Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 1015
< 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 >
Taylor A E AE Airways Disease Section, National Heart and Lung Institute, Dovehouse Street, London, - - 2010
Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are an increasing cause of hospitalisations and are associated with accelerated progression of airflow obstruction. Approximately half of COPD exacerbations are associated with bacteria and many patients have lower airways colonisation. This suggests that bacterial infection in COPD could be due to reduced ...
Benati Daniela - - 2010
Besides lowering circulating cholesterol, statins act as immunomodulators. Although the effects of statins on lymphocyte activation and differentiation have been clearly defined, there is no consensus as to effects of these drugs on phagocytes. We have addressed the outcome of simvastatin treatment on the activation and effector function of human ...
Lacey Derek C - - 2009
Aseptic loosening results in pain, loss of function, and ultimately prosthetic joint failure and revision surgery. The generation of wear particles from the prosthesis is a major factor in local osteolysis. We investigated the effects of such wear particles on the survival of monocytes and macrophages, populations implicated in wear ...
Varin Audrey A Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United - - 2010
Alternatively activated macrophages play an important role in host defense in the context of a T helper type 2 (Th2) microenvironment such as parasitic infection. However, the role of these macrophages during secondary challenge with Th1 pathogens is poorly defined. In this study, thioglycollate-elicited mouse peritoneal macrophages were treated with ...
Fraser Deborah A - - 2009
C1q, the first component of the classical complement pathway, is also a pattern recognition receptor involved in the recognition and clearance of apoptotic cells. C1q deficiency in humans leads to development of lupus-like autoimmune disease, and it has been speculated that impaired clearance of apoptotic cells may contribute to disease ...
Montoya Dennis - - 2009
Effective innate immunity against many microbial pathogens requires macrophage programs that upregulate phagocytosis and direct antimicrobial pathways, two functions generally assumed to be coordinately regulated. We investigated the regulation of these key functions in human blood-derived macrophages. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) induced the phagocytic pathway, including the C-type lectin CD209 and scavenger ...
Canesi Laura - - 2010
As the nanotechnology industries increase production, nanoscale products will enter the aquatic environment, posing a possible threat to aquatic organisms. Suspension-feeding invertebrates may represent a unique target group for nanoparticle (NP) ecotoxicity, since they have highly developed processes for the cellular internalisation of nano- and microscale particles (endocytosis and phagocytosis), ...
Amaral Isabel Marques Rodrigues - - 2010
Infection in insects stimulates a complex defensive response. Recognition of pathogens may be accomplished by plasma or hemocyte proteins that bind specifically to bacterial or fungal polysaccharides. Several morphologically distinct hemocyte cell types cooperate in the immune response. Hemocytes attach to invading organisms and then isolate them by phagocytosis, by ...
Arkhipov S A - - 2009
We studied phagocytic activity of macrophages against molecular-liposome hybrid compositions consisting of liposomes (diameter 200-450 nm) containing oxidized dextrans with a molecular weight of 35 or 60 kDa conjugated with the basic antituberculosis preparation isonicotinic acid hydrazide (dextrazides) during modeling of various disturbances of endocytosis function of phagocytic cells in ...
Park Seung-Yoon - - 2009
Stabilin-1 is specifically expressed in alternatively activated macrophages. These macrophages participate in anti-inflammatory and healing processes, and display a high phagocytic capacity. In this study, we provide evidence that stabilin-1 is a membrane receptor that performs a crucial function in the clearance of cell corpses. Stabilin-1 is expressed on the ...
Elliott Michael R - - 2009
Phagocytic removal of apoptotic cells occurs efficiently in vivo such that even in tissues with significant apoptosis, very few apoptotic cells are detectable. This is thought to be due to the release of 'find-me' signals by apoptotic cells that recruit motile phagocytes such as monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells, leading ...
Samuelsen Mari - - 2009
The effect of particles from road traffic and wood smoke on the innate immune response in the lung was studied in a lung challenge model with the intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. Female Balb/cA mice were instilled intratracheally with wood smoke particles, particles from road traffic collected during winter (studded tires ...
Casas Javier - - 2010
Group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A(2)alpha (cPLA(2)alpha) plays a role in the microbicidal machinery of immune cells by translocating to phagosomes to initiate the production of antimicrobial eicosanoids. In this work, we have studied the involvement of the cationic cluster of cPLA(2)alpha (Lys(488)/Lys(541)/Lys(543)/Lys(544)) in the translocation of the enzyme to the ...
Quan Yi Y Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, - - 2009
As resident macrophages in the CNS, microglia can transform from a surveillance state to an activated phenotype in response to brain injury. During this transition microglia become highly capable phagocytic cells. Invading pathogens undergo opsonization with immunoglobulins and microglia recognize these opsonized pathogens through interaction with their cognate F(c) receptors. ...
Amiel Eyal - - 2009
Unresolved infection by gram-negative bacteria can result in the potentially lethal condition known as endotoxic shock, whereby uncontrolled inflammation can lead to multiple organ failure and death of the infected host. Previous results have demonstrated that animals deficient in class A scavenger receptor (SRA), a trafficking receptor for bacteria and ...
Orsi Carlotta Francesca - - 2010
Yessotoxin (YTX) is a sulphated polyether compound produced by some species of dinoflagellate algae, that can be accumulated in bivalve mollusks and ingested by humans upon eating contaminated shellfish. Experiments in mice have demonstrated the lethal effect of YTX after intraperitoneal injection, whereas its oral administration has only limited acute ...
Abreu-Velez Ana Maria - - 2009
Pompholyx (called dyshidrosis by some) is one of the most common conditions and its immune response is presently poorly understood. We describe a 58 year old African American female with a clinical history of rheumatoid arthritis and type II diabetes who presented a chronic five-year, itchy vesicular/blistering rash involving her ...
Taira Masayuki - - 2010
This study was performed to microscopically observe and measure inflammatory cytokine production by human macrophages phagocytosing submicron titanium (Ti) particles. Observations with secondary electron microscopy (SEM), SEM/electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that macrophages [phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-differentiated THP-1 cells] at 24 h in culture actively phagocytosed and ...
Shao Wen-Hai - - 2009
The Mer receptor tyrosine kinase is both an important mediator of apoptotic cell phagocytosis and a regulator of macrophage and DC cytokine production. Since phenotypically distinguishable macrophages are known to have different functions, we have examined Mer expression of murine splenic macrophages. We also used serum deficient in the Mer ...
Luo Yong - - 2009
Cryptococcus neoformans is the only encapsulated human-pathogenic fungus and a facultative intracellular pathogen that can reside in macrophages without host cell lysis. In the present study, we investigated how phagocytosis of C. neoformans affected the macrophage response to chemoattractants such as fractalkine (FKN) (CX3CL1) and colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1). Phagocytosis ...
McColl Aisleen - - 2009
During resolution of an inflammatory response, recruited neutrophil granulocytes undergo apoptosis and are removed by tissue phagocytes before induction of secondary necrosis without provoking proinflammatory cytokine production and release. Promotion of physiological neutrophil clearance mechanisms may represent a viable therapeutic strategy for the treatment of inflammatory or autoimmune diseases in ...
Russell David G - - 2009
Professional phagocytes ingest particulate material to fulfil a diverse array of functions in a multicellular organism. The ancestral function of phagosomes is digestion; however, through evolution this degradative capacity has become pivotal to the adaptive immune response by processing antigens to be presented to lymphocytes. Moreover, phagocytes have also acquired ...
Patil C R - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Toxicodendron pubescens is a botanical name of Rhus toxicodendron (Rhus tox). This plant is widely used in its homeopathically diluted form in the treatment of inflammatory and edematous conditions. In this study, various dilutions of Rhus tox including its crude form have been evaluated for their effects on immune ...
Hájková Veronika - - 2009
It is well documented that the polysaccharide glucomannan (GM), an abundant constituent of the fungal cell wall, in the form of particulate induces strong activation of phagocytes, however, the effects of soluble GM are not known. Activation of phagocyte anti-microbial mechanisms is a crucial part of the innate host defense ...
Mirnikjoo Banafsheh - - 2009
One of the hallmarks of apoptosis is the redistribution of phosphatidylserine (PS) from the inner-to-outer plasma membrane (PM) leaflet, where it functions as a ligand for phagocyte recognition and the suppression of inflammatory responses. The mechanism by which apoptotic cells externalize PS has been assumed to involve "scramblases" that randomize ...
Witasp Erika - - 2009
Macrophage recognition and ingestion of apoptotic cell corpses, a process referred to as programmed cell clearance, is of considerable importance for the maintenance of tissue homeostasis and in the resolution of inflammation. Moreover, macrophages are the first line of defense against microorganisms and other foreign materials including particles. However, there ...
Kirsch Torsten - - 2010
Rapid apoptotic cell engulfment is crucial for prevention of inflammation and autoimmune diseases and is conducted by special immunocompetent cells like macrophages or immature dendritic cells. We recently demonstrated that endothelial cells (ECs) also participate in apoptotic cell clearance. However, in contrast to conventional phagocytes they respond with an inflammatory ...
Namgaladze Dmitry - - 2009
Macrophages ingesting apoptotic cells attenuate inflammatory responses, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. In atherosclerosis, ongoing inflammation and accumulation of apoptotic/necrotic material are observed, suggesting defects of phagocytes in recognizing or responding to dying cells. Modified lipoproteins such as oxidized LDL (oxLDL) are known to promote inflammation and to ...
Schack Lotte - - 2009
Osteopontin (OPN) is a cytokine with multiple functions, including immune defense mechanisms against invading microorganisms. OPN-deficient mice are impaired in clearing intracellular pathogens, suggesting an important role of OPN during phagocytosis, but it remains to be defined how OPN may enhance this innate immune process. Here, we demonstrate that OPN ...
Muñoz Luis E - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are often characterized by cellular as well as humoral deficiencies in the recognition and phagocytosis of dead and dying cells. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the remnants of apoptotic cells are involved in the induction of inflammatory cytokines in ...
Yang Dongli - - 2009
Oxidative stress of the retinal pigment epithelium by reactive oxygen species and monocytic infiltration have been implicated in age-related macular degeneration. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of superoxide anions (O(2)(-)) in mononuclear phagocyte-induced RPE apoptosis. Mouse RPE cell cultures were established from wild-type and heterozygous ...
Roth Olivia - - 2009
Specificity and memory are the hallmarks of the adaptive immune system of vertebrates. However, phenomena of specificity upon priming of immunity have recently been demonstrated also in invertebrates, which rely exclusively on innate immune defence. It has been suggested that phagocytosis might represent a core candidate for such specificity in ...
Chen Yifang - - 2009
Natural Abs, which arise without known immune exposure, have been described that specifically recognize cells dying from apoptosis, but their role in innate immunity remains poorly understood. Herein, we show that the immune response to neoantigenic determinants on apoptotic thymocytes is dominated by Abs to oxidation-associated Ags, phosphorylcholine (PC), a ...
Ghigo Eric - - 2009
Coxiella burnetii, the agent of Q fever, is an obligate intracellular bacterium that is considered a potential biological weapon of category B. C. burnetii survives within myeloid cells by subverting receptor-mediated phagocytosis and preventing phagosome maturation. The intracellular fate of C. burnetii also depends on the functional state of myeloid ...
Wright Adam K A - - 2009
Macrophages in the airways form an important element of immune defense and inflammation. We analyzed induced sputum from airways of patients with CF for the types of macrophages present, their receptor expression, and phagocytic function. In samples from patients and age-matched controls, macrophages were analyzed by multicolor flow cytometry, scavenger ...
Cron L E - - 2009
Streptococcus pneumoniae produces two surface-associated lipoproteins that share homology with two distinct families of peptidyl-prolyl isomerases (PPIases), the streptococcal lipoprotein rotamase A (SlrA) and the putative proteinase maturation protein A (PpmA). Previously, we have demonstrated that SlrA has PPIase activity, and that the enzyme plays a role in pneumococcal virulence. ...
Balestrieri Barbara - - 2009
Phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) hydrolyzes the sn-2 position of cell membrane phospholipids to release fatty acids and lysophospholipids. We have previously reported that group V secretory PLA(2) (sPLA(2)) translocates from the Golgi and recycling endosomes of mouse peritoneal macrophages to newly formed phagosomes and regulates the phagocytosis of zymosan, suggesting a ...
Cape Jonathan L - - 2009
Macrophages and neutrophils are essential elements of host cellular defense systems that function, at least in part, by generating respiration-driven oxidative toxins in response to external stimuli. In both cells, encapsulation by phagocytosis provides a mechanism to direct the toxins against the microbes. The toxic chemicals formed by these two ...
Bouchard B - - 2009
The goal of this study was to examine the disruptive effects of municipal effluents on the immune and reproductive systems of freshwater mussels. For 30 days, caged mussels were immersed in the Rivière des Mille Iles (Quebec, Canada), 150 m both upstream and downstream from two urban wastewater treatment plants: ...
Shirzad Hedayatollah - - 2009
It has been claimed that, in contrast to most opioids, tramadol does not suppress immune functions. We therefore, studied the effects of tramadol in comparison to morphine, on the number of phagocytes and the number of sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) engulfed by each individual cell (phagocytic index) of mouse ...
Stokes Leanne - - 2009
ATP-gated P2X(4) receptors (P2X(4)R) in macrophages and microglia have been implicated in neuropathic and inflammatory pain by currently unidentified mechanisms. P2X(4)R are found predominantly in intracellular lysosomal compartments but can be rapidly trafficked to the surface membrane by procedures that induce endolysosomal secretion. We studied total and surface membrane P2X(4)R ...
Jayasree S - - 2009
Immune cells were identified and their interaction towards Vibrio alginolyticus, V. parahaemolyticus and V. anguillarum was studied in vitro in the penaeid shrimp, Penaeus indicus. Haemocytes were divided into agranulocytes, semi-dense granulocytes and dense granulocytes according to their morphology. Agranulocytes (100%) and 0.3-0.7% of granulocytes were actively involved in coagulation. ...
Alfaro-Moreno Ernesto - - 2009
Exposure to particulate matter (PM) induces inflammatory cytokines. In the present study, we evaluated the secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 by an airway cell line exposed to PM with a mean aerodynamic size equal to or less than 10 or 2.5 microm (PM10 and PM2.5, respectively) collected in Mexico City, ...
Márkus Róbert - - 2009
The blood cells, or hemocytes, in Drosophila participate in the immune response through the production of antimicrobial peptides, the phagocytosis of bacteria, and the encapsulation of larger foreign particles such as parasitic eggs; these immune reactions are mediated by phylogenetically conserved mechanisms. The encapsulation reaction is analogous to the formation ...
Leung, Wendy Wen Sie
The intracellular fate of microorganisms ingested by phagocytes may be determined by the specific receptors mediating their uptake. To test this hypothesis, the subcellular location of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in human monocyte-derived macrophages upon phagocytosis via opsonic versus non-opsonic receptors was investigated by indirect double immunofluorescence. Opsonic ingestion of P. aeruginosa ...
Martinet Wim - - 2009
Phagocytosis represents a mechanism used by macrophages to remove pathogens and cellular debris. Recent evidence suggests that phagocytosis is stimulated under specific conditions of stress, such as extracellular pressure and hypoxia. In the present study, we show that amino acid or glucose deprivation caused an increase in the phagocytosis of ...
Mehta Harshini - - 2009
SLAT (SWAP-70-like adaptor protein of T cells) is an adaptor protein expressed in cells of the hematopoietic system. SLAT interacts with and alters the function of small GTPase Rac1 in fibroblasts. In these nonhematopoietic models, the SLAT-Rac interaction leads to changes in F-actin and causes cytoskeletal reorganization. In T cells, ...
Shah Vaibhav B - - 2009
Microglia are the resident innate immune cells that are critical for innate and adaptive immune responses within the CNS. They recognize and are activated by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) present on the surface of pathogens. beta-glucans, the major PAMP present within fungal cell walls, are recognized by Dectin-1, which mediates ...
Nakayama Masafumi - - 2009
Phagocytes such as macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) engulf apoptotic cells to maintain peripheral immune tolerance. However, the mechanism for the recognition of dying cells by phagocytes is not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that T-cell immunoglobulin mucin-3 (Tim-3) recognizes apoptotic cells through the FG loop in the IgV domain, ...
Hannam M L - - 2009
The discharge of oil well produced water (PW) provides a constant source of contaminants to the marine environment including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkylated phenols, metals and production chemicals. High concentrations of PW cause adverse effects to exposed biota, including reduced survival, growth and reproduction. Here we explore the effects of ...
< 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 >