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Silva Alberto B - - 2011
The function of lymphoid organs and immune cells is often modulated by hormones, steroids and neuropeptides produced by the neuroendocrine and immune systems. The thymus intrinsically produces these factors and a comparative analysis of the expression of neuropeptides in the thymus of different species would highlight the evolutionary importance of ...
Giordano Gennaro - - 2011
Apoptosis is a natural process occurring during the development of central nervous system resulting in the elimination of neurons that may have formed faulty synapses. Apoptosis can also be triggered by deprivation of growth factors or by exposure to a variety of endogenous or exogenous compounds. Several methods exist to ...
He Jin-Ting - - 2011
Ischemic cerebrovascular disease is one of the most common causes of death in the World. Exogenous activin A (ActA) protects neurons against toxicity and plays a central role in regulating the brain's response to injury. In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms involved in the neuroprotective effects of ActA ...
Roggero Eduardo - - 2011
The existence of a network of immunoneuroendocrine interactions that results in the reciprocal modulation of the classical functions of each system is well established at present. Most of the evidence derives from studies on secondary lymphoid organs, such as the spleen and lymph nodes. In this article, several aspects relevant ...
Cheng Lesley - - 2011
Increased expression of Hsp72 accompanies differentiation of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells to neuron-like cells. By modulating cellular levels of Hsp72, we demonstrate here its anti-apoptotic activity both in undifferentiated and neuron-like cells. Thermal preconditioning (43°C for 30 min) induced Hsp72, leading to cellular protection against apoptosis induced by a subsequent ...
Finberg Karin E - - 2011
Systemic iron balance must be tightly regulated to prevent the deleterious effects of iron deficiency and iron overload. Hepcidin, a circulating hormone that is synthesized by the liver, has emerged as a key regulator of systemic iron homeostasis. Hepcidin inhibits the absorption of dietary iron from the intestine and the ...
Lakhan Shaheen E - - 2011
Obesity is a chronic disease characterized by persistent low-grade inflammation with alterations in gut motility. Motor abnormalities suggest that obesity has effects on the enteric nervous system (ENS), which controls virtually all gut functions. Recent studies have revealed that the gut microbiota can affect obesity and increase inflammatory tone by ...
Das Mahasweta - - 2011
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) evokes a systemic immune response including leukocyte migration into the brain and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines; however, the mechanisms underlying TBI pathogenesis and protection are poorly understood. Due to the high incidence of head trauma in the sports field, battlefield and automobile accidents identification of the ...
Vereyken Elly J F - - 2011
Macrophages play an important role in neuroinflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) and spinal cord injury (SCI), being involved in both damage and repair. The divergent effects of macrophages might be explained by their different activation status: classically activated (CA/M1), pro-inflammatory, macrophages and alternatively activated (AA/M2), growth promoting, macrophages. ...
Gaudet Andrew D - - 2011
In this review, we first provide a brief historical perspective, discussing how peripheral nerve injury (PNI) may have caused World War I. We then consider the initiation, progression, and resolution of the cellular inflammatory response after PNI, before comparing the PNI inflammatory response with that induced by spinal cord injury ...
McNulty Amy L - - 2011
Obesity is one of the primary risk factors for osteoarthritis. Increased adiposity is associated not only with alterations in joint loading, but also with increased systemic and joint concentrations of adipose tissue-derived cytokines, or "adipokines", that promote a state of chronic, low-grade inflammation that may act in concert with other ...
Sarna Sushil K - - 2011
The development of IBS symptoms - altered bowel function and abdominal cramping in a subset of adult subjects exposed to severe enteric infections opened up an unprecedented opportunity to understand the etiology of this poorly understood disorder. Perhaps, for the reasons that these symptoms follow a severe enteric infection, and ...
Chow Ohn A - - 2010
Statins are inhibitors of 3-hydroxy 3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. Recent clinico-epidemiologic studies correlate patients receiving statin therapy with having reduced mortality associated with severe bacterial infection. Investigating the effect of statins on the innate immune capacity of phagocytic cells against the human pathogen ...
Saini A - - 2011
The existing reports on the role of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in infectious diseases are contradictory. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of sea-cod oil on the course of respiratory tract infection by Streptococcus pneumoniae in BALB/c mice. Animals were given enteral sea-cod oil for a ...
Barrionuevo Paula - - 2011
The strategies that allow Brucella abortus to persist for years inside macrophages subverting host immune responses are not completely understood. Immunity against this bacterium relies on the capacity of IFN-γ to activate macrophages, endowing them with the ability to destroy intracellular bacteria. We report here that infection with B. abortus ...
Al-Hallak M H D Kamal - - 2011
This study evaluated the use of isothermal microcalorimetry (ITMC) to detect macrophage-nanoparticle interactions. Four different nanoparticle (NP) formulations were prepared: uncoated poly(isobutyl cyanoacrylate) (PIBCA), polysorbate-80-coated PIBCA, gelatin, and mannosylated gelatin NPs. Changes in NP formulations were aimed to either enhance or decrease macrophage-NP interactions via phagocytosis. Alveolar macrophages were cultured ...
Huang Zhen-Yu - - 2011
Phagocytosis of foreign pathogens by cells of the immune system is a vitally important function of innate immunity. The phagocytic response is initiated when ligands on the surface of invading microorganisms come in contact with receptors on the surface of phagocytic cells such as neutrophils, monocytes/macrophages, and dendritic cells. The ...
St Pierre Christine A CA Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Lazare Research Building, Room 228, 364 Plantation Street, Worcester, Massachusetts 01605, - - 2010
Osteolysis of bone following total hip replacement is a major clinical problem. Examination of the areas surrounding failed implants has indicated an increase in the bone-resorption-inducing cytokine, interleukin 1β (IL-1β). NALP3, a NOD-like receptor protein located in the cytosol of macrophages, signals the cleavage of pro-IL-1β into its mature, secreted ...
Feng Xueying - - 2011
Removal of apoptotic cells from inflammatory sites by macrophages is an important step in the resolution of inflammation. However, the effect of inflammatory modulators on phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells remains to be clarified. In this paper, we demonstrate that lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a potent inflammatory agent, inhibits the phagocytosis of ...
Krysko O - - 2011
Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is characterized by biased Th2 inflammation and CRS without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) by a Th1 immune response. Colonization by Staphylococcus aureus is increased in CRSwNP. We aimed to determine macrophage phenotypes in nasal mucosa of CRSwNP and CRSsNP and to examine phagocytosis of S. ...
Okamoto Fuyuki - - 2010
Phagocytosis by macrophages is essential for host defense, i.e. preventing invasion of pathogens and foreign materials. Macrophages engulf immunoglobulin G (IgG)-opsonized particles through the action of the receptors for the Fc of IgG (FcγRs). Leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)) is a classical lipid chemoattractant derived from arachidonic acid. Leukotriene B(4) receptor 1 ...
Frey Benjamin - - 2011
Lipids in the cytoplasm membrane fulfill numerous functions. We focus on how lipid asymmetry is generated and its physiological and pathophysiological mission. The role of phosphatidylserine (PS), a prominent phospholipid that gets exposed during cell death, in health and disease as well as in the clearance process will be outlined ...
Ferry D - - 2011
Among combustion-derived air pollutants, little is known about jet kerosene characteristics and effects. Particles yielded by experimental kerosene combustion in a jet engine were characterized with electron microscopy and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy. Immature human monocyte-derived dendritic cells were exposed for 18 h to 10, 25 or 100 μg/mL jet exhaust particles ...
Moyes Siobhan M - - 2010
Caco-2 cells form an enterocyte-like monolayer that has been used to explore small intestinal microparticle uptake. They are a useful functional model for the investigation of in vivo drug delivery systems and the uptake of particulate environmental pollutants. The aim of this paper was to determine if the previously reported ...
Duncan Kelly E - - 2010
Abnormally high incidences of asbestos-related pulmonary disease have been reported in residents of Libby, Montana, because of occupational and environmental exposure to asbestos-contaminated vermiculite. The mechanism by which Libby amphibole (LA) causes pulmonary injury is not known. The purpose of this study is to compare the cellular stress responses induced ...
Zhang Qin - - 2011
Abstract More information characterizing the biological responses to nanoparticles is needed to allow the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of products with nano-scale components. The potential cytotoxicity and inflammatory responses of Au NPs (60 nm, NIST standard reference materials) were investigated in murine macrophages. ...
Orr Galya A - - 2011
The cellular uptake of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) is known to involve active transport mechanisms, yet the biological molecules involved are poorly understood. We demonstrate that the uptake of amorphous silica ENPs by macrophage cells, and the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, is strongly inhibited by silencing expression of scavenger receptor A ...
Huang Zhinong Z Orthopaedic Research Laboratory, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, California 94305, USA. - - 2010
Wear particles generated from total joint arthroplasty (TJA) stimulate macrophages to release chemokines. The role of chemokines released from wear particle-stimulated macrophages on the migration of macrophages and osteoprogenitor cells in vitro has not been elucidated. In this study, we challenged murine macrophages (RAW 264.7) with clinically relevant polymethyl methacrylate ...
Keppler-Ross Sabine - - 2010
The first barrier against infection by Candida albicans involves fungal recognition and destruction by phagocytic cells of the innate immune system. It is well established that interactions between different phagocyte receptors and components of the fungal cell wall trigger phagocytosis and subsequent immune responses, but the fungal ligands mediating the ...
Friggeri Arnaud - - 2010
Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells is critical to resolution of inflammation. High mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), a mediator of inflammation, has been shown to diminish phagocytosis through binding to phosphatidylserine (PS) exposed on the surface of apoptotic neutrophils. However, it is currently unknown whether HMGB1 also modulates the activity ...
Dini Luciana - - 2010
It is becoming evident that failure in the removal of dying cells causes and/or promotes the onset of chronic diseases. Impairment of phagocytosis of apoptotic cells can be due not only to genetic or molecular malfunctioning but also to external/environmental factors. Two of these environmental factors have been recently reported ...
Davicino Roberto - - 2010
Macrophages are involved in the host defense against infectious pathogens and tumors. Tilia species have been used in folk medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases, previously it was demonstrated that a dichloromethane (DM) extract possess antiproliferative action "in vitro" on a lymphoma cell line. The aim of this work ...
Peter Christoph - - 2010
Tissue homeostasis in metazoa requires the rapid and efficient clearance of dying cells by professional or semi-professional phagocytes. Impairment of this finely regulated, fundamental process has been implicated in the development of autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus. Various studies have provided us a detailed understanding of the interaction ...
Gregory Christopher D - - 2010
The apoptosis program of physiological cell death elicits a range of non-phlogistic homeostatic mechanisms-"recognition, response and removal"-that regulate the microenvironments of normal and diseased tissues via multiple modalities operating over short and long distances. The molecular mechanisms mediate intercellular signaling through direct contact with neighboring cells, release of soluble factors ...
Thorp Edward B - - 2010
Recent evidence in humans indicate that defective phagocytic clearance of dying cells is linked to progression of advanced atherosclerotic lesions, the precursor to atherothrombosis, ischemic heart disease, and leading cause of death in the industrialized world. During atherogenesis, apoptotic cell turnover in the vascular wall is counterbalanced by neighboring phagocytes ...
Chekeni Faraaz B - - 2011
Apoptosis occurs in many tissues, during both normal and pathogenic processes. Normally, apoptotic cells are rapidly cleared, either by neighboring or recruited phagocytes. The prompt clearance of apoptotic cells requires that the apoptotic cells announce their presence through the release of chemotactic factors, known as "find-me" signals, to recruit phagocytes ...
Lunov Oleg - - 2010
Contrast agents based on dextran-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO) are internalized by professional phagocytes such as hepatic Kupffer cells, yet their role in phagocyte biology remains largely unknown. Here we investigated the effects of the SPIO ferucarbotran on murine Kupffer cells and human macrophages. Intravenous injection of ferucarbotran into ...
Sharma Gaurav G Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, - - 2010
The interaction of macrophages with micro and nanoparticles (MNPs) is important because these cells clear particles from the circulation, and because they are potential therapeutic targets in inflammatory conditions, atherosclerosis and cancer. Therefore, an understanding of the features of MNPs that influence their interaction with macrophages may allow optimization of ...
Dykstra Tobias - - 2011
Phagocytosis is a receptor-mediated process for sequestration and inactivation of infectious microbes. It can be triggered by microbial surface compounds or particle-attached host proteins. We monitored the effector functions of murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) in response to polystyrene-streptavidin beads coated with the defined ligands IgG1, β-glucan, mannan, complement factors ...
Banerjee Sami - - 2010
HMGB1 was described originally as a nuclear protein involved in DNA binding and transcriptional regulation. However, HMGB1 also has an extracellular role as a potent mediator of inflammation and can diminish the uptake of apoptotic cells by phagocytes, a process called efferocytosis. To explore the mechanism responsible for the ability ...
Corrotte Matthias - - 2010
Phagocytosis is an essential element of the immune response permitting the elimination of pathogens, cellular debris, apoptotic cells, and tumor cells. Recently, both phospholipase D (PLD) isoforms, PLD1 and PLD2, were shown to be necessary for efficient FcgammaR-mediated phagocytosis. In this study, we investigated the role of a potential PLD ...
Nagao Goshi - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Micro- and nanospheres have been used as carrier materials for effective delivery of drugs into macrophages via endocytosis including phagocytosis for the treatment of cancer and infections. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To analyze the role of lipid rafts in the endocytic uptake of microspheres by macrophages, we studied the incorporation ...
Geiser Marianne - - 2010
Lung macrophages, that is, the intravascular, interstitial, pleural, and surface macrophages, are part of the mononuclear phagocyte system. They are derived from the hematopoietic stem cell in the bone marrow with the monocytes as their putative precursors. Macrophages residing on the inner surfaces of the lungs and immersed within the ...
VanderVen Brian C BC Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, - - 2010
Macrophages play a central role in tissue homeostasis and the immune system. Their primary function is to internalize cellular debris and microorganisms for degradation within their phagosomes. In this context, their capacity to process and sequester lipids such as triacylglycerides and cholesteryl esters makes them key players in circulatory diseases, ...
Muthu Kuzhali - - 2010
CD14 is a glycoprotein that binds bacterial LPS in MØ. It is an essential component of the phagocytic system and is increased in septic shock. Critical injury and sepsis result in elevated endogenous CA levels. CAs have a significant impact on MØ inflammatory functions. We tested the hypothesis that β-adrenergic ...
Davis Michael J - - 2010
In addition to the lysosome's important roles in digestion, antigen processing, and microbial destruction, lysosome damage in macrophages can trigger cell death and release of the inflammatory cytokine IL-1β. To examine the relationship among endocytosis, lysosome damage, and subsequent events, such as caspase-1 activation and IL-1β secretion, we developed a ...
Rieger Aja M - - 2010
Phagocytosis provides a critical first line of defense against invading pathogens. Engagement of particles through receptor-mediated binding precedes internalization and induction of cellular antimicrobial responses. Phagocytes have the capacity to differentially regulate binding and internalization processes through changes in their receptor profile and modulation of downstream events. This is necessary ...
Silva Manuel T - - 2010
Triggering of phagocyte apoptosis is a major virulence mechanism used by some successful bacterial pathogens. A central issue in the apoptotic death context is that fully developed apoptosis results in necrotic cell autolysis (secondary necrosis) with release of harmful cell components. In multicellular animals, this occurs when apoptosing cells are ...
Katragkou Aspasia - - 2010
Biofilm formation is an important component of vascular catheter infections caused by Candida albicans. Little is known about the interactions between human phagocytes, antifungal agents, and Candida biofilms. The interactions between C. albicans biofilms and human phagocytes alone and in combination with anidulafungin or voriconazole were investigated and compared with ...
van Eijk Marco - - 2010
Human phagocyte-specific chitotriosidase is part of innate immunity and shows anti-fungal activity towards chitin-containing fungi. We investigated the effect of stimulation of the C-type lectin receptor dectin-1 by beta-1,3-glucan (curdlan) on chitotriosidase expression and release by human phagocytes. We observed that curdlan triggers chitotriosidase release from human neutrophils. In addition, ...
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