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Results 351 - 400 of 1016
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Flierl Michael A - - 2008
It is well established that catecholamines (CAs), which regulate immune and inflammatory responses, derive from the adrenal medulla and from presynaptic neurons. Recent studies reveal that T cells also can synthesize and release catecholamines which then can regulate T cell function. We have shown recently that macrophages and neutrophils, when ...
Shiratsuchi Akiko - - 2008
Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) exists in the serum as a complex with MBL-associated serine protease (MASP). A recent paper described how MASP-free recombinant rat MBL stimulates the phagocytosis of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by rat Kupffer cells through an increase in the level of a phagocytosis receptor. We have examined ...
Stuart Lynda M - - 2008
Phagocytosis, the engulfment of material by cells, is a highly conserved process that arose before the development of multicellularity. Phagocytes have a key role in embryogenesis and also guard the portals of potential pathogen entry. They discriminate between diverse particles through the array of receptors expressed on their surface. In ...
Mitschik S - - 2008
In recent years evidence has accumulated indicating that airborne particles cause adverse health effects. To understand the underlying mechanisms, a multitude of in vitro studies have been performed focusing on inflammatory responses, especially cytokine production. However, the diversity of studies renders it difficult to determine which results are consistent and ...
Maier Konrad Ludwig - - 2008
In this article, we review and analyze different modes of exposure to ultrafine particles in order to assess particle-induced inflammatory responses and the underlying mechanisms in vitro and in vivo. Based on results from monocytic cells cultured under submerged conditions, we discuss (1) the impact of particle properties such as ...
Hermann Petra M - - 2008
Activation of phagocytic cells in the injury zone is a crucial step in the regeneration of peripheral axons. Many aspects of the mechanisms underlying the recruitment of active phagocytes remain, however, unclear. Notably, our understanding of the interactions between injury, extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation and phagocyte activation is limited. Most ...
Zinkernagel Annelies S - - 2008
Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha is activated on exposure to bacterial pathogens and regulates the innate immune functions of phagocytes. We show here that the HIF-1alpha agonist mimosine can boost the capacity of human phagocytes and whole blood to kill the leading pathogen Staphylococcus aureus in a dose-dependent fashion and reduce the ...
Deretic Vojo - - 2008
Autophagy and phagocytosis are evolutionarily ancient processes functioning in capture and digestion of material found in the cellular interior and exterior, respectively. In their most primordial form, both processes are involved in cellular metabolism and feeding, supplying cells with externally obtained particulate nutrients or using portions of cell's own cytoplasm ...
Ghoneum M - - 2008
Phagocytic cells, comprised of neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages, play a key role in the innate immune response to infection. Our earlier study demonstrated that arabinoxylan rice bran (MGN-3/Biobran) activates murine peritoneal macrophage and macrophage cell lines. In this study, we investigated whether MGN-3 can upregulate the phagocytic activity of human phagocytes ...
Frankenberg Tobias - - 2008
Phagocytosis and intracellular destruction of pathogens by phagocytes is a crucial defense mechanism of the innate immune response during infection. It has been reported a number of times that the interaction with pyogenic, extracellular bacteria leads to the apoptotic death of phagocytes. The signaling events that cause this form of ...
Koziel Henry - - 2008
Alveolar macrophages are "professional phagocytes" and critical effector cells that protect the lungs from a broad array of microbes that can cause severe respiratory tract infections such as pneumonia. The molecular mechanisms that mediate microbial phagocytosis in alveolar macrophages are not fully known, and the specific role of small Rho ...
Levin Milton - - 2008
The immunotoxic potential of domoic acid (DA), a well-characterized neurotoxin, has not been fully investigated. Phagocytosis and lymphocyte proliferation were evaluated following in vitro and in vivo exposure to assay direct vs indirect effects. Mice were injected intraperitoneally with a single dose of DA (2.5 microg/g b.w.) and sampled after ...
Li Zhaojie - - 2008
Vitellogenin (Vg), a major reproductive protein, has been associated with infection-resistant response in fish. However, the underlying mechanisms by which Vg is involved in anti-infectious response are not understood. By both protein-microbe interaction analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as well as phagocytosis test, we demonstrate for the first time that ...
Kubica Malgorzata - - 2008
Although considered to be an extracellular pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus is able to invade a variety of mammalian, non-professional phagocytes and can also survive engulfment by professional phagocytes such as neutrophils and monocytes. In both of these cell types S. aureus promptly escapes from the endosomes/phagosomes and proliferates within the cytoplasm, ...
Jayachandran Rajesh - - 2008
Macrophages are crucial for innate immunity, apoptosis, and tissue remodeling, processes that rely on the capacity of macrophages to internalize and process cargo through phagocytosis. Coronin 1, a member of the WD repeat protein family of coronins specifically expressed in leukocytes, was originally identified as a molecule that is recruited ...
Olazabal Isabel María - - 2008
The array of phagocytic receptors expressed by macrophages make them very efficient at pathogen clearance, and the phagocytic process links innate with adaptive immunity. Primary macrophages modulate antigen cross-presentation and T-cell activation. We assessed ex vivo the putative role of different phagocytic receptors in immune synapse formation with CD8 naïve ...
Ravichandran Kodi S - - 2007
The clearance of apoptotic cells by phagocytes is an integral component of normal life, and defects in this process can have significant implications for self tolerance and autoimmunity. Recent studies have provided new insights into the engulfment process, including how phagocytes seek apoptotic cells, how they recognize and ingest these ...
Chung Elaine Y EY Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10065, - - 2007
Production of interleukin (IL)-10, a major immunoregulatory cytokine, by phagocytes during clearance of apoptotic cells is critical to ensuring cellular homeostasis and suppression of autoimmunity. Little is known about the regulatory mechanisms in this fundamental process. We report that IL-10 production stimulated by apoptotic cells was regulated at the point ...
Allina Jorge - - 2008
Primary biliary cirrhosis is characterized by chronic hepatic inflammation and immune mediated apoptosis of bile duct epithelial cells. Delayed macrophage phagocytosis of opsonized apoptotic cells, noted in other autoimmune diseases, may promote inflammation. Recent studies suggest serum anti-CD16 autoantibodies contribute to impaired macrophage phagocytosis by blocking complement receptor 3 (CR3) ...
Yoshizaki Fumiko - - 2008
The innate immune system is the first line of defense against pathogenic microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Phagocytes, such as neutrophils and macrophages, play an important role in the innate immune system by recognizing, engulfing, and eliminating pathogens. It has been suggested that lipid membrane microdomains/rafts of phagocytes ...
Kocbach A - - 2008
Inflammation is considered as a key event in adverse health effects associated with exposure to ambient particulate matter. The inflammatory potential of particles is often compared using in vitro cell systems, where the particle-induced release of pro-inflammatory cytokines is measured. A major concern in these assays is the potential of ...
Fadeel Bengt - - 2007
Phagocytosis of apoptotic cell corpses is a conserved and well-regulated process and is required to maintain tissue homeostasis within an organism. Evidence suggests that apoptotic cell engulfment by macrophages is dependent upon the externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) on the plasma membrane of the dying cell. Furthermore, oxidation of PS and ...
Bianchi Stephen M SM Academic Unit of Respiratory Medicine, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2JF, - - 2008
Cystic fibrosis lung disease is characterized by accumulation of apoptotic neutrophils, indicating impaired clearance of dying cells. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the principal microbial pathogen in cystic fibrosis, manipulates apoptosis induction via production of toxic metabolites. Whether these metabolites, particularly pyocyanin, can also modulate apoptotic cell engulfment is unknown. To assess the ...
Savina Ariel - - 2007
Like macrophages and neutrophils, dendritic cells (DCs) are considered professional phagocytes. Even if the three cell types phagocytose parasites, bacteria, cell debris, or even intact cells very efficiently, the functional outcomes of the phagocytic event are quite different. Macrophages and neutrophils scavenge and destroy phagocytosed particles, a critical step in ...
Silva Elizabeth E Medical Research Council Cell Biology Unit, MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology, Anatomy and Developmental Biology Department, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, - - 2007
Many cells die by apoptosis during animal development. Apoptotic cells are rapidly removed through phagocytosis by their neighbors or by macrophages. To genetically dissect this process, we performed an in vivo screen for genes required for efficient phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by Drosophila macrophages and identified pallbearer (pall), which encodes ...
LAMBERT, Christophe
Bivalve hemocyte competence has been measured by quantifying functional characteristics, including reactive oxygen intermediate (ROI) production after activation with zymosan or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). However, untreated oyster hemocytes also produce ROI and RNI (reactive nitrogen intermediates) after bleeding even if not stimulated by Zymosan or PMA. Extensive investigation of ...
Anand Rahul J - - 2007
Phagocytosis is the process by which microbial pathogens are engulfed by macrophages and neutrophils and represents the first line of defense against bacterial infection. The importance of phagocytosis for bacterial clearance is of particular relevance to systemic inflammatory diseases, which are associated with the development of hypoxia, yet the precise ...
Rezende T M B - - 2007
AIM: To assess the influence of co-culture with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) on phagocytosis and the production of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) and nitrogen (NO) species and the arginase activity by M1 and M2 peritoneal macrophages. METHODOLOGY: Cellular viability, adherence and phagocytosis of Saccharomyces boulardii were assayed in the presence ...
Petrovski Goran - - 2007
Autophagy as a natural part of cellular homeostasis usually takes place unnoticed by neighboring cells. However, its co-occurrence with cell death may contribute to the clearance of these dying cells by recruited phagocytes. Autophagy associated with programmed cell death has recently been reported to be essential for presentation of phoshatidylserine ...
Kim Dong-Hwan DH Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, 136 Hudson Hall, Box 90281, Durham, NC 27708, - - 2007
This in vitro study characterized the temporal cytokine expression profile from human monocytes exposed to phagocytosable Ti particles (0.78+/-0.12 microm) and to Ti discs of comparable surface roughness. Human THP-1 monocytes were cultured in six well tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) plates. Each well was either bare, contained Ti particles (the ...
de las Heras B - - 2007
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The kaurane diterpenes foliol and linearol are inhibitors of the activation of nuclear factor kappaB, a transcription factor involved in the inflammatory response. Effects of these diterpenes on apoptosis and phagocytosis have been analysed in cultured peritoneal macrophages and in the mouse macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7. ...
Gokoh Maiko - - 2007
2-Arachidonoylglycerol is an endogenous ligand for the cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2). While evidence is accumulating that the CB1 receptor plays important regulatory roles in various nervous tissues and cells, the physiological roles of the CB2 receptor, which is abundantly expressed in the immune system, are yet to be determined. ...
Erwig Lars-Peter - - 2007
Cells undergo apoptosis in development, tissue homeostasis, and disease and are subsequently cleared by professional and nonprofessional phagocytes. There is now overwhelming evidence that phagocyte function is profoundly altered following apoptotic cell uptake, with consequences for the ensuing innate and adaptive immune response. Pathogens and tumors exploit the changes in ...
Kinchen Jason M - - 2007
Programmed cell death is critical both for organ formation during development and during adult life, when billions of cells must be removed every day. The culmination of the apoptotic process is the specific recognition and engulfment of the apoptotic cell by a phagocyte. A number of recent studies have revealed ...
Li Bing - - 2007
The therapeutic benefits of fungal beta-glucans have been demonstrated as immuno-stimulating agents. In this study, we aimed to explore the mechanisms used by yeast beta-glucan-rich particles to activate murine resident macrophages for cytokine secretion. We demonstrated that resident macrophages were effectively activated by whole yeast beta-glucan particles (WGPs), such as ...
Bartz, Jason C.
The long-term objective of this proposal is to identify mechanisms of prion transport to secondary lymphoreticular system (LRS) tissues. The hypothesis to be tested is that following peripheral exposure to prions; host proteins (e.g. complement) bind prions allowing for trapping by cells in the spleen and enhancing uptake by macrophages, ...
Mueller Ruediger B - - 2007
Apoptotic cells promote the phagocytosis of themselves via the exposure of "eat me" signals. Furthermore, a second, "find me" signal is required to attract phagocytes. In this review the double function of lysophosphatidylcholine for the clearance of apoptotic material as factor leading to attraction of phagocytes as a soluble "find ...
van Zandbergen G - - 2007
Professional phagocytes like polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes (PMN) and macrophages (MF) kill pathogens as the first line of defense. These cells possess numerous effector mechanisms to eliminate a threat at first contact. However, several microorganisms still manage to evade phagocytic killing, survive and retain infectivity. Some pathogens have developed strategies to ...
Michlewska Sylwia S The Queen's Medical Research Institute, MRC Centre for Inflammation Research, University of Edinburgh Medical School, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK. - - 2007
Phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells is an important physiologic homeostatic mechanism that is associated with non-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory sequalae. Disruption of the process of apoptotic cell clearance may contribute to development of a number of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. In this review, we summarize the molecular pathways that have been ...
Khandani Arian - - 2007
Phagocytosis is a complex sequence of events involving coordinated remodeling of the plasma membrane with the underlying cytoskeleton. Although the role of the actin cytoskeleton is becoming increasingly elucidated, the role of microtubules (MTs) remains poorly understood. Here, we examine the role of MTs during FcgammaR-mediated phagocytosis in RAW264.7 mouse ...
Chou C-L - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: The phagocytic recognition and clearance of the recruited inflammatory cells with prolonged survival play a pivotal role in relieving tissue inflammation and maintaining tissue homeostasis. Transgenic mice expressing Bcl-2 in mature neutrophils demonstrated that Bcl-2 attenuated neutrophil apoptosis, while the homeostasis of the neutrophil population was essentially unaffected. This ...
Scannell Michael - - 2007
The resolution of inflammation is a dynamically regulated process that may be subverted in many pathological conditions. Macrophage (Mphi) phagocytic clearance of apoptotic leukocytes plays an important role in the resolution of inflammation as this process prevents the exposure of tissues at the inflammatory site to the noxious contents of ...
Haberzettl Petra - - 2007
The uptake of respirable quartz particles by alveolar macrophages (AM) is believed to cause an inflammatory response, which is discussed as a crucial step in quartz pathogenicity. However, little is known about the mechanism and the relevance of particle uptake. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the ...
Lee Jimmy S - - 2007
Mononuclear phagocytes are critical modulators and effectors of innate and adaptive immune responses, and PI-3Ks have been shown to be multifunctional monocyte regulators. The PI-3K family includes eight catalytic isoforms, and only limited information is available about how these contribute to fine specificity in monocyte cell regulation. We examined the ...
Jalava Pasi I - - 2007
We investigated the cytotoxic and inflammatory activities of size-segregated particulate samples (particulate matter, PM) from contrasting air pollution situations in Europe. Coarse (PM10-2.5), fine (PM2.5-0.2), and ultrafine (PM0.2) particulate samples were collected with a modified Harvard high-volume cascade impactor (HVCI). Mouse RAW 264.7 macrophages were exposed to the samples for ...
Cerone S I - - 2007
The in vitro effect of different concentrations of beta-hydroxybutyric acid (betaHBA) on bovine milk leukocytes was examined. betaHBA level similar to those found in cows with clinical ketosis induced a significant inhibitory effect on the nitroblue tetrazolium reduction as a mean of assaying the metabolic integrity of macrophages after the ...
Atabai Kamran K Lung Biology Center, Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143-2922, USA. - - 2007
Mammary gland involution is a period of intensive tissue remodeling. Over the course of a relatively brief period, a large proportion of the mammary gland epithelium undergoes programmed cell death and is removed by phagocytes. In addition, the gland is cleared of residual milk fat globules as well as milk ...
Kwinn Laura A - - 2007
Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a Gram-positive bacterium associated with a variety of mucosal and invasive human infections. GAS systemic disease reflects the diverse abilities of this pathogen to avoid eradication by phagocytic defenses of the innate immune system. Here we review how GAS can avoid phagocyte engagement, inhibit complement ...
Aronoff David M - - 2007
PGI(2) (prostacyclin) is a lipid mediator with vasodilatory and antithrombotic effects used in the treatment of vasoconstrictive/ischemic diseases including pulmonary artery hypertension. However, emerging research supports a role for PGs, including PGI(2), in the regulation of both innate and acquired immunity. As PGI(2) is unstable, we sought to define the ...
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