling for inflammation ...
Kurzepa Aneta - - 2009
Bacteriophages are among the most numerous creatures on earth and they are omnipresent. They are thus in constant natural contact with humans and animals. However, the clinical and technological use of bacteriophages has also become more frequent, which is why all aspects of phage-mammal interactions need to be explored. Bacteriophages ...
N'Diaye Elsa-Noah - - 2009
Phagocytosis, which is essential for the immune response to pathogens, is initiated by specific interactions between pathogens and cell surface receptors expressed by phagocytes. This study identifies triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM-2) and its signaling counterpart DAP12 as a molecular complex that promotes phagocytosis of bacteria. Expression ...
Gopalakrishnan Singaram - - 2009
It has been reported that environmental pollutants in the aquatic ecosystem could weaken immune competence of organisms. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] on immunomodulation in marine gastropods and to see if these effects are caused by or related to the generation ...
Miksa Michael M Center for Immunology and Inflammation, The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset, NY 11030, - - 2009
Apoptotic cell phagocytosis has recently raised considerable interest, particularly due to its intricate molecular mechanisms and negative immunologic impact of incompetent clearance of apoptotic cells. There is a need for simple and reliable methods to clearly determine the internalization of apoptotic cells. Labeling with pHrodo succinimidyl ester (SE), a pH-sensitive ...
Kruspe Andrew S - - 2009
BACKGROUND: We have investigated whether chemicals known to disrupt disulfide bonds are capable of altering immunoglobulin anti-D structure resulting in an increased efficacy of the chemically modified anti-D to inhibit Fcgamma receptor (FcgammaR)-mediated phagocytosis. If successful, this would provide a rationale to explore this mechanism of enhancing FcgammaR blockade for ...
van Tilborg Geralda A F - - 2009
Apoptosis plays an important role in the etiology of various diseases. Several studies have reported on the use of annexin A5-functionalized iron oxide particles for the detection of apoptosis with MRI, both in vitro and in vivo. The protein annexin A5 binds with high affinity to the phospholipid phosphatidylserine, which ...
Vinet Adrien F - - 2009
Phagocytosis is the process by which cells engulf and destroy large particles such as pathogens or apoptotic cells. In this way, macrophages play a pivotal role in the resolution of microbial infections. However, many microorganisms have evolved efficient strategies to preempt the weaponry of macrophages. A better understanding of the ...
Scarfì Sonia - - 2009
Inhalation of crystalline silica induces a pulmonary fibrotic degeneration called silicosis caused by the inability of alveolar macrophages to dissolve the crystalline structure of phagocytosed quartz particles. Ascorbic acid is capable of partially dissolving quartz crystals, leading to an increase of soluble silica concentration and to the generation of new ...
Chaurio Ricardo A - - 2009
Phosphatidylserine (PS), a phospholipid predominantly found in the inner leaflet of eukaryotic cellular membranes, plays important roles in many biological processes. During apoptosis, the asymmetric distribution of phospholipids of the plasma membrane gets lost and PS is translocated to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane. There, PS acts as ...
Jin Tian - - 2009
Human leukocytes, including macrophages and neutrophils, are phagocytic immune cells that capture and engulf pathogens and subsequently destroy them in intracellular vesicles. To accomplish this vital task, these leukocytes utilize two basic cell behaviors-chemotaxis for chasing down infectious pathogens and phagocytosis for destroying them. The molecular mechanisms controlling these behaviors ...
Beck-Speier Ingrid - - 2009
Ambient particulate matter (PM)-associated metals have been shown to play an important role in cardiopulmonary health outcomes. To study the modulation of PM-induced inflammation by leached off metals, we investigated intracellular solubility of radio-labeled iron oxide ((59)Fe(2)O(3)) particles of 0.5 and 1.5 mum geometric mean diameter. Fe(2)O(3 )particles were examined ...
Sanjuan Miguel A - - 2009
The lysosomal pathway digests material received by two main routes, phagocytosis and autophagy. Cells use phagocytosis to ingest extracellular particles by invaginations of the plasma membrane. In autophagy, a double membrane structure isolates portions of the cytoplasm to target it for degradation. During infection, phagocytes use both of these cellular ...
Hohn Claudia - - 2009
The innate immune response constitutes the first line of defense against invading pathogens and consists of a variety of immune defense mechanisms including active endocytosis by macrophages and granulocytes. Endocytosis can be used as a reliable measure of selective and non-selective mechanisms of antigen uptake in the early phase of ...
Defaye Arnaud - - 2009
Drosophila phagocytes participate in development and immune responses through their abilities to perform phagocytosis and/or secrete extra-cellular matrix components, antimicrobial peptides, clotting factors and signalling molecules. However, our knowledge of their functional impact on development and host resistance to infection is limited. To address this, we have used a genetic ...
Flierl Michael A - - 2009
Following our recent report that phagocytic cells (neutrophils, PMNs, and macrophages) are newly discovered sources of catecholamines, we now show that both epinephrine and norepinephrine directly activate NFkappaB in macrophages, causing enhanced release of proinflammatory cytokines (TNFalpha, IL-1beta, IL-6). Both adrenal-intact (AD+) and adrenalectomized (ADX) rodents were used, because ADX ...
McPhillips Kathleen A - - 2009
Cells undergo apoptosis during development, tissue homeostasis, and disease, and are rapidly cleared by both professional and nonprofessional phagocytes. In the whole animal, this process is remarkably efficient and usually goes unnoticed. It is estimated that 2 x 10(11) cells are cleared each day and it has been suggested that ...
Kaur Gurpreet - - 2009
Macrophages, the major phagocytes of body, are largely dependent on membrane for their apposite functioning. Cum-OOH, a catalyst used in chemical and pharmaceutical industry, is a peroxidative agent, which may induce oxidative stress in macrophages hampering the integrity of their membrane. Alpha-tocopherol is known to protect the membrane from oxidative ...
Parry S A - - 2008
Phagocytosis is a major component of the animal immune system where apoptotic cellular material, metabolites, and waste are safely processed. Further, efficient phagocytosis by macrophages is key to maintaining healthy vascular systems and preventing atherosclerosis. Single-cell images of macrophage phagocytosis of red blood cells, RBCs, and polystyrene microspheres have been ...
Oflazoglu E - - 2009
SGN-40 is a therapeutic antibody targeting CD40, which induces potent anti-lymphoma activities via direct apoptotic signalling cells and by cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Here we show antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) by macrophages to contribute significantly to the therapeutic activities and that the antitumour effects of SGN-40 depend on Fc interactions.
Petricevich V L - - 2008
The research described here is focused upon studying the activation of mice peritoneal macrophages when submitted to in vitro effects of Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom and its major toxic peptides. Several functional events were analysed, such as: cytotoxicity, spreading, extent of phagocytosis, vacuole formation and changes of internal calcium concentration. ...
Konno Adriana Y C - - 2009
Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic granulomatous disease caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb), a thermal dimorphic fungus. Its major antigen is a 43-kDa glycoprotein. Gp43 embodies different functions: it participates in evasion mechanisms during the installation of primary infection, stimulates granuloma-like formation in vitro and presents T-cell epitopes that induce protective ...
Jiang Joy X JX Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, UC Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA 95817, - - 2008
Leptin, a profibrogenic cytokine, plays an important role in the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Leptin also regulates immune responses, including macrophage phagocytic activity. Stellate cells are key elements in liver fibrogenesis, and previously we have demonstrated that phagocytosis of apoptotic bodies by stellate cells is profibrogenic. To study the effects ...
Weiss D J - - 2008
Pathogenic mycobacteria are highly adapted for survival within host mononuclear phagocytes. This is largely due to the organism's capacity to prevent macrophage activation, block phagosome acidification and maturation, and attenuate presentation of antigens to the immune system. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is one such organism that modulates the ruminant ...
Shui Wenqing - - 2008
Phagocytosis is the central process by which macrophage cells internalize and eliminate infectious microbes as well as apoptotic cells. During maturation, phagosomes containing engulfed particles fuse with various endosomal compartments through the action of regulatory molecules on the phagosomal membrane. In this study, we performed a proteomic analysis of the ...
Soehnlein Oliver - - 2008
In acute inflammation, infiltrating polymorphonuclear leukocytes (also known as PMNs) release preformed granule proteins having multitudinous effects on the surrounding environment. Here we present what we believe to be a novel role for PMN-derived proteins in bacterial phagocytosis by both human and murine macrophages. Exposure of macrophages to PMN secretion ...
Righi D A - - 2009
Synthetic type II pyrethroid insecticides, such as cyhalothrin at certain dosage levels, simultaneously induce stress-like symptoms and innate immunosuppressive effects in laboratory animals. The present study was designed to further analyze the stress-like effects induced by cyhalotrin and also investigate the role of Hypothalamus-Hypophysis-Adrenal (HHA) axis and Sympathetic Nervous Systems ...
Olsson Mattias - - 2008
CD47 functions as a marker of self on red blood cells (RBCs) by binding to signal regulatory protein alpha on macrophages, preventing phagocytosis of autologous RBCs by splenic red pulp macrophages, and Fcgamma receptor (FcgammaR)- or complement receptor-mediated phagocytosis by macrophages in general. RBC senescence involves a series of biochemical ...
Rosas Marcela - - 2008
Dectin-1 is the archetypal signaling, non-Toll-like pattern recognition receptor that plays a protective role in immune defense to Candida albicans as the major leukocyte receptor for beta-glucans. Dectin-1-deficiency is associated with impaired recruitment of inflammatory leukocytes and inflammatory mediator production at the site of infection. In this study, we have ...
Kaplan Jessica E - - 2008
Multiple components of vertebrate immune systems have been shown to exhibit circadian fluctuations. While the zebrafish is currently generating a wealth of information on the molecular pacemakers that may control circadian rhythms, there have been no reports of rhythmic activity in zebrafish leukocytes. In this study, we found that phagocytosis ...
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