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Results 301 - 350 of 1084
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Bevilacqua Estela - - 2010
Although not belonging to the class of professional phagocytes, in many species trophoblast cells exhibit intense phagocytic activity. The complete range of physiological functions of trophoblast phagocytosis has not yet been fully characterized. Close association between the trophoblast and nutrition was determined many years ago. Hubrecht (1889) when proposing for ...
Doshi Nishit - - 2010
Recognition by macrophages is a key process in generating immune response against invading pathogens. Previous studies have focused on recognition of pathogens through surface receptors present on the macrophage's surface. Here, using polymeric particles of different geometries that represent the size and shape range of a variety of bacteria, the ...
Costa Carlotta - - 2010
Phagocytes, like neutrophils and macrophages, are specialized cells evolved to clear infectious pathogens. This function resides at the core of innate immunity and requires a series of concerted events that lead first to migration to the infected tissue and then to the killing of the invading pathogens. Molecular mechanisms underlying ...
Wang Jing - - 2010
Although T cells are critical for host defense against respiratory fungal infections, they also contribute to the immunopathogenesis of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP). However, the precise downstream effector mechanisms by which T cells mediate these diverse processes are undefined. In the current study the effects of immune modulation with sulfasalazine were ...
Monobe Manami - - 2010
To identify the immunostimulants included in green tea extract, we investigated a crude tea polysaccharide related to increases in phagocytic activity using macrophage-like cells, and found that the crude tea polysaccharide from immature tea leaves included many RNAs as compared with that from mature tea leaves. Furthermore, the crude tea ...
Ryan John J - - 2010
[This corrects the article on p. 224 in vol. 2, PMID: 23283207.].
Baccan Gyselle C - - 2010
We subjected mice to acute cold stress and studied the effect on phagocytosis by peritoneal macrophages mediated by 3 types of phagocytic receptors: Fcgamma, complement receptors 3 (CR3) and mannose and beta-glucan receptors. Mice were subjected to a cold stress condition (4 degrees C for 4 h), and then peritoneal ...
Shvedova A A - - 2010
Nano-sized materials and nano-scaled processes are widely used in many industries. They are being actively introduced as diagnostic and therapeutic in biomedicine and they are found in numerous consumer products. The small size of nanoparticles, comparable with molecular machinery of cells, may affect normal physiological functions of cells and cause ...
Silva Manuel T - - 2010
The antimicrobial effector activity of phagocytes is crucial in the host innate defense against infection, and the classic view is that the phagocytes operating against intracellular and extracellular microbial pathogens are,respectively, macrophages and neutrophils. As a result of the common origin of the two phagocytes, they share several functionalities, including ...
Ballinger Megan N MN Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Michigan Health Systems, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of - - 2010
Cyclic AMP (cAMP) regulates many biological processes and cellular functions. The importance of spatially localized intracellular gradients of cAMP is increasingly appreciated. Previous work in macrophages has shown that cAMP is produced during phagocytosis and that elevated cAMP levels suppress host defense functions, including generation of proinflammatory mediators, phagocytosis and ...
Ye Q - - 2010
Subcutaneously implanted disks of hexamethylenediisocyanate or glutaraldehyde cross-linked sheep collagen (referred to as HDSC and GDSC, respectively) in mice show large differences in degradation rate. Although comparable numbers of macrophages are seen in HDSC and GDSC, phagocytosis of collagen by macrophages occurred only in GDSC. The molecular mechanisms involved in ...
Gu Ben J - - 2010
Phagocytosis of nonopsonized bacteria is central to innate immunity, but its regulation is less defined. We show that overexpression of the P2X(7) receptor greatly augments the phagocytosis of nonopsonized beads and heat-killed bacteria by transfected HEK-293 cells, whereas blocking P2X(7) expression by siRNA significantly reduces the phagocytic ability of human ...
Chang Christopher - - 2010
Ultrafine particles and engineered nanoparticles have unique aerodynamic and biochemical properties that affect the immune system and human health in ways that are different from or exceed those seen with gases or larger particulates. These effects result from a unique set of physical characteristics and surface moieties, which generate an ...
Kross Kenneth Wilfried - - 2010
The head and neck squamous cell carcinoma microenvironments contain many immune cells and their secretory products. Many of these cells belong to the mononuclear phagocyte system. The aim of this review is to study the interactions between mononuclear phagocytes and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma tissue. The role of ...
Chakraborty Sudipta - - 2009
The natural habitats of the freshwater bivalve Lamellidens marginalis face the risk of contamination by the toxic metalloid arsenic. Haemocyte-mediated non-self phagocytosis and generation of nitric oxide (NO) as reactive nitrogen intermediate were examined to establish the reliability of the parameters as biomarkers of sodium arsenite-induced stress on the animal ...
Hsieh Chi-Hsun CH Center for Surgical Research and Department of Surgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019, - - 2009
We investigated whether Kupffer cell phagocytosis is differentially regulated following hypoxia (by breathing hypoxic gas) and trauma-hemorrhage. We hypothesized that the differences might result from a differential activation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway under those conditions. HIF-1alpha is a biologic O2 sensor enabling adaptation to hypoxia. ...
Muñoz Luis E - - 2010
In multicellular organisms apoptotic cells are rapidly and efficiently removed by professional or semi-professional phagocytes. The molecular mechanisms and the key players involved in this highly coordinate process, as well as its immunological outcome constitute a vividly expanding field of scientific interest. A plethora of studies provided a detailed understanding ...
Groves Eleanor E Centre for Molecular Microbiology and Infection, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom. - - 2010
Pathogenic Yersinia species neutralize innate immune mechanisms by injecting type three secretion effectors into immune cells, altering cell signaling. Our study elucidates how one of these effectors, YopO, blocks phagocytosis. We demonstrate using different phagocytic models that YopO specifically blocks Rac-dependent Fcgamma receptor internalization pathway but not complement receptor 3-dependent ...
Dagenais Taylor R T - - 2010
Aspergillus fumigatus is the causal agent of the life-threatening disease invasive aspergillosis. A. fumigatus laeA deletants, aberrant in toxin biosynthesis and spore development, are decreased in virulence. Among other characteristics, the decreased virulence is associated with increased spore susceptibility to macrophage phagocytosis. Three characteristics, cell wall microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs), ...
Taylor A E AE Airways Disease Section, National Heart and Lung Institute, Dovehouse Street, London, - - 2010
Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are an increasing cause of hospitalisations and are associated with accelerated progression of airflow obstruction. Approximately half of COPD exacerbations are associated with bacteria and many patients have lower airways colonisation. This suggests that bacterial infection in COPD could be due to reduced ...
Benati Daniela - - 2010
Besides lowering circulating cholesterol, statins act as immunomodulators. Although the effects of statins on lymphocyte activation and differentiation have been clearly defined, there is no consensus as to effects of these drugs on phagocytes. We have addressed the outcome of simvastatin treatment on the activation and effector function of human ...
Lacey Derek C - - 2009
Aseptic loosening results in pain, loss of function, and ultimately prosthetic joint failure and revision surgery. The generation of wear particles from the prosthesis is a major factor in local osteolysis. We investigated the effects of such wear particles on the survival of monocytes and macrophages, populations implicated in wear ...
Varin Audrey A Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United - - 2010
Alternatively activated macrophages play an important role in host defense in the context of a T helper type 2 (Th2) microenvironment such as parasitic infection. However, the role of these macrophages during secondary challenge with Th1 pathogens is poorly defined. In this study, thioglycollate-elicited mouse peritoneal macrophages were treated with ...
Fraser Deborah A DA Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-3900, - - 2009
C1q, the first component of the classical complement pathway, is also a pattern recognition receptor involved in the recognition and clearance of apoptotic cells. C1q deficiency in humans leads to development of lupus-like autoimmune disease, and it has been speculated that impaired clearance of apoptotic cells may contribute to disease ...
Montoya Dennis D Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, - - 2009
Effective innate immunity against many microbial pathogens requires macrophage programs that upregulate phagocytosis and direct antimicrobial pathways, two functions generally assumed to be coordinately regulated. We investigated the regulation of these key functions in human blood-derived macrophages. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) induced the phagocytic pathway, including the C-type lectin CD209 and scavenger ...
Canesi Laura - - 2010
As the nanotechnology industries increase production, nanoscale products will enter the aquatic environment, posing a possible threat to aquatic organisms. Suspension-feeding invertebrates may represent a unique target group for nanoparticle (NP) ecotoxicity, since they have highly developed processes for the cellular internalisation of nano- and microscale particles (endocytosis and phagocytosis), ...
Amaral Isabel Marques Rodrigues - - 2010
Infection in insects stimulates a complex defensive response. Recognition of pathogens may be accomplished by plasma or hemocyte proteins that bind specifically to bacterial or fungal polysaccharides. Several morphologically distinct hemocyte cell types cooperate in the immune response. Hemocytes attach to invading organisms and then isolate them by phagocytosis, by ...
Arkhipov S A - - 2009
We studied phagocytic activity of macrophages against molecular-liposome hybrid compositions consisting of liposomes (diameter 200-450 nm) containing oxidized dextrans with a molecular weight of 35 or 60 kDa conjugated with the basic antituberculosis preparation isonicotinic acid hydrazide (dextrazides) during modeling of various disturbances of endocytosis function of phagocytic cells in ...
Park Seung-Yoon - - 2009
Stabilin-1 is specifically expressed in alternatively activated macrophages. These macrophages participate in anti-inflammatory and healing processes, and display a high phagocytic capacity. In this study, we provide evidence that stabilin-1 is a membrane receptor that performs a crucial function in the clearance of cell corpses. Stabilin-1 is expressed on the ...
Elliott Michael R MR Beirne B. Carter Center for Immunology Research, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, - - 2009
Phagocytic removal of apoptotic cells occurs efficiently in vivo such that even in tissues with significant apoptosis, very few apoptotic cells are detectable. This is thought to be due to the release of 'find-me' signals by apoptotic cells that recruit motile phagocytes such as monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells, leading ...
Samuelsen Mari - - 2009
The effect of particles from road traffic and wood smoke on the innate immune response in the lung was studied in a lung challenge model with the intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. Female Balb/cA mice were instilled intratracheally with wood smoke particles, particles from road traffic collected during winter (studded tires ...
Casas Javier - - 2010
Group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A(2)alpha (cPLA(2)alpha) plays a role in the microbicidal machinery of immune cells by translocating to phagosomes to initiate the production of antimicrobial eicosanoids. In this work, we have studied the involvement of the cationic cluster of cPLA(2)alpha (Lys(488)/Lys(541)/Lys(543)/Lys(544)) in the translocation of the enzyme to the ...
Quan Yi Y Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, - - 2009
As resident macrophages in the CNS, microglia can transform from a surveillance state to an activated phenotype in response to brain injury. During this transition microglia become highly capable phagocytic cells. Invading pathogens undergo opsonization with immunoglobulins and microglia recognize these opsonized pathogens through interaction with their cognate F(c) receptors. ...
Amiel Eyal - - 2009
Unresolved infection by gram-negative bacteria can result in the potentially lethal condition known as endotoxic shock, whereby uncontrolled inflammation can lead to multiple organ failure and death of the infected host. Previous results have demonstrated that animals deficient in class A scavenger receptor (SRA), a trafficking receptor for bacteria and ...
Orsi Carlotta Francesca - - 2010
Yessotoxin (YTX) is a sulphated polyether compound produced by some species of dinoflagellate algae, that can be accumulated in bivalve mollusks and ingested by humans upon eating contaminated shellfish. Experiments in mice have demonstrated the lethal effect of YTX after intraperitoneal injection, whereas its oral administration has only limited acute ...
Abreu-Velez Ana Maria - - 2009
Pompholyx (called dyshidrosis by some) is one of the most common conditions and its immune response is presently poorly understood. We describe a 58 year old African American female with a clinical history of rheumatoid arthritis and type II diabetes who presented a chronic five-year, itchy vesicular/blistering rash involving her ...
Taira Masayuki - - 2010
This study was performed to microscopically observe and measure inflammatory cytokine production by human macrophages phagocytosing submicron titanium (Ti) particles. Observations with secondary electron microscopy (SEM), SEM/electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that macrophages [phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-differentiated THP-1 cells] at 24 h in culture actively phagocytosed and ...
Shao Wen-Hai WH Department of Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19140, - - 2009
The Mer receptor tyrosine kinase is both an important mediator of apoptotic cell phagocytosis and a regulator of macrophage and DC cytokine production. Since phenotypically distinguishable macrophages are known to have different functions, we have examined Mer expression of murine splenic macrophages. We also used serum deficient in the Mer ...
Luo Yong - - 2009
Cryptococcus neoformans is the only encapsulated human-pathogenic fungus and a facultative intracellular pathogen that can reside in macrophages without host cell lysis. In the present study, we investigated how phagocytosis of C. neoformans affected the macrophage response to chemoattractants such as fractalkine (FKN) (CX3CL1) and colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1). Phagocytosis ...
McColl Aisleen - - 2009
During resolution of an inflammatory response, recruited neutrophil granulocytes undergo apoptosis and are removed by tissue phagocytes before induction of secondary necrosis without provoking proinflammatory cytokine production and release. Promotion of physiological neutrophil clearance mechanisms may represent a viable therapeutic strategy for the treatment of inflammatory or autoimmune diseases in ...
Russell David G DG David G. Russell and Brian C. VanderVen are at the Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, - - 2009
Professional phagocytes ingest particulate material to fulfil a diverse array of functions in a multicellular organism. The ancestral function of phagosomes is digestion; however, through evolution this degradative capacity has become pivotal to the adaptive immune response by processing antigens to be presented to lymphocytes. Moreover, phagocytes have also acquired ...
Patil C R - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Toxicodendron pubescens is a botanical name of Rhus toxicodendron (Rhus tox). This plant is widely used in its homeopathically diluted form in the treatment of inflammatory and edematous conditions. In this study, various dilutions of Rhus tox including its crude form have been evaluated for their effects on immune ...
Hájková Veronika - - 2009
It is well documented that the polysaccharide glucomannan (GM), an abundant constituent of the fungal cell wall, in the form of particulate induces strong activation of phagocytes, however, the effects of soluble GM are not known. Activation of phagocyte anti-microbial mechanisms is a crucial part of the innate host defense ...
Mirnikjoo Banafsheh - - 2009
One of the hallmarks of apoptosis is the redistribution of phosphatidylserine (PS) from the inner-to-outer plasma membrane (PM) leaflet, where it functions as a ligand for phagocyte recognition and the suppression of inflammatory responses. The mechanism by which apoptotic cells externalize PS has been assumed to involve "scramblases" that randomize ...
Witasp Erika - - 2009
Macrophage recognition and ingestion of apoptotic cell corpses, a process referred to as programmed cell clearance, is of considerable importance for the maintenance of tissue homeostasis and in the resolution of inflammation. Moreover, macrophages are the first line of defense against microorganisms and other foreign materials including particles. However, there ...
Kirsch Torsten - - 2010
Rapid apoptotic cell engulfment is crucial for prevention of inflammation and autoimmune diseases and is conducted by special immunocompetent cells like macrophages or immature dendritic cells. We recently demonstrated that endothelial cells (ECs) also participate in apoptotic cell clearance. However, in contrast to conventional phagocytes they respond with an inflammatory ...
Namgaladze Dmitry - - 2009
Macrophages ingesting apoptotic cells attenuate inflammatory responses, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. In atherosclerosis, ongoing inflammation and accumulation of apoptotic/necrotic material are observed, suggesting defects of phagocytes in recognizing or responding to dying cells. Modified lipoproteins such as oxidized LDL (oxLDL) are known to promote inflammation and to ...
Schack Lotte - - 2009
Osteopontin (OPN) is a cytokine with multiple functions, including immune defense mechanisms against invading microorganisms. OPN-deficient mice are impaired in clearing intracellular pathogens, suggesting an important role of OPN during phagocytosis, but it remains to be defined how OPN may enhance this innate immune process. Here, we demonstrate that OPN ...
Muñoz Luis E - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are often characterized by cellular as well as humoral deficiencies in the recognition and phagocytosis of dead and dying cells. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the remnants of apoptotic cells are involved in the induction of inflammatory cytokines in ...
Yang Dongli - - 2009
Oxidative stress of the retinal pigment epithelium by reactive oxygen species and monocytic infiltration have been implicated in age-related macular degeneration. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of superoxide anions (O(2)(-)) in mononuclear phagocyte-induced RPE apoptosis. Mouse RPE cell cultures were established from wild-type and heterozygous ...
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