Search Results
Results 151 - 200 of 1084
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >
Helmy Adel A Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Cambridge, Box 167, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ, UK. - - 2011
There is an increasing recognition that following traumatic brain injury, a cascade of inflammatory mediators is produced, and contributes to the pathological consequences of central nervous system injury. This review summarises the key literature from pre-clinical models that underlies our understanding of innate inflammation following traumatic brain injury before focussing ...
Müller Yara Maria Rauh - - 2011
Lead is an important heavy metal pollutant in the environment, and it induces neurodevelopmental toxicity, which is characterized by histological, ultrastructural, and neurochemical changes in the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of prenatal acute lead exposure on apoptosis, GFAP expression, and lead ...
Krause Daniela D Department of Pathology (Neuropathology), Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, - - 2011
Tryptophan metabolism by the kynurenine pathway (KP) is important to the pathogenesis of inflammatory, infectious, and degenerative diseases. The 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK) branch of the KP is activated in macrophages and microglia, leading to the generation of 3-HK, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-HAA), and quinolinic acid, which are considered neurotoxic owing to their ...
Stettner Mark - - 2011
Oxidative stress and inflammation represent pathways causing substantial damage to the peripheral nervous system. Levetiracetam (LEV) is a commonly used antiepileptic drug targeting high-voltage activated N-type calcium channels. Recent evidence suggests that LEV may also act as a histone deacetylase inhibitor, suggesting that this drug exhibits both anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative ...
Li Qing - - 2011
Traditional thinking considered the nervous system, endocrine system and immune system to be independent of each other. However, it is now widely accepted that these systems interact through the psycho-neuro-endocrino-immune network. The nervous system affects the endocrine and immune systems by releasing neurotransmitters through the hypothalamus in the hypothalamic-pituitary portal ...
Yadav Sanjay - - 2011
In chronic alcoholism, brain shrinkage and cognitive defects because of neuronal death are well established, although the sequence of molecular events has not been fully explored yet. We explored the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in ethanol-induced apoptosis of neuronal cells. Ethanol-sensitive miRNAs in SH-SY5Y, a human neuroblastoma cell line, were ...
Calvo Margarita - - 2011
Microglia are the resident macrophages in the central nervous system (CNS). Any insult to the CNS homeostasis will induce a rapid change in microglia morphology, gene expression profile and functional behaviour. These responses of microglia have been collectively known as 'microgliosis'. Interestingly, damage to the nervous system outside the CNS, ...
Hwang Doseok - - 2011
Schizandra chinensis has been known to have five predominant tastes: salty, sweet, sour, astringent, and bitter. It has also been shown to have various effects on the cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal system, anti-inflammatory, central nervous system, endocrine system, and stress protect. However, its anti-cancer activity on colon carcinoma HCT-116 cells has ...
Renné Thomas - - 2011
The contact system is a plasma protease cascade that is initiated by coagulation factor XII activation on cardiovascular cells. The system starts procoagulant and proinflammatory reactions, via the intrinsic pathway of coagulation or the kallikrein-kinin system, respectively. The biochemistry of the contact system in vitro is well understood, however, its ...
Lee Jae-Kyung JK Department of Physiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, - - 2011
Microglia are the brain-resident macrophages responsible for immune surveillance that become activated in response to injury, infection, environmental toxins, and other stimuli that threaten neuronal survival. Previous work from our group demonstrated that mice deficient in Regulator of G-protein Signaling 10 (RGS10), a microglia-enriched GTPase activating protein (GAP) for G-protein ...
Sarkar Dipak K DK Rutgers Endocrine Program, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA. - - 2011
Neurobehavioral stress has been shown to promote tumor growth and progression and dampen the immune system. In this study, we investigated whether inhibiting stress hormone production could inhibit the development of mammary carcinoma and metastasis in a rat model of breast carcinogenesis. To enhance β-endorphin (BEP), the endogenous opioid polypeptide ...
Shi Xiangguo - - 2011
Cypermethrin, a type II pyrethroid insecticide, is widely used throughout the world in agriculture, forestry, horticulture and homes. Though the neurotoxicity of cypermethrin has been thoroughly studied in adult rodents, little is so far available regarding the developmental toxicity of cypermethrin to fish in early life stages. To explore the ...
Nash Theodore E TE Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, NIAID, NIH, 4 Center Drive, Building 4, Room 126, Bethesda, MD 20892, - - 2011
The cystic larvae of Taenia solium commonly infect the human nervous system, resulting in neurocysticercosis, a major contributor to seizure disorders in most of the world. Inflammation around the parasites is a hallmark of neurocysticercosis pathophysiology. Although mechanisms regulating this inflammation are poorly understood, anti-inflammatory drugs, particularly corticosteroids, have been ...
Mofidi A - - 2011
Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) is a complex process which leads to destruction of neuronal tissue and also vascular structure. After SCI many potentially toxic substances are activated and released into the injury site causing secondary degeneration. Erythropoietin (EPO) is a possible therapeutic strategy to treat SCI. Over the last decade ...
Hopster-Iversen C - - 2011
Large intestinal diseases in horses are characterised by inflammation, which could arise from the disease process with some contribution from intestinal manipulation. The effects of the latter are unknown but important to surgeons and could contribute to post operative complications. To characterise type and degree of intestinal inflammation induced by ...
Cunningham Colm C School of Biochemistry and Immunology and Trinity College Institute of Neuroscience, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Republic of Ireland. - - 2011
It is widely accepted that inflammation plays some role in the progression of chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as AD (Alzheimer's disease), but its precise role remains elusive. It has been known for many years that systemic inflammatory insults can signal to the brain to induce changes in CNS (central nervous ...
Esposito Emanuela - - 2011
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) causes severe and permanent functional deficits, due to the primary mechanical insult, followed by secondary tissue degeneration. The direct damage is followed by a second phase of tissue degeneration, which may take place over a period of weeks or even months, causing neuronal and axonal ...
Lisak Robert P - - 2011
Inflammatory mediators, including cytokines, contribute to neuronal and axonal dysfunction and cell death. To examine the roles of cytokines in pathogenesis and regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS), we analyzed effects of cytokines on early gene regulation (6h) in neuronal cultures, employing gene arrays. Our hypothesis is that neuronal ...
Wang Ying - - 2011
Surfactant protein A (SP-A) regulates a variety of immune cell functions. We determined the ability of SP-A derived from normal and asthmatic subjects to modulate the inflammatory response elicited by Mycoplasma pneumoniae, a pathogen known to exacerbate asthma. Fourteen asthmatic and 10 normal control subjects underwent bronchoscopy with airway brushing ...
Consonni Alessandra A Division of Neuroscience, Cellular Neurophysiology Unit, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, via Olgettina 58, I-20132 Milano, - - 2011
Calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) and adrenomedullin are potent biologically active peptides that have been proposed to play an important role in vascular and inflammatory diseases. Their function in the central nervous system is still unclear since they have been proposed as either pro-inflammatory or neuroprotective factors. We investigated the ...
Wang Ya-Xian - - 2011
Studies using rat models have indicated that neuronal apoptosis is involved in the pathogenesis of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH); however, the mechanism by which apoptosis occurs is unclear. In the present study, we aimed to quantify the number of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)-positive cells and apoptotic cells in specimens of middle temporal ...
Feeser V Ramana - - 2011
TBI is a complex disease process caused by a cascade of systemic events. Attention is now turning to drugs that act on multiple pathways to enhance survival and functional outcomes. Progesterone has been found to be beneficial in several animal species, different models of brain injury, and in two preliminary ...
Czeh Melinda - - 2011
Microglia, the resident immune cells of the mammalian central nervous system (CNS), play a pivotal role in both physiological and pathological conditions such as the restoration of CNS integrity and the progression of neurodegenerative disorders. Extensive data have been published that describe neuroinflammation by microglial activation to have detrimental consequences ...
Rochlitzer S - - 2011
Background The neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is released in the lung by sensory nerves during allergic airway responses. Pulmonary dendritic cells (DC) orchestrating the allergic inflammation could be affected by CGRP. Objective To determine the immunomodulatory effects of CGRP on DC function and its impact on the induction of ...
Zhang Zai-Jun - - 2011
In an attempt to understand the neuroprotective effect of Fructus Alpinia oxyphylla (AOE) and to elucidate its underlying mechanism of action, the ethanolic extract of AOE was investigated using zebrafish and PC12 cell models. AOE prevented and restored 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced dopaminergic (DA) neuron degeneration and attenuated a deficit of locomotor ...
Souza-Moreira Luciana - - 2011
Although necessary to eliminate pathogens, inflammation can lead to serious deleterious effects in the host if left unchecked. During the inflammatory response, further damage may arise from potential autoimmune responses occurring when the immune cells and molecules that respond to pathogen-derived antigens also react to self-antigens. In this sense, the ...
Kim Cristina Fabiola - - 2011
Partial sciatic nerve injury is a common model of neuropathic pain in rodents, and produces both mechanical and thermal pain hypersensitivity. Several types of immune cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain due to nerve injury; however, the timing of their appearance has not been fully elucidated. ...
Ren Xuefang X DrMed, Neuroimmunology Research, R&D-31, Portland Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 3710 SW US Veterans Hospital Road, Portland, OR 97239, - - 2011
Evaluation of infarct volumes and infiltrating immune cell populations in mice after middle cerebral artery occlusion strongly implicates a mixture of both pathogenic and regulatory immune cell subsets that affect stroke outcome. Our goal was to evaluate the contribution of the well-described coinhibitory pathway, programmed death (PD)-1, to the development ...
Koto Akiko A Department of Genetics; Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences; The University of - - 2011
Apoptosis is essential for normal development. Large numbers of cells are eliminated by apoptosis in early neural development and during the formation of neural connections. However, our understanding of this life-or-death decision is incomplete, because it is difficult to identify dying cells by conventional strategies. Live imaging is powerful for ...
Rostène William - - 2011
Recent observations suggest that beside their role in the immune system, chemokines have important functions in the brain. There is a great line of evidence to suggest that chemokines are a unique class of neurotransmitters/neuromodulators, which regulate many biological aspects as diverse as neurodevelopment, neuroinflammation and synaptic transmission. In physiopathological ...
Pesce M - - 2011
During the past decade, a great deal of data has accumulated supporting the notion that cytokines interact to regulate several aspects of social and emotional behaviour. There are reports of a positive correlation between cytokine levels and aggressive behaviour in healthy populations, and clinical reports describe an increase of aggressive ...
Divito Sherrie J - - 2011
To fulfill its immunologic functions, the skin is richly populated with dendritic cells (DCs), the most potent professional Ag-processing and Ag-presenting cells of the immune system. The immune-stimulatory and tolerogenic functions of skin DCs are regulated by the immune and neuroendocrine systems. Pro-inflammatory neuropeptides like substance P and calcitonin gene-related ...
O'Sullivan Saoirse E - - 2011
Stress activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and sympathetic nervous system (SNS), resulting in cardiovascular responses. The endocannabinoid system (ECS), a ubiquitously expressed lipid signalling system, modulates both HPA and SNS activity. The purpose of this review is to explore the possible involvement/role of the ECS in the cardiovascular response to ...
Covey Matthew V MV Department of Neurology and Neurosciences, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-New Jersey Medical School, 205 South Orange Avenue, Newark, NJ 07103, - - 2011
Inflammation promotes epidermal wound healing but is considered detrimental to recovery from central nervous system injury. Sick infants have increased levels of cytokines in their cerebrospinal fluid that correlate with poor neurological outcome. In this study, we investigated the role of neuroinflammation and more specifically interleukin 6 (IL-6) in the ...
Samantaray S S Department of Neurosciences, Medical University of South Carolina, 96 Jonathan Lucas Street, Suite 309 CSB, PO Box 250606, Charleston, SC 29425, - - 2011
Parkinson's disease (PD), characterized by selective midbrain nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration, is consistently associated with moderate systemic mitochondrial dysfunction. Downstream degeneration of spinal cord has also been suggested in PD, although the mechanisms have not been much investigated. In the present study, two mitochondrial toxicants, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP(+)) and rotenone were ...
Markovics Adrienn - - 2011
We showed that somatostatin (SST) exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects through somatostatin receptor subtypes 4 and 1 (sst(4)/sst(1)). Since cortistatin (CST) is a structurally similar peptide, we aimed at comparing the sst(1)- and sst(4)-binding and activating abilities, as well as the effects of SST-14 and CST-14 on inflammatory and nociceptive ...
David Samuel - - 2011
Macrophages from the peripheral circulation and those derived from resident microglia are among the main effector cells of the inflammatory response that follows spinal cord trauma. There has been considerable debate in the field as to whether the inflammatory response is good or bad for tissue protection and repair. Recent ...
McDowell Misty L ML Department of Neurosciences, Division of Neurology, Medical University of South Carolina, 96 Jonathan Lucas St., 309 Clinical Sciences Building, Charleston, SC 29425, USA. - - 2011
Pro-inflammatory cytokines released from activated microglia may be responsible for neuronal damage and resulting motor deficits associated with CNS disorders such as spinal cord injury, Parkinson's disease, and multiple sclerosis. Estrogen (17β-estradiol) is capable of ameliorating motoneuron death following spinal cord injury, but has a number of deleterious side effects. ...
Sommer Claudia - - 2011
We collected the evidence for potential biomarkers in nerve biopsies that might be of use in diagnosis, assessment, or treatment response in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathies (CIDPs). We performed a literature search in PubMed from 1965 to May 2010 using the key words (["chronic inflammatory polyneuropathy" or "polyradiculoneuritis" or {"chronic ...
Zhang Xing-Mei - - 2011
Glutamate excitotoxicity contributes to a variety of disorders in the central nervous system, which is triggered primarily by excessive Ca(2+) influx arising from overstimulation of glutamate receptors, followed by disintegration of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane and ER stress, the generation and detoxification of reactive oxygen species as well as ...
Bondy Stephen C - - 2011
This review explores the processes underlying the deleterious effects of the presence of insoluble or colloidal depositions within the central nervous system. These materials are chemically unreactive and can have a prolonged residence in the brain. They can be composed of mineral or proteinaceous materials of intrinsic or exogenous origin. ...
Thayer Julian F - - 2011
Inflammation and immunity have been implicated in a wide variety of diseases and disorders ranging from asthma to cardiovascular disease to hemorrhagic shock. In this review we will briefly consider the evidence for the neural concomitants of immunomodulation. First, we will briefly review the anatomy and physiology of the cardiorespiratory ...
Mancuso M - - 2011
Ionizing radiation is a genotoxic agent and human carcinogen. Recent work has questioned long-held dogmas by showing that cancer-associated genetic alterations occur in cells and tissues not directly exposed to radiation, questioning the robustness of the current system of radiation risk assessment. In vitro, diverse mechanisms involving secreted soluble factors, ...
Koopman Frieda A - - 2011
The immunomodulatory effect of the autonomic nervous system has raised considerable interest over the last decades. Studying the influence on the immune system and the role in inflammation of the sympathetic as well as the parasympathetic nervous system not only will increase our understanding of the mechanism of disease, but ...
Wang Fang - - 2011
Aspirin (ASA) is one of the most widely used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. ASA has primarily been used to treat headaches, rheumatic pain, and inflammation, but its therapeutic effects have recently been demonstrated on a range of disorders, including those of the central nervous system. In this study, we investigated whether ...
Lunnon Katie - - 2011
Chronic neurodegeneration is a major worldwide health problem, and it has been suggested that systemic inflammation can accelerate the onset and progression of clinical symptoms. A possible explanation is that systemic inflammation "switches" the phenotype of microglia from a relatively benign to a highly aggressive and tissue-damaging phenotype. The current ...
Chauhan Vinita S VS Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223, - - 2011
There is increasing evidence that the tachykinin substance P (SP) can augment inflammatory immune responses within the CNS. We have recently demonstrated that resident CNS cells express high-affinity receptors for this neuropeptide (neurokinin-1 receptors [NK-1R]), and we have shown that SP can significantly augment glial inflammatory responses to clinically relevant ...
Olivares-Zavaleta Norma - - 2011
Chlamydia pneumoniae is an omnipresent obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen that infects numerous host species. C. pneumoniae infections of humans are a common cause of community acquired pneumonia but have also been linked to chronic diseases such as atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and asthma. Persistent infection and immune avoidance are believed to ...
Kataoka Kosuke - - 2011
We have previously shown that a pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA)-based vaccine containing DNA plasmid encoding the Flt3 ligand (FL) gene (pFL) as a nasal adjuvant prevented nasal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae. In this study, we further investigated the safety and efficacy of this nasal vaccine for the induction of ...
Akinnusi Morohunfolu E - - 2011
OBJECTIVES:: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is an important cause of mortality among nosocomial infections. Recent investigations suggest that linezolid is superior to vancomycin in achieving clinical cure in patients with nosocomial pneumonia. We hypothesized that linezolid may exhibit anti-inflammatory properties in vivo model of pneumonia. INTERVENTIONS:: Three groups of BALB/c mice ...
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >