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Results 301 - 350 of 1016
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Hannam M L - - 2009
The discharge of oil well produced water (PW) provides a constant source of contaminants to the marine environment including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkylated phenols, metals and production chemicals. High concentrations of PW cause adverse effects to exposed biota, including reduced survival, growth and reproduction. Here we explore the effects of ...
Landgraeber Stefan - - 2009
Particle-induced osteolysis is a major cause of aseptic loosening after total joint replacement. Earlier studies demonstrated apoptotic macrophages, giant cells, fibroblasts and T-lymphocytes in capsules and interface membranes of patients with aseptic hip implant loosening. The aim of the current study was to determine in a murine calvarial model of ...
Hernanz-Falcón Patricia - - 2009
Dectin-1 is a pattern-recognition receptor recognizing beta-(1,3)-glucans found on fungal cell walls. Dectin-1 plays an important role in immunity to fungi by mediating phagocytic clearance of fungal particles and inducing transcription of innate response genes. We show here that the two processes are linked and that Dectin-1 signalling for inflammation ...
Kurzepa Aneta - - 2009
Bacteriophages are among the most numerous creatures on earth and they are omnipresent. They are thus in constant natural contact with humans and animals. However, the clinical and technological use of bacteriophages has also become more frequent, which is why all aspects of phage-mammal interactions need to be explored. Bacteriophages ...
N'Diaye Elsa-Noah - - 2009
Phagocytosis, which is essential for the immune response to pathogens, is initiated by specific interactions between pathogens and cell surface receptors expressed by phagocytes. This study identifies triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM-2) and its signaling counterpart DAP12 as a molecular complex that promotes phagocytosis of bacteria. Expression ...
Gopalakrishnan Singaram - - 2009
It has been reported that environmental pollutants in the aquatic ecosystem could weaken immune competence of organisms. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] on immunomodulation in marine gastropods and to see if these effects are caused by or related to the generation ...
Miksa Michael M Center for Immunology and Inflammation, The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset, NY 11030, - - 2009
Apoptotic cell phagocytosis has recently raised considerable interest, particularly due to its intricate molecular mechanisms and negative immunologic impact of incompetent clearance of apoptotic cells. There is a need for simple and reliable methods to clearly determine the internalization of apoptotic cells. Labeling with pHrodo succinimidyl ester (SE), a pH-sensitive ...
Kruspe Andrew S - - 2009
BACKGROUND: We have investigated whether chemicals known to disrupt disulfide bonds are capable of altering immunoglobulin anti-D structure resulting in an increased efficacy of the chemically modified anti-D to inhibit Fcgamma receptor (FcgammaR)-mediated phagocytosis. If successful, this would provide a rationale to explore this mechanism of enhancing FcgammaR blockade for ...
Defaye Arnaud - - 2009
Drosophila phagocytes participate in development and immune responses through their abilities to perform phagocytosis and/or secrete extra-cellular matrix components, antimicrobial peptides, clotting factors and signalling molecules. However, our knowledge of their functional impact on development and host resistance to infection is limited. To address this, we have used a genetic ...
Vinet Adrien F - - 2009
Phagocytosis is the process by which cells engulf and destroy large particles such as pathogens or apoptotic cells. In this way, macrophages play a pivotal role in the resolution of microbial infections. However, many microorganisms have evolved efficient strategies to preempt the weaponry of macrophages. A better understanding of the ...
Flierl Michael A - - 2009
Following our recent report that phagocytic cells (neutrophils, PMNs, and macrophages) are newly discovered sources of catecholamines, we now show that both epinephrine and norepinephrine directly activate NFkappaB in macrophages, causing enhanced release of proinflammatory cytokines (TNFalpha, IL-1beta, IL-6). Both adrenal-intact (AD+) and adrenalectomized (ADX) rodents were used, because ADX ...
Sanjuan Miguel A - - 2009
The lysosomal pathway digests material received by two main routes, phagocytosis and autophagy. Cells use phagocytosis to ingest extracellular particles by invaginations of the plasma membrane. In autophagy, a double membrane structure isolates portions of the cytoplasm to target it for degradation. During infection, phagocytes use both of these cellular ...
Chaurio Ricardo A - - 2009
Phosphatidylserine (PS), a phospholipid predominantly found in the inner leaflet of eukaryotic cellular membranes, plays important roles in many biological processes. During apoptosis, the asymmetric distribution of phospholipids of the plasma membrane gets lost and PS is translocated to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane. There, PS acts as ...
Jin Tian - - 2009
Human leukocytes, including macrophages and neutrophils, are phagocytic immune cells that capture and engulf pathogens and subsequently destroy them in intracellular vesicles. To accomplish this vital task, these leukocytes utilize two basic cell behaviors-chemotaxis for chasing down infectious pathogens and phagocytosis for destroying them. The molecular mechanisms controlling these behaviors ...
Beck-Speier Ingrid - - 2009
Ambient particulate matter (PM)-associated metals have been shown to play an important role in cardiopulmonary health outcomes. To study the modulation of PM-induced inflammation by leached off metals, we investigated intracellular solubility of radio-labeled iron oxide ((59)Fe(2)O(3)) particles of 0.5 and 1.5 mum geometric mean diameter. Fe(2)O(3 )particles were examined ...
McPhillips Kathleen A - - 2009
Cells undergo apoptosis during development, tissue homeostasis, and disease, and are rapidly cleared by both professional and nonprofessional phagocytes. In the whole animal, this process is remarkably efficient and usually goes unnoticed. It is estimated that 2 x 10(11) cells are cleared each day and it has been suggested that ...
van Tilborg Geralda A F - - 2009
Apoptosis plays an important role in the etiology of various diseases. Several studies have reported on the use of annexin A5-functionalized iron oxide particles for the detection of apoptosis with MRI, both in vitro and in vivo. The protein annexin A5 binds with high affinity to the phospholipid phosphatidylserine, which ...
Scarfì Sonia - - 2009
Inhalation of crystalline silica induces a pulmonary fibrotic degeneration called silicosis caused by the inability of alveolar macrophages to dissolve the crystalline structure of phagocytosed quartz particles. Ascorbic acid is capable of partially dissolving quartz crystals, leading to an increase of soluble silica concentration and to the generation of new ...
Hohn Claudia - - 2009
The innate immune response constitutes the first line of defense against invading pathogens and consists of a variety of immune defense mechanisms including active endocytosis by macrophages and granulocytes. Endocytosis can be used as a reliable measure of selective and non-selective mechanisms of antigen uptake in the early phase of ...
Kaur Gurpreet - - 2009
Macrophages, the major phagocytes of body, are largely dependent on membrane for their apposite functioning. Cum-OOH, a catalyst used in chemical and pharmaceutical industry, is a peroxidative agent, which may induce oxidative stress in macrophages hampering the integrity of their membrane. Alpha-tocopherol is known to protect the membrane from oxidative ...
Parry S A - - 2008
Phagocytosis is a major component of the animal immune system where apoptotic cellular material, metabolites, and waste are safely processed. Further, efficient phagocytosis by macrophages is key to maintaining healthy vascular systems and preventing atherosclerosis. Single-cell images of macrophage phagocytosis of red blood cells, RBCs, and polystyrene microspheres have been ...
Oflazoglu E - - 2009
SGN-40 is a therapeutic antibody targeting CD40, which induces potent anti-lymphoma activities via direct apoptotic signalling cells and by cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Here we show antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) by macrophages to contribute significantly to the therapeutic activities and that the antitumour effects of SGN-40 depend on Fc interactions.
Petricevich V L - - 2008
The research described here is focused upon studying the activation of mice peritoneal macrophages when submitted to in vitro effects of Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom and its major toxic peptides. Several functional events were analysed, such as: cytotoxicity, spreading, extent of phagocytosis, vacuole formation and changes of internal calcium concentration. ...
Konno Adriana Y C - - 2009
Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic granulomatous disease caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb), a thermal dimorphic fungus. Its major antigen is a 43-kDa glycoprotein. Gp43 embodies different functions: it participates in evasion mechanisms during the installation of primary infection, stimulates granuloma-like formation in vitro and presents T-cell epitopes that induce protective ...
Weiss D J - - 2008
Pathogenic mycobacteria are highly adapted for survival within host mononuclear phagocytes. This is largely due to the organism's capacity to prevent macrophage activation, block phagosome acidification and maturation, and attenuate presentation of antigens to the immune system. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is one such organism that modulates the ruminant ...
Jiang Joy X JX Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, UC Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA 95817, - - 2008
Leptin, a profibrogenic cytokine, plays an important role in the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Leptin also regulates immune responses, including macrophage phagocytic activity. Stellate cells are key elements in liver fibrogenesis, and previously we have demonstrated that phagocytosis of apoptotic bodies by stellate cells is profibrogenic. To study the effects ...
Shui Wenqing - - 2008
Phagocytosis is the central process by which macrophage cells internalize and eliminate infectious microbes as well as apoptotic cells. During maturation, phagosomes containing engulfed particles fuse with various endosomal compartments through the action of regulatory molecules on the phagosomal membrane. In this study, we performed a proteomic analysis of the ...
Soehnlein Oliver - - 2008
In acute inflammation, infiltrating polymorphonuclear leukocytes (also known as PMNs) release preformed granule proteins having multitudinous effects on the surrounding environment. Here we present what we believe to be a novel role for PMN-derived proteins in bacterial phagocytosis by both human and murine macrophages. Exposure of macrophages to PMN secretion ...
Righi D A - - 2009
Synthetic type II pyrethroid insecticides, such as cyhalothrin at certain dosage levels, simultaneously induce stress-like symptoms and innate immunosuppressive effects in laboratory animals. The present study was designed to further analyze the stress-like effects induced by cyhalotrin and also investigate the role of Hypothalamus-Hypophysis-Adrenal (HHA) axis and Sympathetic Nervous Systems ...
Olsson Mattias - - 2008
CD47 functions as a marker of self on red blood cells (RBCs) by binding to signal regulatory protein alpha on macrophages, preventing phagocytosis of autologous RBCs by splenic red pulp macrophages, and Fcgamma receptor (FcgammaR)- or complement receptor-mediated phagocytosis by macrophages in general. RBC senescence involves a series of biochemical ...
Rosas Marcela - - 2008
Dectin-1 is the archetypal signaling, non-Toll-like pattern recognition receptor that plays a protective role in immune defense to Candida albicans as the major leukocyte receptor for beta-glucans. Dectin-1-deficiency is associated with impaired recruitment of inflammatory leukocytes and inflammatory mediator production at the site of infection. In this study, we have ...
Kaplan Jessica E - - 2008
Multiple components of vertebrate immune systems have been shown to exhibit circadian fluctuations. While the zebrafish is currently generating a wealth of information on the molecular pacemakers that may control circadian rhythms, there have been no reports of rhythmic activity in zebrafish leukocytes. In this study, we found that phagocytosis ...
Stofanko Martin - - 2008
In Drosophila, defense against foreign pathogens is mediated by an effective innate immune system, the cellular arm of which is composed of circulating hemocytes that engulf bacteria and encapsulate larger foreign particles. Three hemocyte types occur: plasmatocytes, crystal cells, and lamellocytes. The most abundant larval hemocyte type is the plasmatocyte, ...
Stoeger Tobias - - 2009
The inhalation of combustion-derived nanoparticles (CDNPs) is believed to cause an oxidative stress response, which in turn may lead to pulmonary or even systemic inflammation. In this study we assessed whether the in vivo inflammatory response--which is generally referred to as particle toxicity-of mice to CDNPs can be predicted in ...
Menin Adams - - 2008
The supernatant from cultures of haemocytes of the compound ascidian Botryllus schlosseri incubated with zymosan (conditioned medium; CM) can enhance yeast phagocytosis by Botryllus blood cells. It contains molecules recognised by antibodies raised against the mammalian pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1-alpha and TNF-alpha which appear as a single band of 60 kDa ...
Dale David C - - 2008
The production and deployment of phagocytes are central functions of the hematopoietic system. In the 1950s, radioisotopic studies demonstrated the high production rate and short lifespan of neutrophils and allowed researchers to follow the monocytes as they moved from the marrow through the blood to become tissue macrophages, histiocytes, and ...
Janko C - - 2008
Deficiencies in the recognition and phagocytosis of dead and dying cells have been shown to be one of the main alterations in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Cellular as well as humoral elements play an important role in the clearance of apoptotic and necrotic cells. Non-ingested nuclear material may ...
Wang Wei - - 2008
The antiviral effectiveness of three major immune responses including phagocytosis, apoptosis and proPO system in the shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus was characterized. It was found that the suppression of apoptosis and phagocytosis in vivo by their corresponding inhibitors resulted in the increase of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) copies and shrimp ...
Perri Daniella - - 2008
Cytokines play a major role in the immune response by activating mononuclear phagocytes. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of cytokines on Fc-gamma receptor (FcgammaR)-mediated phagocytosis of IgG1- or IgG3-sensitized red blood cells (RBCs). The results show a large variation in human monocyte phagocytosis independent of ...
Frey Benjamin - - 2009
Proteins of the annexin family bind to phospholipids in a Ca(2+) dependent manner. The exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS) by apoptotic as well as necrotic cells is one major eat-me-signal for macrophages. Annexin A5 (Anx A5) preferentially binds to PS. The availability of Anx A5 knock out (KO) mice allowed us ...
Cong Ming - - 2008
It is well known that invertebrates are devoid of adaptive immune components and rely primarily on innate immunity to defend against pathogens, but recent studies have demonstrated the existence of enhanced secondary immune protection in some invertebrates. In the present study, the cumulative mortality of scallops received two successive Listonella ...
Goulaouic S - - 2008
It has been suggested that the organic fraction of particulate matter in air pollution has a major role in the toxicity of this pollutant, notably via its effects on inflammation. The major organic compounds adsorbed onto these particles are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), among which benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), benzo[b]fluoranthene (B[b]F), and ...
Shah Abhishek S - - 2008
Immunomodulatory activity of methanolic extract of M. koenigii leaves was evaluated on humoral and cell mediated immune response to ovalbumin, phagocytic activity by carbon clearance test, nitric oxide (NO) release from murine peritoneal macrophages and cyclophosphamide induced myelosuppression. Significant increase in the NO production by mouse peritoneal macrophages was detected ...
Park Seung-Yoon - - 2008
Exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS) on the cell surface occurs early during apoptosis and serves as a recognition signal for phagocytes. Clearance of apoptotic cells by a membrane PS receptor is one of the critical anti-inflammatory functions of macrophages. However, the PS binding receptors and their recognition mechanisms have not been ...
Steinberg Benjamin E - - 2008
Phagocytosis is a key component of the innate immune response and of the clearance of apoptotic bodies. Phagosome formation and subsequent maturation require extensive cytoskeletal rearrangement and precisely choreographed vesicular fusion and fission events. The objectives of this review are to highlight the functional importance of lipids in the phagocytic ...
Fan, Xiaoxuan
Phosphatidylserine (PS) has been found on apoptotic cells and macrophages. PS on both cells is required for phagocytosis. It was asked whether bivalent annexins, which bind PS in a Ca2+-dependent manner, could bridge the target cell and macrophage. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against annexins I or II bound to a variety ...
Delgado-Vélez Manuel - - 2008
We have shown previously that whereas acute exposure of cultured murine peritoneal macrophages inhibits phagocytosis, chronic exposure results in a putative tolerant/dependent state. We now report similar observations using human cultured monocyte-derived macrophages (hMDM) from a control population and from methadone patients. With hMDM, acute exposure to morphine and methadone ...
Grabowski Julia E - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic surgery is currently used in an array of diverse clinical situations, including cases with potential bacterial contamination. Previous studies have shown that CO2 insufflation during laparoscopic procedures modulates the immune response due to the acidification of the peritoneum. In the present study, we investigated whether exposure of macrophages ...
Kocbach Anette - - 2008
Lung inflammation is an important process in host defence to inhaled particulate matter. To what extent physicochemical properties of particles from different sources influence their inflammatory potential has not been fully clarified. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of particles from wood smoke and traffic to ...
Ostachuk Agustín - - 2008
Exposure to particulate matter (PM) may alter lung homeostasis inducing changes in fluid balance and host defense. Bioavailability of soluble PM compounds like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and transition metals has been shown to play a key role in lung injury. We have previously characterized the size, ...
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