Search Results
Results 651 - 700 of 1019
< 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 >
Gregory C D - - 2000
Until very recently, the function of CD14 was thought to be limited to innate immune responses to bacterial and other microbial structures. It is now known that macrophage CD14 serves an additional unexpected function, namely as a receptor involved in the recognition and phagocytosis of cells undergoing apoptosis. In stark ...
Lázaro M I - - 2000
Proneness of addicts to infections may be partially due to opiate effects on immune cells. We find that acute morphine inhibits phagocytosis in murine peritoneal macrophages in vitro with apparent desensitization at high concentrations, whereas chronic exposure results in a state akin to tolerance/dependence where macrophages seem to require morphine ...
Fietta A - - 2000
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The role of mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan (LAM) in regulating the granulomatous response and its effects on cells involved in early responses to tuberculosis have not been clearly defined. The aim of this study was to acquire further evidence about the mechanisms by which LAM takes part in the ...
Sandler S G - - 2000
The benefits of surgical splenectomy in patients with immune (Idiopathic) thrombocytopenia purpura (ITP) probably reflect the combined effects of eliminating a source of antiplatelet antibody synthesis as well as the primary site of platelet destruction. The recent availability of intravenous Rho(D) Immune globulin (WinRho SDF; Nabi, Boca Raton, FL) presents ...
Richards E H. - - 2000
Although many endoparasitic wasps suppress the haemocyte-mediated immune defences of their insect hosts, the effects of ectoparasitoids are virtually unknown. In view of this, a study has been made of the ectoparasitic wasp, Eulophus pennicornis, and its host, the tomato moth, Lacanobia oleracea. For unparasitized insects, in vitro assays indicated ...
Dahlgren C - - 1999
During phagocytosis of microbial intruders, professional phagocytes of our innate immune system increase their oxygen consumption through the activity of an NADPH-oxidase that generates superoxide anion (O(2)(-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). These oxygen metabolites give rise to yet other reactive oxygen species that are strongly anti-microbial but which may also ...
Hiura T S - - 1999
There is increasing evidence that particulate air pollutants, such as diesel exhaust particles (DEP), potentiate chronic inflammatory processes as well as acute symptomatic responses in the respiratory tract. The mechanisms of action as well as the cellular targets for DEP remain to be elucidated. We show in this paper that ...
A. The Skin,Mucous Membranes,B. ...
imentary immune system OBJECTIVES After reading this chapter and attending lecture, the student should be able to: 1. Explain what is meant by nonspecific defense and list the nonspecific lines of defense in the vertebrate body. 2. Explain how the physical barrier of skin is reinforced by chemical defenses. 3. ...
Correa R - - 1999
Previous studies have shown that several immune functions were improved in mice after the ingestion of a thioproline (thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid) enriched diet. In the present work, we have studied the in vitro effects of several concentrations of this thiol compound (0.1, 0.5, 1, 2.5 and 5 mM) on the most ...
Mondal S - - 1999
The splenic macrophages of wall lizards exhibited marked sex-related difference in their phagocytic activity. The percentage phagocytosis and phagocytic index in females was considerably higher than that of males. Gonadectomy resulted in significant increase in percentage phagocytosis and phagocytic index in both male as well as female lizards, suggesting that ...
Rader C P - - 1999
The aim of this study was to establish a human macrophage cell culture system to examine the effect of polyethylene (PE) and titanium particles on cytokine release by macrophage-like cells (MLC) and to quantify this response with respect to the nature and concentration of particles. Human monocytic leukemia cells were ...
Hubbard A K - - 1999
Macrophages participate in a variety of inflammatory and immunologic functions (e.g., phagocytosis, cytokine production, killing of microbes and tumor cells, and processing and presentation of antigen to T lymphocytes). Because these cells are widely distributed in the circulation and throughout tissue, the effects of xenobiotics on macrophage function can be ...
Franc N C - - 1999
Macrophages in the Drosophila embryo are responsible for the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and are competent to engulf bacteria. Croquemort (CRQ) is a CD36-related receptor expressed exclusively on these macrophages. Genetic evidence showed that crq was essential for efficient phagocytosis of apoptotic corpses but was not required for the engulfment ...
Moffatt O D - - 1999
Cells undergoing apoptosis are cleared rapidly by phagocytes, thus preventing tissue damage caused by loss of plasma membrane integrity. In this study, we show that the surface of leukocytes is altered during apoptosis such that the first Ig-like domain of ICAM-3 (CD50) can participate in the recognition and phagocytosis of ...
Schlegel R A - - 1999
Expression of the aminophospholipid phosphatidylserine (PS) on the surface of apoptotic lymphocytes and lipid-symmetric erythrocytes triggers their phagocytosis by macrophages. Phagocytosis by both activated and unactivated macrophages, which utilize different recognition systems, can be blocked by certain monoclonal antibodies directed against the LPS receptor, CD14. Here we investigate the requirement ...
Chang M K - - 1999
Apoptosis is recognized as important for normal cellular homeostasis in multicellular organisms. Although there have been great advances in our knowledge of the molecular events regulating apoptosis, much less is known about the receptors on phagocytes responsible for apoptotic cell recognition and phagocytosis or the ligands on apoptotic cells mediating ...
Nakashima Y - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Loosening of the implant after total joint arthroplasty remains a serious problem. The activation of macrophages by wear debris from implants, mediated by the release of cytokines that elicit bone resorption, may lead to loosening. The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the mechanisms of macrophage activation ...
Boland S - - 1999
The involvement of diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) in respiratory diseases was evaluated by studying their effects on two in vitro models of human airway epithelial cells. The cytotoxicity of DEPs, their phagocytosis, and the resulting immune response were investigated in a human bronchial epithelial cell line (16HBE14o-) as well as ...
Fadok V A - - 1999
Engulfment by a phagocyte is the final common event in the life of most apoptotic cells. Phagocytosis of apoptotic bodies prior to their lysis prevents the release of potentially toxic or immunogenic intracellular contents and activates an anti-inflammatory response, at least in macrophages. We are beginning to understand the mechanisms ...
Monn C - - 1999
Increased incidence of mortality and morbidity due to cardiopulmonary complications has been found to associate with elevated levels of particulate air pollution (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter < 10 microm, PM10 and <2.5 microm, PM2. 5). Lung injury and an imbalance of inflammatory mediators are proposed causative mechanisms, while ...
Baeza-Squiban A - - 1999
PM10, the commonly used indicator of respirable environmental suspended particulate matter with a mean aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 microm, is composed of organic or elemental carbon aggregates containing various metals, acid salts, organic pollutants (polyaromatic hydrocarbons, quinones, nitroaromatic hydrocarbons, etc.), and biological contaminants. In urban and industrial areas, ...
Prabhu A - - 1998
Wear debris from orthopedic joint implants have been postulated to initiate a cascade of complex cellular events that results in aseptic loosening of the prosthesis and eventually in loss of function of the device. The impact of biomaterials used in these devices on host inflammatory response has not been examined ...
Bainbridge J - - 1998
The response to wear particles from orthopaedic implants can lead to inflammation, osteolytic lesions, and aseptic loosening. To gain an insight into the development of this pathogenetic process, immunohistochemical techniques were used to identify the expression and tissue distribution of the potent cell mitogen epidermal growth factor (EGF), and the ...
Kurosaka K - - 1998
Because it is generally believed that apoptosis is not associated with inflammation, we hypothesized that the interaction of phagocytes with apoptotic cells provides a negative or null signal for inflammation. However, we recently found that the interaction led to the production of proinflammatory cytokines but not antiinflammatory cytokines, although the ...
Fadok V A - - 1998
In vivo, apoptotic cells are efficiently removed by professional or nonprofessional phagocytes, a process thought to be essential for tissue remodeling and resolution of inflammation. Macrophages recognize apoptotic cells by several mechanisms, including recognition of exposed phosphatidylserine (PS); however, PS recognition on apoptotic cells has not been identified as a ...
Mulero V - - 1998
The phagocytic cell function is an important factor of resistance to infection in fish. Although it is known that several nutritional factors affect phagocyte function and that vitamins C and E modulate the vertebrate immune system, there are no data on the direct effect of these vitamins or on their ...
Madl A K - - 1998
Individuals with preexisting cardiopulmonary disease are thought to be more susceptible to acute episodes of particulate pollution resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. Our study was designed to evaluate particle fate and macrophage function in an animal model of monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmonary hypertension. Two weeks following a single MCT injection, ...
McCutcheon J C - - 1998
The potential for leukocyte-mediated host tissue damage during resolution of inflammatory responses is influenced by the rate at which extravasated apoptotic leukocytes are cleared from inflammatory sites. Regulation of macrophage capacity for clearance of apoptotic granulocytes is likely to be an important factor determining whether inflammation ultimately resolves or progresses ...
Qureshi M A - - 1998
4 beta, 15 Diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS) mycotoxin produced by Fusarium species was tested for detrimental effects on macrophage viability, phagocytosis, and Fc-receptor expression. Sephadex-elicited chicken abdominal cells were harvested to establish adherent macrophage monolayers on glass coverslips. Coverslips were then assigned randomly to treatment groups (0, 12.5 and 25 micrograms/mL DAS). ...
Smith M E - - 1998
Certain cytokines are believed to play a key role in the development of autoimmune demyelinating diseases. Little is known, however, about the effects of these cytokines in the regulation of the key event in myelin destruction, the phagocytosis of myelin by phagocytic cells. We investigated the effects of certain cytokines ...
Piperski V - - 1998
Tiazofurin, an anticancer drug which inhibits IMP dehydrogenase activity and decreases GTP concentration in various malignant cells, induced inhibition of growth and apoptosis in C6 rat glioma in vitro. The effects of tiazofurin were significantly blocked by addition of exogenous guanosine, suggesting the role of decreased GTP in triggering specific ...
Maloney W J - - 1998
This study tested whether macrophages respond differently to retrieved titanium-alloy particles than they do to machined titanium-alloy particles and assessed whether pretreatment of machined titanium-alloy particles with human serum would influence macrophage activation and cytokine release in vitro. Human monocyte/macrophages were isolated from normal healthy donors and exposed to increasing ...
Sandhu J - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of T lymphocytes in ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) induced inflammation in joint arthroplasty. METHOD: We address the role of T cells in wear induced inflammation by injecting the knee joints of both immune competent rats and mice and severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice with ...
Haas A - - 1998
Phagocytic immune cells (particularly macrophages and neutrophils) take up and digest particles that have invaded our bodies. In doing so, they represent a very early line of defence against a microbial attack. During uptake, the particles are wrapped by a portion of the phagocyte's plasma membrane, and a new endocytic ...
Ren Y - - 1998
In vivo, cells undergoing apoptosis are usually recognised and swiftly ingested by macrophages or neighbouring cells acting as semi-professional phagocytes. This review debates evidence that the contents of apoptotic cells represent a danger to the organism, being capable of injuring tissue directly or triggering autoimmune responses, concluding that phagocytic clearance ...
Herrmann M - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the established impaired phagocyte function in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients also affects apoptotic cell clearance. Accumulation of apoptotic waste as a source for autoantigens that induce and maintain autoimmune responses is discussed. METHODS: Apoptosis was detected by morphology and propidium iodide staining. In vitro phagocytosis ...
Patel HM - - 1998
The mechanisms responsible for the clearance and recognition of intravenously injected liposomes by phagocytic cells of the reticuloendothelial system are presently not well understood. Here, we address a multiplicity of physicochemical and physiopathological factors which influence the clearance kinetics and tissue distribution of liposomes administered into the circulation. Emphasis is ...
Shiratsuchi A - - 1998
In many apoptotic cells, phosphatidylserine (PS), that is normally restricted to the inner membrane layer, is externalized and subsequently recognized by phagocytes. However, it has been unclear whether PS externalization is sufficient for phagocytosis induction. In a cultured cell line undergoing Fas-mediated apoptosis, PS externalization preceded other apoptotic events. When ...
Rossi A G - - 1998
Regulation of macrophage capacity to remove apoptotic cells may control the balance of apoptotic and necrotic leukocytes at inflamed foci and the extent of leukocyte-mediated tissue damage. Although the molecules involved in the phagocytic process are beginning to be defined, little is known about the underlying regulatory and signaling mechanisms ...
Holian A - - 1998
Epidemiological studies report a small but positive association between short-term increases in airborne particulate matter and small increases in morbidity and mortality from respiratory and cardiovascular disease in urban areas. However, the lack of a mechanistic explanation to link particle exposure and human health effects makes it difficult to validate ...
Fadok V A - - 1998
Apoptosis in vivo is followed almost inevitably by rapid uptake into adjacent phagocytic cells, a critical process in tissue remodeling, regulation of the immune response, or resolution of inflammation. Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by macrophages has been suggested to be a quiet process that does not lead to production of ...
Bratosin D - - 1998
Human red blood cells (RBCs) have a life-span of 120 days in circulation, after which they are phagocytized by resident macrophages. Extensive studies have been undertaken by many investigators in order to elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanisms of the erythrophagocytosis. The critical questions addressed by physiologists, clinicians and biochemists ...
Zetterlund A - - 1998
Alveolar macrophages are the most common cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. The macrophages participate in the inflammatory response and defence of the airways by secretion of mediators and by phagocytizing foreign particles such as bacteria and viruses. beta-Agonists and glucocorticosteroids are the most frequently used drugs in asthma. Alveolar macrophages ...
Manfredi A A - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To verify whether antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) recognize and opsonize apoptotic human cells. METHODS: Apoptosis was induced via CD95 crosslinking or ultraviolet irradiation. IgG and anti-beta2-glycoprotein I (anti-beta2-GPI) antibodies were purified from patient sera by affinity chromatography. The aPL that bound to apoptotic cells were assessed by flow cytometry, and ...
Yamauchi K - - 1998
A protective effect of bovine lactoferrin (Lf) during lethal bacteraemia has been reported in mice. Also, protective effects of orally administered bovine Lf have been reported in cases of intractable stomatitis in cats and Cryptocaryon irritans infection in red sea bream. In this study, we examined the effects of orally ...
Shiau A L - - 1998
The extracellular slime produced by Staphylococcus epidermidis has been shown to interfere with several human neutrophil functions in vitro, such as chemotaxis, degranulation and phagocytosis. Slime production has been suggested as a useful marker for clinically significant infections with coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. Since the main role of macrophages in defense mechanisms ...
Salman H - - 1998
To elucidate the effect of sodium thiopentone anesthesia on the function of phagocytic cells, albino rats were anesthetized with 60 mg/kg. of sodium thiopentone. After 90 min., peritoneal macrophages were harvested and their capacity for superoxide anion generation was detected. Following anesthesia for 90 min. latex particles were injected intraperitoneally, ...
von Zahn J - - 1997
Activation of microglial cells in neurological diseases involves proliferation and the induction of phagocytic and cytotoxic properties. We studied the effects of four different cytokines on microglial phagocytosis of latex beads to gain further insights into the signals modulating different aspects of microglial activity. Granulocyte/macrophage colony stimulating factor and tumor ...
van Rooijen N - - 1997
In mammals, macrophages are multifunctional cells. Apart from their scavenger role in the clearance of non-self materials such as microorganisms and altered-self materials such as apoptotic cells, senescent erythrocytes, immune complexes, and inflammatory products, they play a crucial role in the regulation of both innate and acquired immunity. Whereas the ...
Bellone M - - 1997
Programmed death via apoptosis is the metazoan physiologic mode of cell death. Apoptotic cells are recognized by scavenger phagocytes via a number of membrane receptors and engulfed. Thereafter, little is known of their fate, or that of phagocytes. Here, we have traced apoptotic cells upon their engulfment by macrophages. After ...
< 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 >