Search Results
Results 601 - 650 of 1084
< 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 >
Leverrier Yann - - 2003
Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) play an important role in a variety of cellular functions, including phagocytosis. PI3Ks are activated during phagocytosis induced by several receptors and have been shown to be required for phagocytosis through the use of inhibitors such as wortmannin and LY294002. Mammalian cells have multiple isoforms of PI3K, ...
Kim Jun-Sub - - 2003
Phagocytosis of serum- and IgG-opsonized zymosan (SOZ and IOZ, respectively) particles into J774A.1 macrophages induced apoptosis of the cells, accompanied by the expression of p21(WAF1), one of cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK) inhibitors. Furthermore, phagocytosis of SOZ and IOZ particles into macophages induced superoxide formation. Tat-superoxide dismutase (SOD), which is readily ...
Coopamah Malini D - - 2003
Previous results have demonstrated that anti-D therapy in children with chronic auto-immune thrombocytopenic purpura (AITP) induced a significant increase in several pro- and anti-inflammatory plasma cytokines within 2 hours of administration. To investigate the biologic basis of these early in vivo responses, we developed a flow cytometric assay to measure ...
Szondy Zsuzsa - - 2003
Tissue transglutaminase (TGase2) is a protein-crosslinking enzyme known to be associated with the in vivo apoptosis program. Here we report that apoptosis could be induced in TGase2-/- mice; however, the clearance of apoptotic cells was defective during the involution of thymus elicited by dexamethasone, anti-CD3 antibody, or gamma-irradiation, and in ...
Aderem Alan - - 2003
Macrophages are a cornerstone of the innate immune system. They detect infectious organisms via a plethora of receptors, phagocytose them, and orchestrate an appropriate host response. Phagocytosis is extraordinarily complex: numerous receptors stimulate particle internalization, the cytoskeletal elements mediating internalization differ by receptor system and the nature of the pathogen ...
Schwarz Markus J - - 2003
Recent research has overcome the old paradigms of the brain as an immunologically privileged organ, and of the exclusive role of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides as signal transducers in the central nervous system. Growing evidence suggests that the signal proteins of the immune system - the cytokines - are also involved ...
Langeggen Harald - - 2003
Uptake of zymosan A particles by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and its effect on cellular cytokine and oxygen radical production was examined. HUVEC took up more serum-opsonized than -unopsonized zymosan as demonstrated by flow cytometry with fluorescence-labeled particles. The former uptake was inhibited in the presence of anti-C3c ...
Zlotkin Amir - - 2003
The salmonid macrophage-like cell line RTS-11 and purified trout pronephros phagocytes were used to analyze in vitro entry and survival of two Streptococcus iniae serotypes. Efficient invasion by S. iniae occurred in both cells, but only the type II strain persisted in pronephros phagocytes for at least 48 h. Ex ...
Wang W - - 2003
When injected intravenously, cellulose micro-particles become lodged in pulmonary arterioles. The current study investigated the systemic and pulmonary inflammatory responses triggered by cellulose micro-particles at 3, 24, and 48 h postinjection in 6-wk-old broilers. Proportions and concentrations of circulating white blood cells were assessed in saline-injected (control group) and cellulose-injected ...
Huang Song-Lih - - 2003
To identify the size and components related to toxicity of ambient particles, we used a trichotomous impactor to collect 17 sets of particles in three size ranges--submicrometer (diameters < 1 microm; PM1.0, fine (diameters between 1 and 2.5 microm; PM1.0-2.5, and coarse (diameters between 2.5 and 10 microm; PM2.5-10--at stations ...
Kiefer Ralph-Thomas - - 2003
BACKGROUND: With invasion of bacteria, the host defense system is activated by a complex cascade of various mechanisms. Local anesthetics previously were shown to interact with diverse components of the immune response, such as leukocyte adherence on endothelial monolayers, oxidative burst, or crosstalk within lymphocyte subset populations. However, effects of ...
Fernandez-Prada Carmen M - - 2003
Brucellae are gram-negative intracellular pathogens that survive and multiply within host phagocytic cells. Smooth organisms present O-polysaccharides (OPS) on their surface. The wboA gene, which codes for the enzyme glycosyl transferase, is essential for the assembly of O-chain in Brucella. Deletion of wboA in smooth, virulent B. melitensis 16M results ...
Kim Sun Jung - - 2003
Genetic studies in mice indicate that predisposition to lupus-like diseases is caused by at least three mechanisms: (1) alterations in the threshold of activation of lymphocytes or macrophages; (2) defective signaling for activation-induced cell death; and (3) reduced clearance of apoptotic cells. To define the mechanisms whereby lupus develops in ...
Higgins Gareth T - - 2003
PURPOSE: Normal aging is associated with accumulation of lipofuscin pigment in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). This may occur as a result of phagocytosis and incomplete degradation of oxidized photoreceptor outer segments (POS). This study was undertaken to determine whether phagocytosis of UV-irradiated POS (artificial lipofuscin) would increase expression in ...
Devitt A - - 2003
Apoptotic-cell clearance is dependent on several macrophage surface molecules, including CD14. Phosphatidylserine (PS) becomes externalised during apoptosis and participates in the clearance process through its ability to bind to a novel receptor, PS-R. CD14 has the proven ability to bind phospholipids and may function as an alternative receptor for the ...
Kleinman M T - - 2003
Alveolar macrophages (AM) are part of the innate immunological defense system and are among the first cells to respond to the effects of inhaled particles. Study of macrophage responses to particles is, therefore, relevant to understanding the mechanisms by which inhaled particles can adversely affect health. Size-fractionated ambient particles were ...
Becker Susanne - - 2003
In the lower airways, macrophages are important regulators of inflammation and indispensable in their antimicrobial activities. Thus, air pollution particles, which modulate airway macrophage host defenses may, in susceptible individuals, increase severity of inflammatory and infectious disease. In the present study, size fractionated, ultrafine (UF), fine (PM0.1-2.5), and coarse (PM2.5-10) ...
Filaci Gilberto - - 2003
Resident macrophages are mainly responsible for the clearance of apoptotic cells from tissue by phagocytosis. Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells is not accompanied by activation of inflammatory mechanisms, unlike what happens when necrotic phenomena occur. We analyzed the effect of phagocytosis of apoptotic bodies on macrophage cell functions. After phagocytosis of ...
Roponen Marjut - - 2003
Exposure to bioaerosols in moisture-damaged indoor environments has been shown to be a potential health risk. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the inflammatory and cytotoxic potential of airborne particle material using both the nasal lavage (NAL) method and a cell exposure study. A 24-h sample collection ...
Lee Sena J - - 2003
Pathogen pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) recognize common structural and molecular motifs present on microbial surfaces and contribute to induction of innate immune responses. The mannose receptor (MR), a carbohydrate-binding receptor expressed on subsets of macrophages, is considered one such PRR. In vitro experiments have implicated the MR in phagocytosis of ...
Monn Christian - - 2003
This study describes experiments on cytotoxic effects and the production of oxidative radicals and the proinflammatory cytokine tumor growth factor alpha (TNFalpha) in a cell line of rat lung macrophages exposed to aqueous extracts from ambient air particles <10 microm (PM(10)) collected on Teflon filters. The particles were collected during ...
Williamson Patrick - - 2002
When lymphocytes (and other cells) die by apoptosis, they orchestrate their own orderly removal by macrophages, and thereby prevent the inflammation that would otherwise attend cell lysis. As part of their demise, apoptotic cells disrupt the normal asymmetric distribution of phospholipids across their plasma membranes, an asymmetry normally maintained by ...
Agramonte-Hevia José - - 2002
Complement receptor 3 (CR3) is an integrin that recognizes several different ligands. Binding to CR3 in phagocytic cells activates signaling pathways involved in cytoskeleton rearrangement, regulation of cell motility, alteration of gene expression and phagocytosis of complement-opsonized as well as of some non-opsonized particles and pathogenic bacteria. However, CR3-mediated phagocytosis ...
Krieser Ronald J - - 2002
Apoptotic cells are engulfed and removed by phagocytes. This ensures proper development of the organism and can modulate immune responses. Recent studies have examined molecules on apoptotic cells, such as phosphatidylserine, which may signal for engulfment through multiple receptors. Apoptotic recognition mechanisms may vary with the apoptotic and engulfing cell ...
Stoika R S - - 2002
The effect of formyl chemotactic peptide (fCTP, fMet-Leu-Phe), beta-amyloid peptides (beta-AP, 1-42, 1-16 and 25-35), and bradykinin (BK) on functional activity of phagocytic cells has been investigated. Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) was also used as a model membrane binding agent of polypeptide nature. Murine monocyte-macrophage cell line J774.2 and normal ...
Aust Ann E - - 2002
Some recent epidemiologic investigations have shown an association between increased incidence of respiratory symptoms and exposure to low levels of particulate matter (PM*) less than 10 microm or less than 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10 and PM2.5, respectively). If particulates are causally involved with respiratory symptoms, it is important ...
Kwon Se Ryun - - 2002
Experiments were conducted to evaluate the in vitro capacity of the scuticociliatian parasite Uronema marinum to inhibit chemiluminescence (CL) of olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus phagocytes. Luminol-enhanced CL was used to measure the production of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) generated by respiratory bursts of phagocytes using zymosan as a stimulant. Cytotoxic ...
Sengupta Mahuya - - 2002
Splenic macrophages are highly efficient in trapping and concentrating foreign substances carried in the blood and also the major sites where antibodies are synthesised and from where they are released into the circulation. Lead and Arsenic as environmental agents are considered to be high priority toxic substances largely due to ...
Tatarczuch Liliana - - 2002
Lactating animals are particularly susceptible to mastitis during the early stages of mammary gland involution following weaning. In this study we compared the phagocytic capacity of cells collected from sheep mammary secretions at different stages of involution. The ability of neutrophils and macrophages to ingest latex beads in an in ...
Mold Carolyn - - 2002
Serum amyloid P component (SAP) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are opsonins that react with nuclear autoantigens targeted in systemic autoimmunity. CRP and SAP bind to apoptotic and necrotic cells, which are potential sources of these autoantigens. We have recently determined that the receptors for CRP on phagocytic cells are Fcgamma ...
Mitchell Siobhan - - 2002
Lipoxins (LX) are eicosanoids with antiinflammatory activity in glomerulonephritis (GN) and inflammatory diseases, hypersensitivity, and ischemia reperfusion injury. It has been demonstrated that LXA(4) stimulates non-phlogistic phagocytosis of apoptotic polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) by monocyte-derived macrophages (Mphi) in vitro, suggesting a role for LX as endogenous pro-resolution lipid mediators. It is ...
Azuma Yutaro - - 2002
Apoptotic cells are effectively ingested and removed by phagocytes. This process is dependent on specific recognition by phagocytes of ligands expressed exclusively on apoptotic cells. These ligands, cell surface molecules such as phosphatidylserine (PS), altered sugar chains, and the thrombospondin-binding domain, are expressed following the induction of apoptosis. However, they ...
Tooker B C - - 2002
Mycobacterium paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) is a facultative intracellular bacterium with the ability to survive and proliferate inside the vesicles of macrophage cells. How M. paratuberculosis and other mycobacteria survive in this hostile environment is not well understood. Present research findings can be divided into three possibilities: (1) mycobacteria may interfere ...
Cherdwongcharoensuk Duangrudee - - 2002
Several heavy metals that are currently employed in industry may become polluters of work and natural environments. As particulate matter, heavy metals are suitable for entering the human body through the respiratory and digestive systems. They often end up inside phagocytes; the size of the microscopic particles modulates both their ...
Mondal Soma - - 2002
Glucocorticoids (GC) are usually considered to be immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory. However, recent studies in mammals have demonstrated the diverse effects of GC on non-specific host-defense mechanism, depending on dose or duration of treatment. Hence, in the present study in vitro dose and time-related effects of glucocorticoid, i.e. hydrocortisone (HC) on ...
Deĝim Zelihagül - - 2002
It is difficult to treat intracellular infections because of the intrinsic resistance of the microorganism to most antibiotics. Moreover, these microorganisms can survive in phagocytic cells (macrophages and neutrophils). In this study, our aims were to encapsulate an antibiotic in liposomes, which will be phagocytized as well as the microorganisms ...
Gagnon Etienne - - 2002
Phagocytosis is a key aspect of our innate ability to fight infectious diseases. In this study, we have found that fusion of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) with the macrophage plasmalemma, underneath phagocytic cups, is a source of membrane for phagosome formation in macrophages. Successive waves of ER become associated with ...
Brown Simon - - 2002
Macrophage recognition and ingestion of 'self' cells undergoing apoptosis in vivo protects tissues from the toxic contents of dying cells and modulates macrophage regulation of inflammatory and immune responses. However, the complex molecular mechanisms mediating macrophage discrimination between viable and apoptotic cells are poorly understood. In particular, little is known ...
Bi Yanming - - 2002
Aseptic loosening of orthopaedic implants is thought to be primarily due to stimulation of cytokine production by wear particles from the implants. The cytokines increase osteoclast differentiation, leading to osteolysis and implant loosening. Accumulating evidence indicates that adherent endotoxin mediates the biological responses induced by the wear particles. One mechanism ...
Flavia Popi Ana Flavia - - 2002
Macrophages constitute one of the primary cellular mechanisms that impairs parasite invasion of host tissues. The phagocytic and microbicidal properties of these cells can be modulated by specific membrane receptors involved in cell-microorganism interactions. Gp43, the main antigen secreted by Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis (Pb), the causative agent of Paracoccidioidomycosis, is a ...
Geske F Jon - - 2002
Clearance of cellular corpses is a critical feature of apoptosis in vivo during development, tissue homeostasis, and resolution of inflammation. As the professional phagocytes of the body, macrophages play a key role in this process. By recognizing emerging signals using several different receptors, macrophages engulf apoptotic cells swiftly and efficiently. ...
Greenberg Neil - - 2002
Stress involves real or perceived changes within an organism in the environment that activate an organism's attempts to cope by means of evolutionarily ancient neural and endocrine mechanisms. Responses to acute stressors involve catecholamines released in varying proportion at different sites in the sympathetic and central nervous systems. These responses ...
García-García Erick - - 2002
The molecular mechanism involved in Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis in the different cell types of the immune system is still poorly defined. We investigated the role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-K) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in phagocytosis by monocytes and by monocyte-differentiated macrophages. Peripheral blood monocytes and monocytic cells (THP-1 ...
Splettstoesser Wolf D - - 2002
Phagocytes represent a powerful defense system against invading microorganisms that threaten the life or functional integrity of the host. The capacity to generate and release substantial amounts of reactive oxygen species is a unique property of activated polymorphonuclear and mononuclear phagocytes. The crucial role of these molecules in killing microorganisms ...
Xing Shaomo - - 2002
The interaction of macrophages and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (PE) wear plays an important role in perpetuating chronic inflammation at the bone implant interface, leading to peri-implant osteolysis and mechanical failure of the implant. A model to study the interaction of human mature macrophages with orthopaedic biomaterial wear has been ...
Geiser Marianne - - 2002
Macrophages residing on the inner epithelial surfaces of airways and alveoli are the only lung phagocytes exposed directly to the environment. Their phagocytic and microbicidal activities are essential for maintaining this organ in a clean and sterile state. The morphology of these phagocytes can be investigated in situ only after ...
Djaldetti Meir - - 2002
Professional phagocytes, comprising polymorphonuclear neutrophils and monocyte/macrophage cells, play an important role in the host defense. Any defect in their function exposes the organism to microbial intruders terminating in fatal diseases. The functional responses of the phagocytes to bacterial and fungal infections include chemotaxis, actin assembly, migration, adhesion, aggregation, phagocytosis, ...
Conradt Barbara - - 2002
Phagocytes have long been known to engulf and degrade apoptotic cells. Recent studies in mammals and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans have shed some light on the conserved molecular mechanisms involved in this process. A series of results now challenge the traditional view of phagocytes as simply scavengers, 'cleaning up' after ...
Pittoni Valerio - - 2002
Apoptosis has been clearly characterised by the ability to limit the activation of inflammatory responses through the disposal of the apoptotic cell by rapid uptake by phagocytes. The exposure of phosphatidylserine deriving from the loss of plasma lipid asymmetry is the early membrane signal which alerts the phagocyte about the ...
Walter Michaela R V - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To examine the host response toward Porphyromonas levii, by evaluating chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and oxidative burst of bovine macrophages in vitro. SAMPLE POPULATION: Cultured bovine macrophages obtained from monocytes harvested from blood samples of 15 Holstein steers. Porphyromonas levii was isolated from the foot rot lesion of an acutely affected ...
< 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 >