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Ten Berge Bregje - - 2012
Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disease characterized by a seemingly exaggerated immune response against a difficult to discern antigen. Dendritic cells (DCs) are pivotal antigen presenting cells thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis. Paradoxically, decreased DC immune reactivity was reported in blood samples from pulmonary sarcoidosis patients. However, ...
Waldock Joanna - - 2012
Mosquito-borne viral diseases cause significant burden in much of the developing world. Although host-virus interactions have been studied extensively in the vertebrate host, little is known about mosquito responses to viral infection. In contrast to mosquitoes of the Aedes and Culex genera, Anopheles gambiae, the principal vector of human malaria, ...
Elomaa Antti-Pekka - - 2012
Inflammatory mediators in both the peripheral circulation and central nervous system (CNS) are dysregulated in major depressive disorder (MDD). Nevertheless, relatively little is known about the role of the T-helper (Th)-2 effector cytokines interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13 in MDD. We examined the serum levels of these cytokines and a Th-1 ...
Chua Justin C - - 2012
Measurement of eosinophilic airway inflammation can assist in the diagnosis of allergic asthma and in the management of exacerbations, however its clinical implementation remains difficult. Galectin-10 has been associated with eosinophilic inflammation and has the potential to be used as a surrogate biomarker. This study aimed to assess the relationship ...
Suárez Andrea L - - 2012
Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by impaired epidermal barrier function, inflammatory infiltration, extensive pruritus and a clinical course defined by symptomatic flares and remissions. The mechanisms of disease exacerbation are still poorly understood. Clinical occurrence of atopic dermatitis is often associated with psychological stress. In response ...
Joyce Karen L KL Institute of Immunology, Department of Microbiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, - - 2012
Schistosoma parasites are blood flukes that infect an estimated 200 million people worldwide. In chronic infection with Schistosoma, the severe pathology, including liver fibrosis and splenomegaly, is caused by the immune response to the parasite eggs rather than the parasite itself. Parasite eggs induce a Th2 response characterized by the ...
Gharabaghi Mehrnaz Asadi MA Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. - - 2012
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an uncommon cause of community-acquired pneumonia in immune-competent hosts. It is commonly seen in patients with structural lung abnormality such as cystic fibrosis or in immune compromised hosts. Here, the authors report a case of community-acquired Pseudomonas pneumonia in a 26-year old healthy man who presented with ...
Barna Barbara P BP Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 27834, - - 2012
Dysfunctional immune responses characterize sarcoidosis, but the status of cathelicidin, a potent immunoregulatory and antimicrobial molecule, has not been established in clinical disease activity. Alveolar macrophage cathelicidin expression was determined in biopsy-proven sarcoidosis patients classified clinically as 'severe' (requiring systemic treatment) or 'non-severe' (never requiring treatment). Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells ...
Galic Michael A - - 2012
Cytokines are molecules secreted by peripheral immune cells, microglia, astrocytes and neurons in the central nervous system. Peripheral or central inflammation is characterized by an upregulation of cytokines and their receptors in the brain. Emerging evidence indicates that pro-inflammatory cytokines modulate brain excitability. Findings from both the clinical literature and ...
Shen Yu-chi - - 2012
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) plays versatile roles in the immune system. MIF is also widely expressed during embryonic development, particularly in the nervous system, although its roles in neural development are only beginning to be understood. Evidence from frogs, mice and zebrafish suggests that MIF has a major role ...
Wong Wai T - - 2011
Recent studies have indicated that constitutive functions of microglia in the healthy adult central nervous system (CNS) involve immune surveillance, synapse maintenance and trophic support. These functions have been related to the ramified structure of 'resting' microglia and the prominent motility in their processes that provide extensive coverage of the ...
Monji Akira - - 2011
An accumulating body of evidence point to the significance of neuroinflammation and immunogenetics also in schizophrenia. Recent genome-wide studies in schizophrenia suggest immune involvement in schizophrenia. Microglia are the resident macrophage of the brain and major players in innate immunity in the CNS. They respond rapidly to even minor pathological ...
Dimitrijević Mirjana - - 2011
For many years, the central nervous system and the immune system were considered two autonomous entities. However, extensive research in the field of neuroimmunomodulation during the past decades has demonstrated the presence of different neuropeptides and their respective receptors in the immune cells. More importantly, it has provided evidence for ...
Zhang Xichun X Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Israel Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, - - 2012
Peripheral nociceptive action of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of numerous pain syndromes. An increase in the level of these cytokines in jugular venous blood has been reported during migraine attacks, suggesting their potential involvement in mediating the intracranial headache of migraine. In ...
Ning Ning - - 2011
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Acute spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury (SCII) is associated with pathological changes, including inflammation, edema, and neuronal apoptosis. Panax notoginsenoside (PNS), an important traditional Chinese medicine, has shown a variety of beneficial effects, including homeostasis maintenance, anti-myocardial ischemia activities, and neuroprotective functions. However, whether it can produce neuroprotective effects ...
Kim Hyung-Seok - - 2011
Apoptosis after global or focal cerebral ischemia plays a crucial role in mediating cell death. In this study, we observed the time point expression of physiologic events involving apoptosis regulatory proteins after photochemically-induced focal cerebral ischemia in Sprague-Dawley rats. Protein expression was evaluated at days 1, 3, and 7 by ...
Salgado Cristian - - 2011
To correlate potential inflammatory responses in nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) with a lesion possessing many physiologic and histologic similarities from a model of nonhuman primate NAION (pNAION). Using immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopic analysis, we evaluated the relative numbers of inflammatory cell types in the single available clinical specimen ...
Sancho-Shimizu Vanessa V Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Necker Branch, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, U980, Necker Medical School, Paris 75015, - - 2011
The three types of interferon (IFNs) are essential for immunity against at least some viruses in the mouse model of experimental infections, type I IFNs displaying the broadest and strongest anti-viral activity. Consistently, human genetic studies have shown that type II IFN is largely redundant for immunity against viruses in ...
Holzmann Bernhard - - 2011
The peripheral nervous system is connected with lymphoid organs through sensory nerves that mediate pain reflexes and may influence immune responses through the release of neuropeptides such as calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Local and systemic levels of CGRP increase rapidly during inflammatory responses. CGRP inhibits effector functions of various immune ...
Nguyen Khoa D KD Immunology Program, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California 94305, - - 2011
All homeotherms use thermogenesis to maintain their core body temperature, ensuring that cellular functions and physiological processes can continue in cold environments. In the prevailing model of thermogenesis, when the hypothalamus senses cold temperatures it triggers sympathetic discharge, resulting in the release of noradrenaline in brown adipose tissue and white ...
Anandhan Annadurai - - 2011
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by loss of dopominergic neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta, and can be experimentally induced by the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Chronic administration of MPTP/probenecid (MPTP/p) leads to oxidative stress, induction of apoptosis, and loss of dopominergic neurons which ...
Cheyuo Cletus - - 2012
Sepsis, a systemic inflammatory response to infection, continues to carry a high mortality despite advances in critical care medicine. Elevated sympathetic nerve activity in sepsis has been shown to contribute to early hepatocellular dysfunction and subsequently multiple organ failure, resulting in a poor prognosis, especially in the elderly. Thus, suppression ...
Ponzoni Silvia - - 2011
The present study was designed to address the role of macrophages in Mn-induced neurotoxicity and to test the hypothesis that minocycline, a tetracycline derivative, attenuates the biochemical and morphological sequelae of Mn. Mn was unilaterally microinjected into rat nigra followed by systemic minocycline or saline administration 24h later, daily for ...
Liu Pei - - 2011
Formaldehyde (FA) is widely present in the environment, and is also a mammalian metabolite. However, its biological role has not been well understood. Here, we show that FA plays an anti-apoptotic role in cultured hippocampal neurons: FA suppressed staurosporine-induced neuronal apoptosis and inhibited the activity of apoptosis-associated caspase-3/7 proteases in ...
Ghosh Arindam P - - 2011
The BCL-2 family includes both pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins, which regulate programmed cell death during development and in response to various apoptotic stimuli. The BH3-only subgroup of pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family members is critical for the induction of apoptotic signaling, by binding to and neutralizing anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family members. During embryonic ...
Arpaia Nicholas N Division of Immunology & Pathogenesis, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-3200, - - 2011
TLRs are a family of innate receptors whose specificities are predetermined in the germline. Therefore, TLRs have evolved to recognize conserved features of microbes. Viruses typically lack the conserved features common to other pathogen classes, so the innate immune system has evolved to recognize viral nucleic acid as a hallmark ...
Espírito-Santo S - - 2011
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) plays regulatory functions both in immune and nervous system. However, in the visual system, little is known about the cellular types which respond to IL-2 and its effects. Herein, we investigated the influence of IL-2 in the development of central visual pathways. Lister Hooded rats were submitted to ...
Perälä Nina - - 2012
Plexins are the receptors for semaphorins, a large family of axon guidance cues. Accordingly, the role of plexins in the development of the nervous system was the first to be acknowledged. However, the expression of plexins is not restricted to neuronal cells, and recent research has been increasingly focused on ...
Reich Jerome M - - 2012
More than 140years since its recognition as a clinical entity, sarcoidosis remains enigmatic. Its classification as a disease vs. a syndrome is uncertain. Its etiology remains undefined. The "immune paradox" (delayed type hypersensitivity anergy in a setting of exuberant systemic granulomatous response) resists explanation. Its relationship to the Kveim test ...
Han Ping - - 2011
Interleukin-33 (IL-33), a newly recognized IL-1 family member, is expressed by various tissues and cells. Since it can combine with chromosomes, IL-33 is regarded as an intracellular transcription repressor. Upon proinflammatory stimulation, it is released as an extracellular cytokine to function as an alarmin to dangerous signals. The IL-33 receptor ...
Li Jianzhe - - 2011
Objective To explore the inhibitory effect of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) on cardiomyocyte apoptosis and the underlying mechanism. Methods In cultured rat cardiomyocytes,apoptosis was induced by the incubation of isoprenaline (10(-5) mol/L) for 48 h. CGRP (10(-8) or 10(-7) mol/L) was administrated for 1 h before incubating isoprenaline to evaluate ...
Wei Xin - - 2011
Neuroglobin (NGB), a newly discovered member of the globin superfamily, may regulate neuronal survival under hypoxia or oxidative stress. Although NGB is greatly expressed in retinal neurons, the biological functions of NGB in retinal diseases remain largely unknown. We investigated the role of NGB in an experimental model of glaucoma, ...
Girard Christelle - - 2011
After a traumatic injury of the nervous system or in the course of a neurodegenerative disease, the speed of axonal regeneration and the control of the inflammatory response are fundamental parameters of functional recovery. Spontaneous regeneration takes place in the peripheral nervous system, but the process is slow and often ...
Suematsu Namiko - - 2011
Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) is a major reactive oxygen species that has been implicated in various neurodegenerative diseases. Quercetin, one of the plant flavonoids, has been reported to harbor various physiological properties including antioxidant activity. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of quercetin against H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis in human neuronal ...
Helmy Adel A Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Cambridge, Box 167, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ, UK. - - 2011
There is an increasing recognition that following traumatic brain injury, a cascade of inflammatory mediators is produced, and contributes to the pathological consequences of central nervous system injury. This review summarises the key literature from pre-clinical models that underlies our understanding of innate inflammation following traumatic brain injury before focussing ...
Müller Yara Maria Rauh - - 2011
Lead is an important heavy metal pollutant in the environment, and it induces neurodevelopmental toxicity, which is characterized by histological, ultrastructural, and neurochemical changes in the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of prenatal acute lead exposure on apoptosis, GFAP expression, and lead ...
Li Qing - - 2011
Traditional thinking considered the nervous system, endocrine system and immune system to be independent of each other. However, it is now widely accepted that these systems interact through the psycho-neuro-endocrino-immune network. The nervous system affects the endocrine and immune systems by releasing neurotransmitters through the hypothalamus in the hypothalamic-pituitary portal ...
Stettner Mark - - 2011
Oxidative stress and inflammation represent pathways causing substantial damage to the peripheral nervous system. Levetiracetam (LEV) is a commonly used antiepileptic drug targeting high-voltage activated N-type calcium channels. Recent evidence suggests that LEV may also act as a histone deacetylase inhibitor, suggesting that this drug exhibits both anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative ...
Krause Daniela - - 2011
Tryptophan metabolism by the kynurenine pathway (KP) is important to the pathogenesis of inflammatory, infectious, and degenerative diseases. The 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK) branch of the KP is activated in macrophages and microglia, leading to the generation of 3-HK, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-HAA), and quinolinic acid, which are considered neurotoxic owing to their ...
Yadav Sanjay - - 2011
In chronic alcoholism, brain shrinkage and cognitive defects because of neuronal death are well established, although the sequence of molecular events has not been fully explored yet. We explored the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in ethanol-induced apoptosis of neuronal cells. Ethanol-sensitive miRNAs in SH-SY5Y, a human neuroblastoma cell line, were ...
Calvo Margarita - - 2011
Microglia are the resident macrophages in the central nervous system (CNS). Any insult to the CNS homeostasis will induce a rapid change in microglia morphology, gene expression profile and functional behaviour. These responses of microglia have been collectively known as 'microgliosis'. Interestingly, damage to the nervous system outside the CNS, ...
Hwang Doseok - - 2011
Schizandra chinensis has been known to have five predominant tastes: salty, sweet, sour, astringent, and bitter. It has also been shown to have various effects on the cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal system, anti-inflammatory, central nervous system, endocrine system, and stress protect. However, its anti-cancer activity on colon carcinoma HCT-116 cells has ...
Renné Thomas - - 2011
The contact system is a plasma protease cascade that is initiated by coagulation factor XII activation on cardiovascular cells. The system starts procoagulant and proinflammatory reactions, via the intrinsic pathway of coagulation or the kallikrein-kinin system, respectively. The biochemistry of the contact system in vitro is well understood, however, its ...
Lee Jae-Kyung - - 2011
Microglia are the brain-resident macrophages responsible for immune surveillance that become activated in response to injury, infection, environmental toxins, and other stimuli that threaten neuronal survival. Previous work from our group demonstrated that mice deficient in Regulator of G-protein Signaling 10 (RGS10), a microglia-enriched GTPase activating protein (GAP) for G-protein ...
Shi Xiangguo - - 2011
Cypermethrin, a type II pyrethroid insecticide, is widely used throughout the world in agriculture, forestry, horticulture and homes. Though the neurotoxicity of cypermethrin has been thoroughly studied in adult rodents, little is so far available regarding the developmental toxicity of cypermethrin to fish in early life stages. To explore the ...
Sarkar Dipak K DK Rutgers Endocrine Program, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA. - - 2011
Neurobehavioral stress has been shown to promote tumor growth and progression and dampen the immune system. In this study, we investigated whether inhibiting stress hormone production could inhibit the development of mammary carcinoma and metastasis in a rat model of breast carcinogenesis. To enhance β-endorphin (BEP), the endogenous opioid polypeptide ...
Mofidi A - - 2011
Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) is a complex process which leads to destruction of neuronal tissue and also vascular structure. After SCI many potentially toxic substances are activated and released into the injury site causing secondary degeneration. Erythropoietin (EPO) is a possible therapeutic strategy to treat SCI. Over the last decade ...
Hopster-Iversen C - - 2011
Large intestinal diseases in horses are characterised by inflammation, which could arise from the disease process with some contribution from intestinal manipulation. The effects of the latter are unknown but important to surgeons and could contribute to post operative complications. To characterise type and degree of intestinal inflammation induced by ...
Esposito Emanuela - - 2011
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) causes severe and permanent functional deficits, due to the primary mechanical insult, followed by secondary tissue degeneration. The direct damage is followed by a second phase of tissue degeneration, which may take place over a period of weeks or even months, causing neuronal and axonal ...
Nash Theodore E TE Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, NIAID, NIH, 4 Center Drive, Building 4, Room 126, Bethesda, MD 20892, - - 2011
The cystic larvae of Taenia solium commonly infect the human nervous system, resulting in neurocysticercosis, a major contributor to seizure disorders in most of the world. Inflammation around the parasites is a hallmark of neurocysticercosis pathophysiology. Although mechanisms regulating this inflammation are poorly understood, anti-inflammatory drugs, particularly corticosteroids, have been ...
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