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Esteban M A - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Although phagocytosis is considered the main nonspecific defense mechanism in fish, the significance of the influence of bacterial properties and assay conditions on this mechanism has not been established. We report the influence of leukocyte source, bacterial species, presence or absence of a bacterial wall, bacterial status (live or ...
Hart S P - - 1997
Phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophil granulocytes by macrophages at inflammatory sites is an important determinant of the process by which inflammation resolves. We demonstrate that phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils, but not apoptotic lymphocytes, by human monocyte-derived macrophages is augmented rapidly following ligation of CD44 by bivalent Abs in vitro. Previously defined ...
Cross C E - - 1997
Phagocytosis is a fundamental process in innate resistance to infection. We have used the pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans to study the interaction of this encapsulated organism with murine macrophages in vitro. In the absence of exogenous opsonins the encapsulated yeast is almost totally resistant to ingestion by murine macrophages. Owing ...
Pradhan D - - 1997
In vivo, apoptotic lymphocytes are recognized and phagocytosed by macrophages well before the final stages of DNA degradation and cell lysis. The recognition process is apparently triggered by the exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS) on the cell surface, an event which precedes cell lysis by several hours. However, multiple receptors appear ...
Humphrey P A - - 1997
The effects of zinc deficiency on hepatic cell mitotic and peritoneal macrophage phagocytic activities were examined in mice infected with Trypanosoma musculi or immunized with parasitic products. On a full-complement or pair-fed diet, infected and homogenate-inoculated mice showed mitotic activity gains of 7.9% to 80.3% and 6.5% to 99.0%, respectively. ...
Rogers S D - - 1997
Our aim was to determine whether in vitro studies would detect differences in the cellular response to wear particles of two titanium alloys commonly used in the manufacture of joint replacement prostheses. Particles were of the order of 1 microm in diameter representative of those found adjacent to failed prostheses. ...
Pasquier C - - 1997
There is evidence that exopolysaccharides (EPS) contribute to the persistence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis lung. However, the relationship between the chemical composition of EPS and the modulation of phagocytic cells is poorly understood. In order to evaluate the role of the chemical composition of EPS in macrophage behavior ...
Vollmar A M - - 1997
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is known to affect cardiovascular physiology displaying both hormone- and neurotransmitter characteristics. However, there is increasing evidence that ANP possesses additional biological activities referring to the immune system. To further strengthen this hypothesis the effect of ANP on two major functions of macrophages, i.e., phagocytosis and ...
Longworth K E - - 1997
Pulmonary intravascular macrophages are an important part of the mononuclear phagocyte system in some species of mammals, mainly sheep and other ruminants, pigs, and horses. These cells phagocytize foreign particles, cell debris and pathogens that pass through the pulmonary circulation. Species with intravascular macrophages localize intravenously injected tracer particles and ...
Kameoka M - - 1997
Apoptosis and syncytium formation are two mechanisms by which human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) impairs uninfected CD4+ T-cell function and are mainly involved in the progression of the disease to AIDS. Previously, we showed that gp120-containing, protease-deficient HIV-1 (L-2) particles generated syncytia by particle-mediated fusion with uninfected cultured CD4+ ...
Becker S - - 1996
A number of epidemiological studies have associated increased cardiopulmonary mortality and hospital admissions with episodes of high particulate air pollution. Inhaled particles, with a mass median aerodynamic diameter <10 microm (PM10) reach the lower respiratory tract where they are phagocytized by alveolar macrophages (AM). Depending on particle composition, exposed AM ...
Takizawa F - - 1996
Apoptotic cells activate homologous complement and are opsonized with iC3b. We assessed the effect of iC3b opsonization upon phagocytosis of apoptotic Jurkat cells by macrophages, which were differentiated from THP-1 cells by treatment with retinoic acid. Macrophage phagocytosis of apoptotic Jurkat cells was enhanced upon incubation of the apoptotic cells ...
Möller W - - 1996
Magnetopneumography was applied to investigate intracellular phagosome motion in alveolar macrophage cells of healthy subjects (non-smokers and smokers). Ingested magnetic microparticles are inhaled and phagocytized by alveolar macrophages within hours. Thereby the particles are transferred into phagolysosomes. After magnetization the particles produce a macroscopic magnetic field of the lungs. Cellular ...
Hart S P - - 1996
Effective removal of dying cells is crucial to a variety of processes in health and disease. Cells undergoing apoptosis are recognized and ingested intact by phagocytes, which are not stimulated to release inflammatory mediators. The alternative uncontrolled form of cell death, necrosis, is associated with release of cell contents with ...
Cross M L - - 1996
The function of cervine (deer) mononuclear phagocytes is poorly defined. In the present study, the potential of cervine macrophages to generate phagocytic and immunoregulatory responses following stimulation with bacterial products was investigated. Blood-derived macrophages of red deer were cultured in vitro with particulate stimulants (Mycobacterium bovis BCG and Staphylococcus aureus ...
Valenti-Weigand P - - 1996
The mouse macrophage-like cell line J774 was used to analyze opsonin-independent entry and survival of group B streptococci (GBS). Efficient entry of GBS in J774 cells occurred within 5 min postinfection, and streptococci persisted intracellularly without loss of viability for at least 8 h. At 24 h postinfection, 30% of ...
Van Vlem B - - 1996
Antibiotics can interact directly with the immune system. This is a review of the immunomodulating effects of antibiotics. The Medline database on CD-ROM was searched for the years 1987 to 1994 using the following search string: "thesaurus explode antibiotics/all AND (thesaurus explode immune-system/drug effects OR thesaurus immune-tolerance/drug effects)." Aspects of ...
Moffat F L FL - - 1996
That L-arginine (L-Arg) augments the host response to acute bacterial sepsis suggests that this amino acid intervenes early in the immune response, perhaps via the nitric oxide synthetase (NOS) pathway. The effect of L-Arg supplementation on in vitro phagocytosis of fluorescein-labeled, heat-killed Staphylococcus aureus by peripheral blood neutrophils (PMNs) from ...
Losa García J E - - 1996
Classically, cyclosporin A has been reported to exert its immunomodulatory action through its effect on T lymphocytes by inhibiting the synthesis of interleukin 2. However, the inhibition of T-lymphocyte activation does not suitably account for all the effects observed following cyclosporin A administration. It is possible that some of them ...
Liautard J P - - 1996
Induced pathogenicity in animals and humans differs considerably. This review is devoted to the relations between Brucella spp. and professional phagocytes, particularly macrophages and macrophagic cell lines in vitro. Although numerous studies have been reported, the type of ingestion by macrophages, the receptor involved, and the molecular mechanisms, are poorly ...
Harada Y - - 1996
A possible complication associated with the use of hydroxyapatite (HA) or HA/tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP) coating on the surfaces of prosthetic devices used for dental and orthopedic implants is their potential to fragment and thus exist as wear debris. In contrast to the so-called osteoconductive properties of HA or HA/TCP coatings, ...
Franc N C - - 1996
Programmed cell death is first observed at stage 11 of embryogenesis in Drosophila. The systematic removal of apoptotic cells is mediated by cells that are derived from the procephalic mesoderm and differentiate into macrophages. We describe a macrophage receptor for apoptotic cells. This receptor, croquemort (catcher of death), is a ...
Saad B - - 1996
The known biodegradability of poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid] (PHB) in certain biological environments had led to its proposed use as a biodegradable, biocompatible polymer. Recently, a new, rapidly biodegradable block copolymer that contains crystalline domains of PHB blocks has been synthesized. During degradation of these polymers, the PHB domains are transformed in ...
Nadeau D - - 1996
The biological reactivity of ambient air particles was studied in five in vitro lung macrophage assays, involving the release of cytoplasmic and lysosomal enzymes, cellular ATP, neutral red uptake, tetrazolium reduction, and chemiluminescence. Macrophages from rat lungs (2 x 10(5) cells; 1 cm(2) attachment surface; 1 ml culture medium) were ...
Oliveira C A - - 1996
Latrunculin A, a toxin from a Red Sea sponge, was shown to be a very potent inhibitor of immunological phagocytosis by normal and activated macrophages (obtained from mice injected i.p. with LPS), as well as by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. This toxin blocks the interiorization of the immune complexes but does not ...
Orfila Jeanne - - 1996
Most microorganisms are destroyed by the host tissues through processes which usually involve phagocytosis and lysosomal disruption. However, some organisms are capable of growing inside macrophages and avoiding destruction. This paper describes the normal phagocytic process and how it is avoided by certain viruses, bacteria and protozoa, and the complex ...
Rice C D - - 1996
Immunotoxicological studies, based on processing of samples in the field and laboratory, were conducted on fish collected from a stream receiving point-source contaminants near its headwaters. Previous studies in this stream have revealed that cytochrome P4501A activity, liver somatic indices, macrophage aggregates, and parasitic liver lesions are significantly elevated in ...
Gomis, Susantha Muhandiramge
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of <i>H. somnus</i> on the phagocytic function and bactericidal activity of bovine mononuclear phagocytes (BMP) using in vitro and ex vivo assays. Using a flow cytometric phagocytosis assay, it was found that logarithmically growing <i>H. somnus</i> significantly inhibited the phagocytosis ...
Maloney W J - - 1996
Titanium alloy particles were isolated from membranes obtained at revision arthroplasty. Addition of these retrieved particles to human monocytes/macrophages in cell culture resulted in morphologic change and metabolic activation. Cells exposed to these particles actively phagocytized the metallic debris, resulting in an increase in cytoplasm and a polarization of ingested ...
Schlegel R A - - 1996
Erythrocytes have an asymmetric distribution of phospholipids across the bilayer of their plasma membranes, maintained by an ATP-dependent aminophospholipid translocase, and dissipated by activation of a non-specific lipid flipsite. Loss of asymmetry provokes recognition by the reticuloendothelial system. In vitro, enhanced phagocytosis of erythrocytes with a symmetric bilayer can be ...
Nagarajan S - - 1995
CD16, the low affinity Fc gamma receptor III for IgG (Fc gamma RIII), exists as a polypeptide-anchored form (Fc gamma RIIIA or CD16A) in human natural killer cells and macrophages and as a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored form (Fc gamma RIIIB or CD16B) in neutrophils. CD16A requires association of the gamma subunit of ...
Kluciñski W - - 1995
Studies were undertaken to assess the bactericidal activity of phagocytes isolated from blood and the uterine lumen of clinically healthy cows after ovulation, and from cows in which endometritis was induced experimentally. Experiments were carried out on 28 clinically healthy cows of the black and white lowland breed. Animals were ...
Szabo I - - 1995
Cell wall components of the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans have been shown to possess significant immunomodulatory activity both in vivo and in vitro. We have previously found that an ethylenediamine (EDA) extract of the Candida cell wall exhibits significant immunosuppressive activity. In an effort to further characterize the immunomodulatory activity ...
Cross C E - - 1995
Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogenic yeast and a major cause of opportunistic infection in AIDS patients. It is commonly found in an acapsular form in the environment, and infection is likely to occur by inhalation. The lung provides a suitable environment for capsule synthesis, and once encapsulated, C. neoformans becomes ...
Krumholz W - - 1995
Polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNL) are an essential contribution to protection from bacterial infection. We have examined the effects of thiopentone, etomidate, ketamine and flunitrazepam on phagocytosis and killing of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli by PMNL in vitro with fluorescence microscopy. All anaesthetic agents significantly inhibited both phagocytosis and bactericidal activity. ...
Toyota S - - 1995
We examined the effects of the intravenous anaesthetic agents, thiamylal and ketamine, on the phagocytic function of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) in heparinized peripheral blood from healthy individuals using the phagocytic plaque method. Subclinical doses of thiamylal caused enhancement of the phagocytic activity of PMN and super-clinical doses of thiamylal inhibited ...
McKanna J A - - 1995
BACKGROUND: Enigmatically, degradation of debris generated in programmed cell death (apoptosis) elicits little inflammation. Having previously detected the upregulation of lipocortin 1 (LC1), a 35-kDa protein with anti-inflammatory and immuno-suppressive properties, at sites of non-inflammatory phagocytosis in the central nervous system (J Neurosci Res 36:491-500, 1993), we sought to determine ...
Holevinsky K O - - 1995
Stimulation of macrophages induces the "respiratory burst" response which is associated with the generation of superoxide (O2-), a drop in cytoplasmic pH, and a pronounced depolarization of the membrane potential. The purpose of the present studies was to determine whether an increase in O2- was temporally related to changes in ...
Brown E J - - 1995
Phagocytosis is the process of recognition and engulfment of microorganisms or tissue debris that accumulate during infection, inflammation or wound repair. This ingestion, which is performed most efficiently by migrating, bone marrow-derived cells called 'professional phagocytes', is essential for successful host defense. Ingestion results when an invading microorganism is recognized ...
Mandell G L - - 1995
Phagocytic cells, such as polymorphonuclear neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages, are essential for defense against infection caused by a variety of microorganisms. The mechanisms used by these cells to destroy microbes comprise a potent oxidative armamentarium including superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and hypochlorous acid. In addition, granule contents such as proteolytic enzymes, ...
Esteban M A - - 1994
BACKGROUND: The ultrastructure of the phagocytic process in fish has not been established in spite of the significant morphofunctional differences detected in the fish immune system with respect to the basic immunological pattern in vertebrates. We report the ultrastructure of the bacterial phagocytic defence mechanism in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax ...
Flora P K - - 1994
Cells undergoing death by apoptosis are rapidly engulfed by phagocytes in vivo, a highly efficient process which prevents leakage of potentially dangerous intracellular contents from dying cells to neighboring tissue. We have tested a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAb) specifying a range of human monocyte/macrophage surface antigens for their capacity ...
Hickman S E - - 1994
The present study shows that human mononuclear phagocytes express a P2Z-like purinergic membrane receptor activity. Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) induces the formation of nonselective membrane pores in human mononuclear phagocytes that allow the entry of otherwise membrane impermeant fluorescent dyes (YO-PRO-1 or Lucifer yellow) into the cytoplasm of these cells. ...
Montgomery R R - - 1994
The Fc receptor (FcR) for immunoglobulin has been assigned a major role in the ingestion of Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease spirochete, by macrophages. Yet macrophages readily take up and kill B. burgdorferi that have not been opsonized. By use of doubly-labeled macrophages infected with spirochetes and analyzed by confocal ...
Brattgjerd S - - 1994
A prepared polysaccharide from the cell wall of yeast, M-Glucan, has previously been demonstrated to have immunostimulatory effects in salmonids as observed by enhanced in vivo non-specific disease resistance in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., and increased in vitro bactericidal activity of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), macrophages. In the ...
Van Rooijen N - - 1994
Selective depletion of macrophages from tissues in vivo can be used to investigate whether these cells are playing a role in defined biological processes. This question is particularly relevant to various host defense mechanisms. We have developed a macrophage 'suicide' technique, using the liposome mediated intracellular delivery of dichloromethylene-bisphosphonate (Cl2MBP ...
Tonetti M S - - 1994
In bacterial infections, mononuclear and polymorphonuclear phagocytes are key components of host defenses. Recent investigations have indicated that chemokines are able to recruit and activate phagocytes. In particular, interleukin-8 (IL-8) attracts polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), while monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is selective for cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. In this investigation, ...
Krauss J C - - 1994
In this study, we test the hypothesis that co-expression of both the complement receptor type 3 (CR3; CD11b/CD18) and Fc gamma receptor type IIIB (Fc gamma RIIIB) (CD16) are sufficient to mediate Ab-dependent phagocytosis. To explore the roles of these receptors in a simple and well-defined in vitro system, stable ...
Goodrum K J - - 1994
Nitric oxide (NO) is produced by murine macrophages in response to cytokines and/or gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide. NO induction by gram-positive bacteria such as group B streptococci (GBS), the major etiologic agents of neonatal pneumonia and meningitis, has received little study. GBS as well as two other gram-positive bacterial species, Staphylococcus ...
Rittig M G - - 1994
A chronic infection with the spirochaete Borrelia burgdorferi typically results in a multistage, multisystem illness. Thus, Lyme borreliosis may provide an interesting model to study the pathomechanisms of microbial persistence. In the present investigation, human peripheral blood monocytes, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, and synovial macrophages were incubated with B. burgdorferi and examined ...
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