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Results 201 - 250 of 1015
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van Eijk Marco - - 2010
Human phagocyte-specific chitotriosidase is part of innate immunity and shows anti-fungal activity towards chitin-containing fungi. We investigated the effect of stimulation of the C-type lectin receptor dectin-1 by beta-1,3-glucan (curdlan) on chitotriosidase expression and release by human phagocytes. We observed that curdlan triggers chitotriosidase release from human neutrophils. In addition, ...
Kreutz Luiz Carlos - - 2010
The resistance of fish to microorganisms challenge depends mainly on the efficacy of the immune response. Most studies on the natural immune response of fish have focused on the effect of diets and immunostimulants. Few studies correlated the presence of commonly used agrichemical and susceptibility to infection by aquatic microorganism. ...
Brakhage Axel A - - 2010
Phagocytosis of conidia by macrophages and destruction of hyphae by neutrophils are key processes in the defense against infections caused by filamentous fungi. Impairment in phagocytic function leads to increased susceptibility for an infection with Aspergillus species. The fact that a Th1-based immune response to an infection with Aspergillus species ...
Ghio Andrew J - - 2010
Macrophages from smokers demonstrate an increased auto-fluorescence. Similarly, auto-fluorescence follows in vitro exposure of macrophages to cigarette smoke condensate (i.e., the particulate fraction of cigarette smoke). The composition of particles in cigarette smoke can be comparable to air pollution particles. We tested the postulate that macrophages exposed to air pollution ...
Monobe Manami - - 2010
We investigated the phagocytosis-enhancing activity of green tea polyphenols, such as epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), epigallocatechin (EGC), epicatechin gallate (ECG), epicatechin (EC) catechin (+C) and strictinin, using VD3-differentiated HL60 cells. EGCG, EGC, ECG and strictinin, but not EC and +C, increased the phagocytic activity of macrophage-like cells, and a caspase inhibitor ...
Camatini Marina - - 2012
PM10 was collected in a Milan urban site, representative of the city air quality, during winter and summer 2006. Mean daily PM10 concentration was 48 μg m(-3) during summer and 148 μg m(-3) during winter. Particles collected on Teflon filters were chemically characterized and the endotoxin content determined by the ...
Fadeel Bengt - - 2010
Programmed cell clearance is a physiological process of elimination of apoptotic cell corpses. Recent studies have disclosed several ligand-receptor interactions that dictate the recognition or non-recognition of cells by macrophages and other phagocytes. The externalization of the anionic phospholipid, phosphatidylserine is effectively recognized by specific receptors on professional phagocytes and ...
Ip W K Eddie - - 2010
Innate immunity is vital for protection from microbes and is mediated by humoral effectors, such as cytokines, and cellular immune defenses, including phagocytic cells (e.g., macrophages). After internalization by phagocytes, microbes are delivered into a phagosome, a complex intracellular organelle with a well-established and important role in microbial killing. However, ...
Amiel Eyal - - 2010
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a pathogenic Gram-negative bacterium that causes severe opportunistic infections in immunocompromised individuals; in particular, severity of infection with P. aeruginosa positively correlates with poor prognosis in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Establishment of chronic infection by this pathogen is associated with downregulation of flagellar expression and of other ...
Chandak Prakash G - - 2010
Macrophage phagocytosis is an essential biological process in host defense and requires large amounts of energy. To date, glucose is believed to represent the prime substrate for ATP production in macrophages. To investigate the relative contribution of free fatty acids (FFAs) in this process, we determined the phagocytosis rates in ...
Ramírez-Gómez Francisco - - 2010
Echinoderms possess a variety of cells populating the coelomic fluid; these cells are responsible for mounting defense against foreign agents. In the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima, four different coelomocyte types were readily distinguished using morphological, histochemical and physiological (phagocytic activity) parameters: lymphocytes, phagocytes, spherulocytes and "giant" cells (listed in order ...
Kim Soyoun - - 2010
Clearance of apoptotic cells is involved in the resolution of inflammation, and this mechanism is controlled by the regulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine production during the ingestion of apoptotic cells. Inflamed areas show extracellular acidity, and low pH stimulates cellular functions of immune cells. However, little is known about ...
Cash Jenna L - - 2010
Chemerin peptides represent a recently identified component of the endogenous anti-inflammatory network that act via the G protein-coupled receptor ChemR23. The role of the chemerin peptide/ChemR23 pathway in phagocytosis, the clearance of apoptotic cells (efferocytosis), and the resolution of inflammation is unknown. In this article, we report that low picomolar ...
Munoz Luis E - - 2010
Deficiencies in the recognition and engulfment of apoptotic cells have been reported in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). If dying cells are not promptly cleared, they undergo secondary necrosis and release nuclear autoantigens. Secondarily necrotic cell-derived material (SNEC) can be generated in vitro employing various methods. SNEC generated by ...
Smith Richard A - - 2010
This study was undertaken to compare macrophage response to polycarbonate-urethane (PCU), a proposed alternative material to polyethylene in acetabular components of total hip arthroplasty to cross-linked ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (xUHMWPE) in the presence or absence of endotoxin. Polyethylene wear debris that is generated by total hip and knee replacements ...
Lin Jr-Shiuan - - 2010
The yeast cells of dimorphic fungal pathogen Histoplasma reside primarily within the macrophages of an infected host; the interaction between the yeast and macrophage has a profound impact on host defense against the fungus. We used blocking antibodies and saccharides to identify the receptors that participate in the phagocytosis of ...
Jay Steven M - - 2010
The formation of surface-damaging foreign body giant cells (FBGC) from the fusion of macrophages is considered a hallmark of the foreign body response. Experimental evidence indicates that when macrophages are unable to internalize foreign bodies via phagocytosis due to their large size, they acquire a fusogenic phenotype. The mechanism behind ...
Nóbrega Yanna Karla de Medeiros - - 2010
Chromoblastomycosis is a chronic, suppurative and granulomatous mycosis whose main etiologic agent is the fungus Fonsecaea pedrosoi. The severity of chromoblastomycosis clinical manifestations correlates with the Th1 or Th2 immune response, and an efficient cellular immune response depends on the interaction between immune cells and the cell wall of the ...
Rettig Lorna - - 2010
Previous studies have shown that single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) mixed with protamine forms particles and activates immune cells through Toll-like receptors (TLRs). We have found that the size of protamine-RNA particles generated depends on the electrolyte content when mixing the 2 components. Moreover, we have evidenced that (1) nanometric particles induce ...
Hao Hsiao-Nan - - 2010
The biological response to orthopaedic wear debris is central to peri-prosthetic tissue inflammation and osteolysis, through mechanisms that include local inflammatory cytokine production. In particular, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha|) are generated in high quantities following monocyte accumulation in periprosthetic inflammatory tissue, and these cytokine combine with ...
Peng Bing - - 2010
Apoptosis is a normal constituent of trophoblast turnover in the placenta; however in some cases, this process is related to pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia. Recognition and engulfment of these apoptotic trophoblast cells is important for clearance of dying cells. The aim of this study was to show the cross ...
Libako Patrycja - - 2010
Epidemiological and experimental studies underline the role of magnesium in inflammation. Several data indicate an enhanced response of phagocytes (granulocytes, macrophages) derived from magnesium-deficient animals or cultured under low magnesium conditions to the inflammatory mediators' stimulation. On the contrary, it was pointed out that high extracellular Mg2+ concentration might partially ...
Mart?nez Willington - - 2010
The study of plants used in traditional medicine has drawn the attention of researchers as an alternative in the development of new therapeutics agents, such as the American Solanaceae Physalis peruviana, which has significant anti-inflammatory activity. The Physalis peruviana anti-inflammatory effect of ethanol or ether calyces extracts on the phagocytic ...
Fuller-Espie Sheryl L - - 2010
Phagocytosis assays employing class I [interleukin 12 (IL-12)], and class II [gamma interferon (gIFN) and IL-10] human recombinant cytokines were carried out to determine the biological effects of these molecules on innate immune responses in the earthworm Eisenia hortensis. Coelomocytes from E. hortensis were pre-incubated with the cytokines for 16-20h ...
Jack Thomas - - 2010
PURPOSE: To examine the physical properties and chemical composition of particles captured by in-line microfilters in critically ill children, and to investigate the inflammatory and cytotoxic effects of particles on endothelial cells (HUVEC) and macrophages in vitro. METHODS: Prospective, observational study of microfilters following their use in the pediatric intensive ...
García Mónica - - 2010
Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common and potentially lethal acute inflammatory process. Although the majority of patients have a mild episode of AP, 10%-20% develop a severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and suffer systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and/or pancreatic necrosis. The main aim of this article is to review the ...
Cavaliere Victoria - - 2010
Sipunculans, a small phylum of coelomated marine worms closely related to polychaete annelids, lack a true circulatory system. We have previously shown that the sipunculan Themiste petricola can form a cellular clot, without congealing, of cell-free coelomic fluid. The clot is formed by the aggregation of large granular leukocytes (LGLs) ...
Link Tiffany M - - 2010
Macrophage phagocytosis is critical for defense against pathogens. Whereas many steps of phagocytosis involve ionic flux, the underlying ion channels remain ill defined. Here we show that zymosan-, immunoglobulin G (IgG)- and complement-mediated particle binding and phagocytosis were impaired in macrophages lacking the cation channel TRPV2. TRPV2 was recruited to ...
Shimada Takahiro - - 2010
IL-1beta produced by phagocytes is important for protection against the mucosal pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. Processing and maturation of this cytokine requires activation of the multiprotein inflammasome complex. We observed that the bacterial cell wall component peptidoglycan (PGN) must be particulate and internalized via phagocytosis to activate NLRP3 inflammasomes and IL-1beta ...
Poon Ivan K H - - 2010
Under normal physiologic conditions, necrotic cells resulting from tissue injury are rapidly removed from the circulation and tissues by phagocytes, thus preventing the exposure of intracellular antigenic and immunostimulatory molecules that can aid the development of autoimmune disease. Histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG), a relatively abundant plasma glycoprotein, has a multidomain structure ...
Silva Reinaldo C - - 2010
It has been well-documented that leukotrienes (LTs) are released in allergic lung inflammation and that they participate in the physiopathology of asthma. A role for LTs in innate immunity has recently emerged: Cys-LTs were shown to enhance FcgammaR-mediated phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages (AMs). Thus, using a rat model of asthma, ...
Bevilacqua Estela - - 2010
Although not belonging to the class of professional phagocytes, in many species trophoblast cells exhibit intense phagocytic activity. The complete range of physiological functions of trophoblast phagocytosis has not yet been fully characterized. Close association between the trophoblast and nutrition was determined many years ago. Hubrecht (1889) when proposing for ...
Costa Carlotta - - 2010
Phagocytes, like neutrophils and macrophages, are specialized cells evolved to clear infectious pathogens. This function resides at the core of innate immunity and requires a series of concerted events that lead first to migration to the infected tissue and then to the killing of the invading pathogens. Molecular mechanisms underlying ...
Ye Q - - 2010
Subcutaneously implanted disks of hexamethylenediisocyanate or glutaraldehyde cross-linked sheep collagen (referred to as HDSC and GDSC, respectively) in mice show large differences in degradation rate. Although comparable numbers of macrophages are seen in HDSC and GDSC, phagocytosis of collagen by macrophages occurred only in GDSC. The molecular mechanisms involved in ...
Baccan Gyselle C - - 2010
We subjected mice to acute cold stress and studied the effect on phagocytosis by peritoneal macrophages mediated by 3 types of phagocytic receptors: Fcgamma, complement receptors 3 (CR3) and mannose and beta-glucan receptors. Mice were subjected to a cold stress condition (4 degrees C for 4 h), and then peritoneal ...
Shvedova A A - - 2010
Nano-sized materials and nano-scaled processes are widely used in many industries. They are being actively introduced as diagnostic and therapeutic in biomedicine and they are found in numerous consumer products. The small size of nanoparticles, comparable with molecular machinery of cells, may affect normal physiological functions of cells and cause ...
Silva Manuel T - - 2010
The antimicrobial effector activity of phagocytes is crucial in the host innate defense against infection, and the classic view is that the phagocytes operating against intracellular and extracellular microbial pathogens are,respectively, macrophages and neutrophils. As a result of the common origin of the two phagocytes, they share several functionalities, including ...
Monobe Manami - - 2010
To identify the immunostimulants included in green tea extract, we investigated a crude tea polysaccharide related to increases in phagocytic activity using macrophage-like cells, and found that the crude tea polysaccharide from immature tea leaves included many RNAs as compared with that from mature tea leaves. Furthermore, the crude tea ...
Doshi Nishit - - 2010
Recognition by macrophages is a key process in generating immune response against invading pathogens. Previous studies have focused on recognition of pathogens through surface receptors present on the macrophage's surface. Here, using polymeric particles of different geometries that represent the size and shape range of a variety of bacteria, the ...
Wang Jing - - 2010
Although T cells are critical for host defense against respiratory fungal infections, they also contribute to the immunopathogenesis of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP). However, the precise downstream effector mechanisms by which T cells mediate these diverse processes are undefined. In the current study the effects of immune modulation with sulfasalazine were ...
Simons Elizabeth R - - 2010
Phagocytes are the most important early components of the immune response, programmed to recognize, engulf, and destroy immune complexes (formed when antibodies recognize their specific antigens), foreign particles, bacteria, mycobacteria, apoptotic cells, etc. Neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells all participate in this process. Flow cytometry permits observation of phagocytes ...
Ballinger Megan N - - 2010
Cyclic AMP (cAMP) regulates many biological processes and cellular functions. The importance of spatially localized intracellular gradients of cAMP is increasingly appreciated. Previous work in macrophages has shown that cAMP is produced during phagocytosis and that elevated cAMP levels suppress host defense functions, including generation of proinflammatory mediators, phagocytosis and ...
Gu Ben J - - 2010
Phagocytosis of nonopsonized bacteria is central to innate immunity, but its regulation is less defined. We show that overexpression of the P2X(7) receptor greatly augments the phagocytosis of nonopsonized beads and heat-killed bacteria by transfected HEK-293 cells, whereas blocking P2X(7) expression by siRNA significantly reduces the phagocytic ability of human ...
Chang Christopher - - 2010
Ultrafine particles and engineered nanoparticles have unique aerodynamic and biochemical properties that affect the immune system and human health in ways that are different from or exceed those seen with gases or larger particulates. These effects result from a unique set of physical characteristics and surface moieties, which generate an ...
Kross Kenneth Wilfried - - 2010
The head and neck squamous cell carcinoma microenvironments contain many immune cells and their secretory products. Many of these cells belong to the mononuclear phagocyte system. The aim of this review is to study the interactions between mononuclear phagocytes and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma tissue. The role of ...
Chakraborty Sudipta - - 2009
The natural habitats of the freshwater bivalve Lamellidens marginalis face the risk of contamination by the toxic metalloid arsenic. Haemocyte-mediated non-self phagocytosis and generation of nitric oxide (NO) as reactive nitrogen intermediate were examined to establish the reliability of the parameters as biomarkers of sodium arsenite-induced stress on the animal ...
Hsieh Chi-Hsun - - 2009
We investigated whether Kupffer cell phagocytosis is differentially regulated following hypoxia (by breathing hypoxic gas) and trauma-hemorrhage. We hypothesized that the differences might result from a differential activation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway under those conditions. HIF-1alpha is a biologic O2 sensor enabling adaptation to hypoxia. ...
Muñoz Luis E - - 2010
In multicellular organisms apoptotic cells are rapidly and efficiently removed by professional or semi-professional phagocytes. The molecular mechanisms and the key players involved in this highly coordinate process, as well as its immunological outcome constitute a vividly expanding field of scientific interest. A plethora of studies provided a detailed understanding ...
Groves Eleanor E Centre for Molecular Microbiology and Infection, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom. - - 2010
Pathogenic Yersinia species neutralize innate immune mechanisms by injecting type three secretion effectors into immune cells, altering cell signaling. Our study elucidates how one of these effectors, YopO, blocks phagocytosis. We demonstrate using different phagocytic models that YopO specifically blocks Rac-dependent Fcgamma receptor internalization pathway but not complement receptor 3-dependent ...
Dagenais Taylor R T - - 2010
Aspergillus fumigatus is the causal agent of the life-threatening disease invasive aspergillosis. A. fumigatus laeA deletants, aberrant in toxin biosynthesis and spore development, are decreased in virulence. Among other characteristics, the decreased virulence is associated with increased spore susceptibility to macrophage phagocytosis. Three characteristics, cell wall microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs), ...
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