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Results 601 - 650 of 1014
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Reichner J S - - 2001
Experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that opsonic and non-opsonic phagocytic capacities are differentially regulated by resting and wound-derived macrophages. Furthermore, the phagocytosis of non-opsonized zymosan and beta-glucan particles was quantified to determine whether cells differentially regulate non-opsonic lectinophagocytosis in accordance with the carbohydrate composition of the ligand. In ...
Neumann N F - - 2001
Phagocytosis is a primitive defense mechanism in all multicellular animals. Phagocytes such as macrophages and neutrophils play an important role in limiting the dissemination of infectious agents, and are responsible for the eventual destruction of phagocytosed pathogens. These cells have evolved elaborate killing mechanisms for destroying pathogens. In addition to ...
Brown D M - - 2001
Studies into the effects of ultrafine particles in the lung have shown adverse effects considered to be due in part to the particle size. Air pollution particles (PM(10)) are associated with exacerbations of respiratory disease and deaths from cardiovascular causes in epidemiological studies and the ultrafine fraction of PM(10) has ...
Becher R - - 2001
Rat lung alveolar macrophages and type 2 cells were exposed for 20 h in vitro to various stone particles with differing contents of metals and minerals (a type of mylonite, gabbro, feldspar, and quartz). The capability to induce the release of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), ...
van Eeden S F - - 2001
Elevated levels of ambient particulate matter (PM(10)) have been associated with increased cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. We previously showed that the deposition of particles in the lung induces a systemic inflammatory response that includes stimulation of the bone marrow. This marrow response is related to mediators released by alveolar macrophages ...
Hetland R B - - 2001
The mechanisms for particle-induced health effects are not well understood, but inflammation seems to be of importance. Previously, we have shown that stone quarry particles with various mineral and metal content differed widely in potency to induce inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-alpha) in different types of lung cells. In ...
Alexander E H - - 2001
Staphylococcus aureus is the primary etiological agent of several human diseases. S. aureus has classically been considered an extracellular pathogen; however, recent evidence indicates that S. aureus invades and persists in non-professional phagocytes. Experiments demonstrate that actin microfilaments, microtubules, receptor-mediated endocytosis, and protein tyrosine kinases play important roles in the ...
Trindade M C - - 2001
Periprosthetic membranes commonly observed at sites of total joint implant loosening exhibit abundant macrophages and particulate debris. Macrophages phagocytose orthopedic debris and release the pro-inflammatory mediators interleukin-1, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and prostaglandin E2. Populations of activated lymphocytes are often seen in periprosthetic membranes. These lymphocytes may modulate the monocyte/macrophage ...
Giles K M - - 2001
Phagocytic clearance of apoptotic granulocytes has a pivotal role in determining an inflammatory outcome, resolution or progression to a chronic state associated with development of fibrotic repair mechanisms, and/or autoimmune responses. In this study, we describe reprogramming of monocyte to macrophage differentiation by glucocorticoids, resulting in a marked augmentation of ...
Smith M E - - 2001
The microglial cell, after many years of neglect, has become recognized as the sole representative cell of the immune system that resides in the normal central nervous system. While normally dormant, microglia can be activated by secretory substances or signals associated with disease or injury, and becomes a phagocytic cell, ...
Kurosaka K - - 2001
It is generally believed that apoptosis is not associated with inflammation. However, we have found that phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by PMA-treated THP-1 cells and human monocyte-derived macrophages led to the production of proinflammatory cytokines, notably IL-8. These macrophages were obtained either by PMA treatment or by M-CSF treatment, possibly ...
Ninomiya J T - - 2001
Cytokines and proteases are secreted by fibroblasts in response to particulate wear debris, and these proteins are felt to play an important role in the development of osteolysis and implant loosening. Although metallic and polyethlyene debris have been studied extensively, little is known about the cellular responses to hydroxyapatite, despite ...
Stoika R - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Phagocytes (polymorphonuclear cells and monocyte-macrophages) are the first line of defence of the host against infectious microorganisms and other foreign antigens. Agents which participate in activation of phagocytic cells possess a potential immunomodulating action. Thus, search for convenient in vitro test-systems and study of mechanisms of action of these ...
Lee D H - - 2001
Corrosion and wear of implanted medical devices may produce particulate debris, leading to acute and chronic inflammatory responses in the host. In the presence of biomaterial wear particles, host monocytes/macrophages are activated to synthesize or secrete mediators of inflammation. In order to understand the mechanisms underlying the host response to ...
Moghimi S M - - 2001
The rapid recognition of intravenously injected colloidal carriers, such as liposomes and polymeric nanospheres from the blood by Kupffer cells, has initiated a surge of development for "Kupffer cell-evading" or long-circulating particles. Such carriers have applications in vascular drug delivery and release, site-specific targeting (passive as well as active targeting), ...
Schlegel R A - - 2001
Virtually every cell in the body restricts phosphatidylserine (PS) to the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane by energy-dependent transport from the outer to the inner leaflet of the bilayer. Apoptotic cells of all types rapidly randomize the asymmetric distribution, bringing PS to the surface where it serves as a ...
Scott R S - - 2001
Apoptosis is fundamental to the development and maintenance of animal tissues and the immune system. Rapid clearance of apoptotic cells by macrophages is important to inhibit inflammation and autoimmune responses against intracellular antigens. Here we report a new function for Mer, a member of the Axl/Mer/Tyro3 receptor tyrosine kinase family. ...
Campbell P A - - 2001
This unit presents fairly simple assays for measuring the binding of bacteria to macrophages, internalization of bacteria (also called ingestion or phagocytosis), and bacterial killing by macrophages. The first basic protocol describes how to measure the ability of macrophages to ingest bacteria. Because it is critical to remove residual extracellular ...
Uchida H - - 2001
The Fcgamma receptor (FcgammaR)-mediated phagocytosis of macrophages is a complex process where remodeling of both the actin-based cytoskeleton and plasma membrane occur coordinately. Several different families of small GTPases are involved. We have isolated a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) for ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF), paxillin-associated protein with ARFGAP activity (PAG)3/Papalpha/KIAA0400, from mature ...
Renwick L C - - 2001
We investigated whether slowed clearance after exposure to ultrafine particles was due to a failure in alveolar macrophage phagocytosis. This was achieved by measuring the ability of a macrophage cell line (J774.2 MPhi) to phagocytose 2-microg indicator latex beads following 8-h exposures to a number of test particles. Particles utilized ...
May R C - - 2001
The process of engulfing a foreign particle - phagocytosis - is of fundamental importance for a wide diversity of organisms. From simple unicellular organisms that use phagocytosis to obtain their next meal, to complex metazoans in which phagocytic cells represent an essential branch of the immune system, evolution has armed ...
Soukup J M - - 2001
Inhalation of particulate matter in the ambient air has been shown to cause pulmonary morbidity and exacerbate asthma. Alveolar macrophage (AM) are essential for effective removal of inhaled particles and microbes in the lower airways. While some particles minimally effect AM function others inhibit antimicrobial activity or cause cytokine and ...
Wallace P K - - 2001
Studies from our laboratory and others have established that both mononuclear phagocytes and neutrophils mediate very efficient cytotoxicity when targeted through Fc receptors using a suitable monoclonal or bispecific antibody (BsAb). Cross-linking an Fc receptor for IgG (FcgammaR) triggers multiple anti-tumor activities including superoxide generation, cytokine and enzyme release, phagocytosis ...
Fadok V A - - 2001
Removal of apoptotic cells during tissue remodeling or resolution of inflammation is critical to the restoration of normal tissue structure and function. During apoptosis, early surface changes occur, which trigger recognition and removal by macrophages and other phagocytes. Loss of phospholipid asymmetry results in exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS), one of ...
Bukovsky M - - 2001
The study presents comparison of immunomodulatory effects of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans disintegrated cells on selected immune mechanisms of human and mouse leukocytes. We measured their phagocytic activity, phagocytic index and microbicidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans cells as well as peroxidase and ...
van Zijverden M - - 2000
Particulate air pollutants may play a role in the increasing prevalence of respiratory allergy by acting as adjuvants for a T helper 2 (Th2) mediated immune response to common allergens. The immunomodulating capacity of well-defined polystyrene particles as well as different particles as present in our environment (diesel exhaust, carbon ...
Matthews J B - - 2000
The response of primary human peripheral blood mononuclear phagocytes to challenge with clinically relevant ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) wear debris of known particle size and dose was evaluated. Particles with a mean size of 0.24, 0. 45, 1.7, 7.6, and 88 microm were cocultured with cells for 24 h ...
Boynton E L - - 2000
Osteolysis remains the most important problem in orthopedic implant failure. Wear debris from the implant contains polyethylene (PE) particulate which has been shown to activate monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). Although the response of MDM has been shown to be influenced by the size, shape, and chemical type of PE, the effect ...
Chimini G - - 2000
Phagocytosis is the uptake of large particles by cells by a mechanism that is based on local rearrangement of the actin microfilament cytoskeleton. In higher organisms, phagocytic cells are essential for host defence against invading pathogens, and phagocytosis contributes to inflammation and the immune response. In addition, engulfment, defined as ...
Ernst J D - - 2000
The concerted study of molecular mechanisms of phagocytosis and the inhibition of phagocytosis by specific products of extracellular bacterial pathogens has borne considerable fruit. The importance of tyrosine phosphorylation and of the Rho family of GTPases has become clear to cell biologists, but pathogenic bacteria recognized the importance of these ...
Sansonetti PJ - - 2000
Advances in Cell and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles Volume 5 - Phagocytosis: the Host edited by Alan M. Tartakoff; volume editor, Siamon Gordon JAI Press Inc./Ablex Publishing Corp. (1999) pp. 521. ISBN 1-55938-999-0 $147.50 Over the last few years, cell biology has become a dominant approach in several ...
Labro M T - - 2000
Professional phagocytes (polymorphonuclear neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages) are a main component of the immune system. These cells are involved in both host defenses and various pathological settings characterized by excessive inflammation. Accordingly, they are key targets for immunomodulatory drugs, among which antibacterial agents are promising candidates. The basic and historical concepts ...
Green T R - - 2000
Polyethylene wear debris generated at the bearing surfaces of total artificial hip joints is thought to play an important role in the periprosthetic osteolysis and ultimately the aseptic loosening of these prostheses. The macrophage is believed to be central to this process by releasing various cytokines and other mediators of ...
Imrich A - - 2000
We sought to characterize the bioactive constituents of concentrated ambient air particles (CAPs) through correlation of alveolar macrophage (AM) biological responses (production of TNF, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP-2), nitrite; cell viability) to components of particle samples. CAPs samples collected on different days showed a range of bioactivity and a strong ...
Serrander L - - 2000
Phagocytosis and the microbicidal functions of neutrophils require dynamic changes of the actin cytoskeleton. We have investigated the role of gelsolin, a calcium-dependent actin severing and capping protein, in peripheral blood neutrophils from gelsolin-null (Gsn-) mice. The phagocytosis of complement opsonized yeast was only minimally affected. In contrast, phagocytosis of ...
Callahan M K - - 2000
Cells generally maintain an asymmetric distribution of phospholipids across the plasma membrane bilayer, restricting the phospholipid, phosphatidylserine (PS), to the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane. When cells undergo apoptosis, this asymmetric transbilayer distribution is lost, bringing PS to the surface where it acts as a signal for engulfment by ...
Shacter E - - 2000
Many antineoplastic drugs kill tumor cells by inducing apoptosis. This highly controlled mechanism of cell death is thought to be physiologically advantageous because apoptotic cells are removed by phagocytosis before they lose their permeability barrier, thus preventing induction of an inflammatory response to the dying cells. In contrast, necrotic cells ...
Shimoji Y - - 2000
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is the causative agent of erysipelas in animals and erysipeloid in humans. In the absence of specific antibodies, the organism evades phagocytosis by phagocytic cells, but even if phagocytized, it is able to replicate intracellulary in these cells. In this review, recent advances in our understanding of the ...
Ouadrhiri Youssef - - 2000
Phagocytosis and bacterial killing are the primary functions of macrophages. Among the mechanisms involved in the phagocytic process, cytokines, especially those of T-helper 1 profile, appear to influence considerably the internalization and the intracellular fate of the pathogen within the macrophage. In particular, the evidence for a cooperation of cytokines ...
van der Goes A - - 2000
One of the actions of glucocorticoids (GC) in multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inhibitory effect on demyelination. This can be caused by a reduction in the number of infiltrating macrophages and/or by an effect on the phagocytosis of myelin. Here we investigate the effect of GC on the phagocytosis of ...
Casey L C - - 2000
In summary, the invasion of bacteria across mucosal surfaces is met with a vigorous host response that includes complement, antibody formation (thymus-independent and eventually thymus-dependent), phagocytosis, production of antibacterial peptides and proteins, the production of cytokines that result in activation of phagocytes and endothelial cells to attract more phagocytes, and ...
Daniels A U - - 2000
Several investigators have suggested that biologic molecules adsorbed onto particles may play a key role in determining macrophage response. Adsorbed endotoxins (bacterial debris) may be of particular importance since they are widely present exogenously and endogenously and adhere strongly to many materials. Murine-transformed peritoneal macrophages (IC-21) were used in this ...
Gold E S - - 2000
Phagocytosis of pathogens by macrophages initiates the innate immune response, which in turn orchestrates the adaptive immune response. Amphiphysin II participates in receptor-mediated endocytosis, in part, by recruiting the GTPase dynamin to the nascent endosome. We demonstrate here that a novel isoform of amphiphysin II associates with early phagosomes in ...
Walenkamp A M - - 2000
Macrophages and monocytes are adherent phagocytic cells which play an important role in host defence against the yeast-like fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. Before, phagocytosis by adherent phagocytes could only be measured by means of microscopy or by a radioactive assay, which both have obvious disadvantages. We have developed a new, rapid ...
Salman H - - 2000
To examine the effect of hypothermia on the phagocytic capacity of rat peritoneal macrophages for latex particles, male Wistar rats were exposed to 4 degrees C for 8 and 72 h. While the shorter exposure to cold did not affect body temperature and macrophage function, animals exposed to 4 degrees ...
Gregory C D - - 2000
Until very recently, the function of CD14 was thought to be limited to innate immune responses to bacterial and other microbial structures. It is now known that macrophage CD14 serves an additional unexpected function, namely as a receptor involved in the recognition and phagocytosis of cells undergoing apoptosis. In stark ...
Lázaro M I - - 2000
Proneness of addicts to infections may be partially due to opiate effects on immune cells. We find that acute morphine inhibits phagocytosis in murine peritoneal macrophages in vitro with apparent desensitization at high concentrations, whereas chronic exposure results in a state akin to tolerance/dependence where macrophages seem to require morphine ...
Fietta A - - 2000
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The role of mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan (LAM) in regulating the granulomatous response and its effects on cells involved in early responses to tuberculosis have not been clearly defined. The aim of this study was to acquire further evidence about the mechanisms by which LAM takes part in the ...
Sandler S G - - 2000
The benefits of surgical splenectomy in patients with immune (Idiopathic) thrombocytopenia purpura (ITP) probably reflect the combined effects of eliminating a source of antiplatelet antibody synthesis as well as the primary site of platelet destruction. The recent availability of intravenous Rho(D) Immune globulin (WinRho SDF; Nabi, Boca Raton, FL) presents ...
Richards E H. - - 2000
Although many endoparasitic wasps suppress the haemocyte-mediated immune defences of their insect hosts, the effects of ectoparasitoids are virtually unknown. In view of this, a study has been made of the ectoparasitic wasp, Eulophus pennicornis, and its host, the tomato moth, Lacanobia oleracea. For unparasitized insects, in vitro assays indicated ...
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