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Cunningham Colm C School of Biochemistry and Immunology and Trinity College Institute of Neuroscience, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Republic of Ireland. - - 2011
It is widely accepted that inflammation plays some role in the progression of chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as AD (Alzheimer's disease), but its precise role remains elusive. It has been known for many years that systemic inflammatory insults can signal to the brain to induce changes in CNS (central nervous ...
Lisak Robert P - - 2011
Inflammatory mediators, including cytokines, contribute to neuronal and axonal dysfunction and cell death. To examine the roles of cytokines in pathogenesis and regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS), we analyzed effects of cytokines on early gene regulation (6h) in neuronal cultures, employing gene arrays. Our hypothesis is that neuronal ...
Wang Ying - - 2011
Surfactant protein A (SP-A) regulates a variety of immune cell functions. We determined the ability of SP-A derived from normal and asthmatic subjects to modulate the inflammatory response elicited by Mycoplasma pneumoniae, a pathogen known to exacerbate asthma. Fourteen asthmatic and 10 normal control subjects underwent bronchoscopy with airway brushing ...
Consonni Alessandra A Division of Neuroscience, Cellular Neurophysiology Unit, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, via Olgettina 58, I-20132 Milano, - - 2011
Calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) and adrenomedullin are potent biologically active peptides that have been proposed to play an important role in vascular and inflammatory diseases. Their function in the central nervous system is still unclear since they have been proposed as either pro-inflammatory or neuroprotective factors. We investigated the ...
Wang Ya-Xian - - 2011
Studies using rat models have indicated that neuronal apoptosis is involved in the pathogenesis of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH); however, the mechanism by which apoptosis occurs is unclear. In the present study, we aimed to quantify the number of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)-positive cells and apoptotic cells in specimens of middle temporal ...
Feeser V Ramana - - 2011
TBI is a complex disease process caused by a cascade of systemic events. Attention is now turning to drugs that act on multiple pathways to enhance survival and functional outcomes. Progesterone has been found to be beneficial in several animal species, different models of brain injury, and in two preliminary ...
Czeh Melinda - - 2011
Microglia, the resident immune cells of the mammalian central nervous system (CNS), play a pivotal role in both physiological and pathological conditions such as the restoration of CNS integrity and the progression of neurodegenerative disorders. Extensive data have been published that describe neuroinflammation by microglial activation to have detrimental consequences ...
Rochlitzer S - - 2011
Background The neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is released in the lung by sensory nerves during allergic airway responses. Pulmonary dendritic cells (DC) orchestrating the allergic inflammation could be affected by CGRP. Objective To determine the immunomodulatory effects of CGRP on DC function and its impact on the induction of ...
Zhang Zai-Jun - - 2011
In an attempt to understand the neuroprotective effect of Fructus Alpinia oxyphylla (AOE) and to elucidate its underlying mechanism of action, the ethanolic extract of AOE was investigated using zebrafish and PC12 cell models. AOE prevented and restored 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced dopaminergic (DA) neuron degeneration and attenuated a deficit of locomotor ...
Souza-Moreira Luciana - - 2011
Although necessary to eliminate pathogens, inflammation can lead to serious deleterious effects in the host if left unchecked. During the inflammatory response, further damage may arise from potential autoimmune responses occurring when the immune cells and molecules that respond to pathogen-derived antigens also react to self-antigens. In this sense, the ...
Kim Cristina Fabiola - - 2011
Partial sciatic nerve injury is a common model of neuropathic pain in rodents, and produces both mechanical and thermal pain hypersensitivity. Several types of immune cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain due to nerve injury; however, the timing of their appearance has not been fully elucidated. ...
Ren Xuefang X DrMed, Neuroimmunology Research, R&D-31, Portland Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 3710 SW US Veterans Hospital Road, Portland, OR 97239, - - 2011
Evaluation of infarct volumes and infiltrating immune cell populations in mice after middle cerebral artery occlusion strongly implicates a mixture of both pathogenic and regulatory immune cell subsets that affect stroke outcome. Our goal was to evaluate the contribution of the well-described coinhibitory pathway, programmed death (PD)-1, to the development ...
Rostène William - - 2011
Recent observations suggest that beside their role in the immune system, chemokines have important functions in the brain. There is a great line of evidence to suggest that chemokines are a unique class of neurotransmitters/neuromodulators, which regulate many biological aspects as diverse as neurodevelopment, neuroinflammation and synaptic transmission. In physiopathological ...
Pesce M - - 2011
During the past decade, a great deal of data has accumulated supporting the notion that cytokines interact to regulate several aspects of social and emotional behaviour. There are reports of a positive correlation between cytokine levels and aggressive behaviour in healthy populations, and clinical reports describe an increase of aggressive ...
Koto Akiko A Department of Genetics; Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences; The University of - - 2011
Apoptosis is essential for normal development. Large numbers of cells are eliminated by apoptosis in early neural development and during the formation of neural connections. However, our understanding of this life-or-death decision is incomplete, because it is difficult to identify dying cells by conventional strategies. Live imaging is powerful for ...
Divito Sherrie J - - 2011
To fulfill its immunologic functions, the skin is richly populated with dendritic cells (DCs), the most potent professional Ag-processing and Ag-presenting cells of the immune system. The immune-stimulatory and tolerogenic functions of skin DCs are regulated by the immune and neuroendocrine systems. Pro-inflammatory neuropeptides like substance P and calcitonin gene-related ...
O'Sullivan Saoirse E - - 2011
Stress activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and sympathetic nervous system (SNS), resulting in cardiovascular responses. The endocannabinoid system (ECS), a ubiquitously expressed lipid signalling system, modulates both HPA and SNS activity. The purpose of this review is to explore the possible involvement/role of the ECS in the cardiovascular response to ...
Covey Matthew V MV Department of Neurology and Neurosciences, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-New Jersey Medical School, 205 South Orange Avenue, Newark, NJ 07103, - - 2011
Inflammation promotes epidermal wound healing but is considered detrimental to recovery from central nervous system injury. Sick infants have increased levels of cytokines in their cerebrospinal fluid that correlate with poor neurological outcome. In this study, we investigated the role of neuroinflammation and more specifically interleukin 6 (IL-6) in the ...
Markovics Adrienn - - 2011
We showed that somatostatin (SST) exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects through somatostatin receptor subtypes 4 and 1 (sst(4)/sst(1)). Since cortistatin (CST) is a structurally similar peptide, we aimed at comparing the sst(1)- and sst(4)-binding and activating abilities, as well as the effects of SST-14 and CST-14 on inflammatory and nociceptive ...
Samantaray S S Department of Neurosciences, Medical University of South Carolina, 96 Jonathan Lucas Street, Suite 309 CSB, PO Box 250606, Charleston, SC 29425, - - 2011
Parkinson's disease (PD), characterized by selective midbrain nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration, is consistently associated with moderate systemic mitochondrial dysfunction. Downstream degeneration of spinal cord has also been suggested in PD, although the mechanisms have not been much investigated. In the present study, two mitochondrial toxicants, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP(+)) and rotenone were ...
David Samuel - - 2011
Macrophages from the peripheral circulation and those derived from resident microglia are among the main effector cells of the inflammatory response that follows spinal cord trauma. There has been considerable debate in the field as to whether the inflammatory response is good or bad for tissue protection and repair. Recent ...
McDowell Misty L ML Department of Neurosciences, Division of Neurology, Medical University of South Carolina, 96 Jonathan Lucas St., 309 Clinical Sciences Building, Charleston, SC 29425, USA. - - 2011
Pro-inflammatory cytokines released from activated microglia may be responsible for neuronal damage and resulting motor deficits associated with CNS disorders such as spinal cord injury, Parkinson's disease, and multiple sclerosis. Estrogen (17β-estradiol) is capable of ameliorating motoneuron death following spinal cord injury, but has a number of deleterious side effects. ...
Sommer Claudia - - 2011
We collected the evidence for potential biomarkers in nerve biopsies that might be of use in diagnosis, assessment, or treatment response in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathies (CIDPs). We performed a literature search in PubMed from 1965 to May 2010 using the key words (["chronic inflammatory polyneuropathy" or "polyradiculoneuritis" or {"chronic ...
Zhang Xing-Mei - - 2011
Glutamate excitotoxicity contributes to a variety of disorders in the central nervous system, which is triggered primarily by excessive Ca(2+) influx arising from overstimulation of glutamate receptors, followed by disintegration of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane and ER stress, the generation and detoxification of reactive oxygen species as well as ...
Bondy Stephen C - - 2011
This review explores the processes underlying the deleterious effects of the presence of insoluble or colloidal depositions within the central nervous system. These materials are chemically unreactive and can have a prolonged residence in the brain. They can be composed of mineral or proteinaceous materials of intrinsic or exogenous origin. ...
Thayer Julian F - - 2011
Inflammation and immunity have been implicated in a wide variety of diseases and disorders ranging from asthma to cardiovascular disease to hemorrhagic shock. In this review we will briefly consider the evidence for the neural concomitants of immunomodulation. First, we will briefly review the anatomy and physiology of the cardiorespiratory ...
Mancuso M - - 2011
Ionizing radiation is a genotoxic agent and human carcinogen. Recent work has questioned long-held dogmas by showing that cancer-associated genetic alterations occur in cells and tissues not directly exposed to radiation, questioning the robustness of the current system of radiation risk assessment. In vitro, diverse mechanisms involving secreted soluble factors, ...
Koopman Frieda A - - 2011
The immunomodulatory effect of the autonomic nervous system has raised considerable interest over the last decades. Studying the influence on the immune system and the role in inflammation of the sympathetic as well as the parasympathetic nervous system not only will increase our understanding of the mechanism of disease, but ...
Wang Fang - - 2011
Aspirin (ASA) is one of the most widely used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. ASA has primarily been used to treat headaches, rheumatic pain, and inflammation, but its therapeutic effects have recently been demonstrated on a range of disorders, including those of the central nervous system. In this study, we investigated whether ...
Lunnon Katie - - 2011
Chronic neurodegeneration is a major worldwide health problem, and it has been suggested that systemic inflammation can accelerate the onset and progression of clinical symptoms. A possible explanation is that systemic inflammation "switches" the phenotype of microglia from a relatively benign to a highly aggressive and tissue-damaging phenotype. The current ...
Chauhan Vinita S VS Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223, - - 2011
There is increasing evidence that the tachykinin substance P (SP) can augment inflammatory immune responses within the CNS. We have recently demonstrated that resident CNS cells express high-affinity receptors for this neuropeptide (neurokinin-1 receptors [NK-1R]), and we have shown that SP can significantly augment glial inflammatory responses to clinically relevant ...
Olivares-Zavaleta Norma - - 2011
Chlamydia pneumoniae is an omnipresent obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen that infects numerous host species. C. pneumoniae infections of humans are a common cause of community acquired pneumonia but have also been linked to chronic diseases such as atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and asthma. Persistent infection and immune avoidance are believed to ...
Kataoka Kosuke - - 2011
We have previously shown that a pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA)-based vaccine containing DNA plasmid encoding the Flt3 ligand (FL) gene (pFL) as a nasal adjuvant prevented nasal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae. In this study, we further investigated the safety and efficacy of this nasal vaccine for the induction of ...
Akinnusi Morohunfolu E - - 2011
OBJECTIVES:: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is an important cause of mortality among nosocomial infections. Recent investigations suggest that linezolid is superior to vancomycin in achieving clinical cure in patients with nosocomial pneumonia. We hypothesized that linezolid may exhibit anti-inflammatory properties in vivo model of pneumonia. INTERVENTIONS:: Three groups of BALB/c mice ...
Li Yitang Y Joint Program in Transfusion Medicine and Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Dana-Farber/Harvard Cancer Center, Division of Blood Bank, Department of Lab Medicine, Children's Hospital Boston, Boston, MA 02115, - - 2011
The clinical outcome of granulocyte transfusion therapy is often hampered by short ex vivo shelf life, inefficiency of recruitment to sites of inflammation, and poor pathogen-killing capability of transplanted neutrophils. Here, using a recently developed mouse granulocyte transfusion model, we revealed that the efficacy of granulocyte transfusion can be significantly ...
Hong Jeong-Soo - - 2011
A localized and effective innate immune response to pathogenic bacterial invasion is central to host survival. Identification of the critical local innate mediators of lung defense against such pathogens is essential for a complete understanding of the mechanism(s) underlying effective host defense. In an acute model of Streptococcus pneumoniae lung ...
Li Qian - - 2011
We recently reported that the complement system plays a pivotal role in innate immune defense against Streptococcus pneumoniae during acute otitis media (OM) in mice. The current study was designed to determine which of the complement pathways are activated during acute pneumococcal OM and whether components of complement are expressed ...
Yang Feng-Ling - - 2011
The active components of a primary pyrogenic liver abscess (PLA) Klebsiella pneumoniae in stimulating cytokine expression in macrophages are still unclear. The capsular polysaccharide (CPS) of PLA K. pneumoniae is important in determining clinical manifestations, and we have shown that it consists of repeating units of the trisaccharide (→3)-β-D-Glc-(1→4)-[2,3-(S)-pyruvate]-β-D-GlcA-(1→4)-α-L-Fuc-(1→) and ...
Bewley Martin A - - 2011
Macrophages are central effectors of innate immune responses to bacteria. We have investigated how activation of the abundant macrophage lysosomal protease, cathepsin D, regulates the macrophage proteome during killing of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Using the cathepsin D inhibitor pepstatin A, we demonstrate that cathepsin D differentially regulates multiple targets out of ...
Rodrigues Ana Paula D - - 2011
KA (kojic acid) is a secondary metabolite isolated from Aspergillus fungi that has demonstrated skin whitening, antioxidant and antitumour properties among others. However, limited information is available regarding its effects on macrophages, the major cell involved in cell defence. The aim of the present study was to analyse whether KA ...
Lessig Jacqueline - - 2011
Drug delivery into immune cells has high potential for the treatment of all kinds of inflammation, allowing a target-oriented transport of active agents. The advantage of this local drug release is the prevention of negative effects of systemic applications and low-dose application. Thereby, the phagocytotic capability of mature phagocytes is ...
Matsumoto Tomio - - 2011
Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated leukocytes secrete proinflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-12. Over-activation of host defense systems may result in severe tissue damage and requires regulation. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-10 are candidate cytokines for inducing tolerance to lipopolysaccharide re-stimulation. We compared cytokines secreted by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated blood cells from patients who ...
Shimizu Takashi - - 2011
Pathogenesis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection is considered to be in part attributed to excessive immune responses. Mycoplasma pneumoniae shows strong cytoadherence to host cells and this cytoadherence is thought to be involved in the progression of pneumonia. However, the interaction between the cytoadherence and the immune responses is not known ...
Liu Xiao-Hong - - 2011
Vascular wall chronic inflammation plays a critical role in the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and hypertension. Circulating and tissue angiotensin II can induce potent inflammatory responses in vascular cells and promotes atherosclerosis, whereas the underlying mechanisms remain uncertain. Several data indicated that the upregulation of ...
Herold Susanne - - 2011
RATIONALE: Exudate macrophages are key players in host defense towards invading pathogens. Their anti-inflammatory and epithelial-protective potential in gram-negative pneumonia, however, remains elusive. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether exudate macrophages contributed to preservation of alveolar epithelial barrier integrity and analyzed the molecular pathways involved. METHODS: We evaluated the anti-inflammatory and epithelial-protective ...
March Catalina - - 2011
Outer membrane protein A (OmpA) is a class of proteins highly conserved among the Enterobacteriaceae family and throughout evolution. Klebsiella pneumoniae is a capsulated gram-negative pathogen. It is an important cause of community-acquired and nosocomial pneumonia. Evidence indicates that K. pneumoniae infections are characterized by a lack of an early ...
Wang Jinghua J Division of Basic and Translational Research, Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA. - - 2011
IL-23, produced by dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages, plays a critical role in innate immunity against bacterial infection. Our previous studies show that morphine disrupts the IL-23/IL-17 mediated pulmonary mucosal host defense and increases susceptibility to Streptococcus pneumoniae lung infection. To determine the mechanism by which morphine modulates IL-23 production, ...
Pittet Lynnelle A LA Pulmonary Center, Boston University School of Medicine, 72 E. Concord St., Boston, MA 02118, - - 2011
NF-κB regulates cytokine expression to initiate and control the innate immune response to lung infections. The NF-κB protein RelA is critical for pulmonary host defense during Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia, but the cell-specific roles of this transcription factor remain to be determined. We hypothesized that RelA in alveolar macrophages contributes to ...
Carange Julie - - 2011
Oxidative stress and apoptosis are frequently cited to explain neuronal cell damage in various neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson' s disease. Brassinosteroids (BRs) are phytosterols recognized to promote stress tolerance of vegetables via modulation of the antioxidative enzyme cascade. However, their antioxidative effects on mammalian neuronal cells have never been ...
Verret Valentin - - 2011
Embolization with microspheres is widely applied to treat uterine fibroids. However, the foreign body reaction that could result from the degradation of the microspheres remains to be evaluated to adequately appreciate the tissular tolerance to such biomaterials. We compared herein the in situ degradation of PMMA microspheres coated with polyphosphazene ...
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